Now showing items 21-40 of 824

    • Genetic interaction analysis among oncogenesis-related genes revealed novel genes and networks in lung cancer development.

      Li, Yafang; Xiao, Xiangjun; Bossé, Yohan; Gorlova, Olga; Gorlov, Ivan; Han, Younghun; Byun, Jinyoung; Leighl, Natasha; Johansen, Jakob S; Barnett, Matt; et al. (2019-03-05)
      The development of cancer is driven by the accumulation of many oncogenesis-related genetic alterations and tumorigenesis is triggered by complex networks of involved genes rather than independent actions. To explore the epistasis existing among oncogenesis-related genes in lung cancer development, we conducted pairwise genetic interaction analyses among 35,031 SNPs from 2027 oncogenesis-related genes. The genotypes from three independent genome-wide association studies including a total of 24,037 lung cancer patients and 20,401 healthy controls with Caucasian ancestry were analyzed in the study. Using a two-stage study design including discovery and replication studies, and stringent Bonferroni correction for multiple statistical analysis, we identified significant genetic interactions between SNPs in
    • Maternal body mass index, gestational weight gain, and the risk of overweight and obesity across childhood: An individual participant data meta-analysis.

      Voerman, Ellis; Santos, Susana; Patro Golab, Bernadeta; Amiano, Pilar; Ballester, Ferran; Barros, Henrique; Bergström, Anna; Charles, Marie-Aline; Chatzi, Leda; Chevrier, Cécile; et al. (2019-02-01)
      Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.
    • Determinants of phthalate exposure and risk assessment in children from Poland.

      Garí, Mercè; Koch, Holger M; Pälmke, Claudia; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Wesołowska, Ewelina; Hanke, Wojciech; Nowak, Dennis; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Polańska, Kinga; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-04-16)
      Phthalates are a group of widely used chemicals and humans are exposed to them in their daily life. Some phthalates may affect the hormonal balance in both children and adults. The aim of this study was to assess the phthalate exposure and its determinants among children at age of 7 years from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL). 250 urine samples collected in 2014-2015 were analysed for 21 metabolites of 11 parent phthalates using on-line high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). This represents the most extensive set of phthalate metabolites ever determined for Poland. Ten metabolites were quantifiable in 100% of the samples, another eight in >90%. The highest median concentrations were found for the primary monoester metabolites of di-iso-butyl (MiBP, 72.4 μg/l), di-n-butyl (MnBP, 56.3 μg/l) and diethyl (MEP, 42.0 μg/l) phthalate, followed by the sum of di-2-ethylhexyl (ΣDEHP, 89.3 μg/l) and di-iso-nonyl (ΣDiNP, 21.9 μg/l) phthalate metabolites. Metabolite concentrations were higher in children at 7 years than in the same children at age 2 or in their mothers during pregnancy. Generally, phthalate exposures in this study were much higher than exposures reported in other European populations. Multivariate regression models showed that body mass index, place of residence, breastfeeding duration, socio-economic status and parental education were associated with the metabolite levels in the 7-year old children. Daily intake and hazard index calculations revealed that a small percentage of children (around 3-10%) exceeded the tolerable daily intakes established by international institutions such as EFSA and U.S. EPA indicating that these children might be at risk of anti-androgenic effects from the individual and cumulative exposure to phthalates. Thus, further monitoring of this population, by educational programs and follow-up interventions, is required.
    • Duration of breastfeeding and psychomotor development in 1-year-old children - Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study.

      Stelmach, Iwona; Kwarta, Paulina; Jerzyńska, Joanna; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Krakowiak, Jan; Karbownik, Michał; Podlecka, Daniela; Hanke, Wojciech; Polańska, Kinga; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-04-03)
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between breastfeeding duration and child neurodevelopment based on the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. The current analysis included 501 mother-child pairs. The analysis evaluating the association between the length of breastfeeding and child neurodevelopment considered the following variables: maternal age and body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy, parental level of education, marital status, socioeconomic status, child gender, birthweight, type of delivery, preterm delivery, pre- and postnatal exposure to tobacco constituents and child day care attendance. Psychomotor development was assessed in 1-year-olds on the <i>Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development</i>. The length of breastfeeding correlated positively with maternal age at delivery (ρ = 0.13), maternal and paternal level of education (ρ = 0.2 and ρ = 0.14 respectively), birthweight (ρ = 0.1) and marital status (ρ = 0.16) (p < 0.05). A negative correlation between the length of breastfeeding and maternal smoking status during the first year after delivery (ρ = -0.19) and weight gain during pregnancy (r = -0.1) was observed (p < 0.05). The association between the duration of breastfeeding and child development was not statistically significant in the model with the inclusion of confounding variables. A significant association between language development and maternal level of education (p = 0.004), gender of the child (p = 0.0007) and maternal weight gain during pregnancy (p = 0.01) was found. A negative association between cognitive development and maternal salivary cotinine during pregnancy (p = 0.03) and a negative association between motor development and maternal smoking status during the first year after delivery (p = 0.007) were also found. This study found no significant association between the duration of breastfeeding and child development after adjustment for confounders. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(2):175-84.
    • Cytostatics as hazardous chemicals in healthcare workers' environment.

      Pałaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Konieczko, Katarzyna; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-04-03)
      Cytostatics not only induce significant side-effects in patients treated oncologically but also pose a threat to the health of occupationally exposed healthcare workers: pharmacists, physicians, nurses and other personnel. Since the 1970s numerous reports from various countries have documented the contamination of working areas with cytostatics and the presence of drugs/metabolites in the urine or blood of healthcare employees, which directly indicates the occurrence of occupational exposure to these drugs. In Poland the significant scale of occupational exposure to cytostatics is also confirmed by the data collected in the central register of occupational carcinogens/mutagens kept by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine. The assessment of occupational exposure to cytostatics and health risks constitutes employers' obligation. Unfortunately, the assessment of occupational risk resulting from exposure to cytostatics raises a number of concerns. Provisions governing the problem of workers' health protection are not unequivocal because they derive from a variety of law areas, especially in a matter of hazard classification and safety data sheets for cytostatics. Moreover, no legally binding occupational exposure limits have been set for cytostatics or their active compounds, and analytical methods for these substances airborne and biological concentrations are lacking. Consequently, the correct assessment of occupational exposure to cytostatics, the evaluation of health hazards and the development of the proper preventive strategy appear difficult. The authors of this article described and discussed the amendments to the European provisions concerning chemicals in the light of employers' obligations in the field of employees' heath protection against the consequences of exposure to cytostatics. Some modifications aimed at a more effective health protection of workers occupationally exposed to cytostatics were also proposed. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(2):141-59.
    • Analysis of bus drivers reaction to simulated traffic collision situations - eye-tracking studies.

      Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Kosobudzki, Marcin; Dania, Marta; Szymczak, Wiesław; Jóźwiak, Zbigniew; Szyjkowska, Agata; Viebig, Piotr; Pas-Wyroślak, Alicja; et al. (2019-04-03)
      The aim of the study was to establish whether the driver's visual strategy may influence a driver's behavior to avoid a crash in a high-risk situation. Any published papers on drivers' visual strategies just before a crash were not found. Tests were performed using a high-tech driving bus simulator. Participants comprised 45 men drivers, aged 43.5±7.9 years old, seniority as a bus driver of 13.3±8.6 years. The tests were preceded by medical examinations: general, neurological and ophthalmological. Each participant drove the same city route for approximately 40 min (entire route - ER). In the final phase, a collision situation was simulated (a phantom car blocked the participant's right of way). Driver's visual strategy was analyzed using the FaceLab device with 2 cameras during ER and just before collision. The field-of-view covered by camera 1 was divided into 8 regions, by camera 2 into 10 regions. The distribution of gazes in regions was a criterion of visual strategy. Thirty-five drivers completed the simulated driving test, 14 escaped the collision, 21 crashed. These groups differed only in resting systolic blood pressure before the test. The analysis of covariance, after adjusting to this factor, indicated that during the ER visual strategy recorded by camera 1 did not differ between groups, in camera 2 the drivers in the crash group fixed their gaze more frequently (p = 0.049) in region 3 (close part of the road in front of the windshield). Just before the collision drivers who escaped the collision fixed their gaze significantly more often in region 6 (left side of the road) in camera 1 and in region 6 (in front of the windshield,) and region 10 (right side) in camera 2. The visual strategy has an impact on the road safety. The analysis of visual strategies may be a useful tool for the training of drivers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(2):161-74.
    • Sociodemographic, Lifestyle, Environmental and Pregnancy-Related Determinants of Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy.

      Wesołowska, Ewelina; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Kałużny, Paweł; Grzesiak, Mariusz; Dominowska, Jolanta; Hanke, Wojciech; Calamandrei, Gemma; Polańska, Kinga; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-03-02)
      Characterization of dietary patterns represents a valid and meaningful measure of overall diet quality and nutrient intake. The study aims at evaluating the sociodemographic, lifestyle, environmental, and pregnancy-related determinants of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy.
    • [Health effects of exposure to static magnetic field - a review of literature].

      Zmyślony, Marek; Politański, Piotr; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-02-28)
      The authors discuss the effects of static magnetic field (SMF) exposure based on reviewed literature reports. The systematic review covered both research carried out directly with people as well as studies with animals. A review was carried out in terms of various potential effects: carcinogenic effects, reproductive and metabolic disorders or the influence of SMF on the nervous and circulatory system. The possible biophysical and biological effects of the SMF were also described. Med Pr. 2019;70(1):107-20. Autorzy pracy omawiają skutki narażenia na stałe pole magnetyczne (SPM) na podstawie doniesień z piśmiennictwa. Systematycznym przeglądem zostały objęte badania zarówno z udziałem ludzi, jak i prowadzone na zwierzętach. Dokonano analizy różnych potencjalnych skutków działania SPM, np. kancerogennego, a także jego wpływu na zaburzenia rozrodu, oddziaływania na układ nerwowy, układ krążenia czy na zaburzenia metaboliczne. Opisano również możliwe efekty biofizyczne i biologiczne oddziaływania SPM. Med. Pr. 2019;70(1):107–120.
    • [Assessment of temporary hearing changes related to work as a bartender].

      Wolniakowska, Anna; Zaborowski, Kamil; Dudarewicz, Adam; Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska, Malgorzata; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-02-28)
      Noise in entertainment industry often reaches high sound pressure levels. Nevertheless, the risk of hearing loss in this sector is insufficiently recognized. The aim of this study was the assessment of the relationship between noise exposure and temporary threshold shifts (TTS) for people working as bartenders at a variety of entertainment venues. The study comprised a total of 18 bartenders (mean age was 25±7 years old) employed at a music club (N = 8), pub (N = 5) and discotheque (N = 5). Personal dosimeters were used for determining noise levels and frequency characteristics. Hearing was evaluated by pre- (before work) and post-exposure (up to 15 min after the end of work) pure tone audiometry. Hearing tests were carried out for bartenders during 2 or 3 sessions while working on weekends. The mean personal noise exposure level normalized to a nominal 8-hour working day was 95 dBA, above 4 times higher than the accepted legal limit. The TTS values (10 dB HL or more) were significant at 4 kHz for both ears for 77% of bartenders. People working as bartenders represent a professional group with an increased risk of hearing loss. Raising awareness of this fact and implementing hearing protection programs in this group of workers is urgently needed, in line with the European Commission Directive (EU Directive 2003/10/EC). Med Pr. 2019;70(1):17-25.
    • Antibodies Against Chlamydia trachomatis and Ovarian Cancer Risk in Two Independent Populations.

      Trabert, Britton; Waterboer, Tim; Idahl, Annika; Brenner, Nicole; Brinton, Louise A; Butt, Julia; Coburn, Sally B; Hartge, Patricia; Hufnagel, Katrin; Inturrisi, Federica; et al. (2019-02-01)
      Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) has been associated with ovarian cancer risk. To clarify the role of Chlamydia trachomatis and other infectious agents in the development of ovarian cancer, we evaluated the association of serologic markers with incident ovarian cancer using a staged approach in two independent populations. Studies included: 1) a case-control study in Poland (244 ovarian cancers/556 control subjects) and 2) a prospective nested case-control study in the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial (160 ovarian cancers/159 control subjects). Associations of serologic marker levels with ovarian cancer risk at diagnostic as well as higher thresholds, identified in Poland and independently evaluated in PLCO, were estimated using multivariable adjusted logistic regression. In the Polish study, antibodies (based on laboratory cut-point) against the chlamydia plasmid-encoded Pgp3 protein (serological gold standard) were associated with increased ovarian cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20 to 2.22); when a positive result was redefined at higher levels, ovarian cancer risk was increased (cut-point 2: OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.38 to 2.89; cut-point 3 [max OR]: OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.29 to 3.73). In the prospective PLCO study, Pgp3 antibodies were associated with elevated risk at the laboratory cut-point (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 0.78 to 2.63) and more stringent cut-points (cut-point 2: OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.07 to 4.71); cut-point 3: OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 0.63 to 10.08). In both studies, antibodies against other infectious agents measured were not associated with risk. In two independent populations, antibodies against prior/current C. trachomatis (Pgp3) were associated with a doubling in ovarian cancer risk, whereas markers of other infectious agents were unrelated. These findings lend support for an association between PID and ovarian cancer.
    • Prevalence of Dietary Behavior and Determinants of Quality of Diet among Beneficiaries of Government Welfare Assistance in Poland.

      Kałucka, Sylwia; Kaleta, Dorota; Makowiec-Dabrowska, Teresa; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-02-11)
      Diet, as a modifiable factor for good health maintenance, reduces the risk of numerous non-communicable chronic diseases and prevents premature death. The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of a dietary behavior and to find out what the determinants of diet quality among the low socio-economic status population are. The studied sample consisted of 1710 respondents. Only 3% of the beneficiaries had healthy dietary habits. Unhealthy dietary habits dominated in all the study group regardless of the subjects' level of education (
    • Night shift work and osteoporosis: evidence and hypothesis.

      Bukowska-Damska, Agnieszka; Skowronska-Jozwiak, Elzbieta; Peplonska, Beata; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-02-01)
      Osteoporosis is an important public health problem worldwide. Among the countries with a very high population risk of fractures, there are those with the highest level of economic development. Osteoporotic fractures are the main cause of disability among elderly people, and the resultant disabilities require particularly large financial support associated not only with the direct treatment of the fracture but also with the necessity for long-term rehabilitation and care for the disabled person. Many well-established factors can have impact on bone mass and fracture risk. Recently, it has been hypothesized that working during nighttime which leads to endocrine disorders may have an indirect impact on bone physiology among night shift workers. Therefore, it can be presumed that the night shift work may contribute to the etiology of osteoporosis. The aim of our work was to make a review of the epidemiological evidence on the association between night shift work and bone mineral density or fracture risk as well as to discuss the potential biological mechanisms linking the work under this system with the development of osteoporosis. We have identified only four studies investigating the association between system of work and bone mineral density or fracture risk among workers. The findings of three out of four studies support the hypothesis. None of the studies has investigated a potential relationship between night shift work and bone turnover markers. Given that there have been no epidemiological studies in European countries that would concern working populations and the noticeable difference in the risk of osteoporosis between communities, further studies are warranted to elucidate the problem. It is presumed that further in-depth studies will not only identify the underlying factors of the disease but also contribute to developing guidelines for policy makers and employers for primary prevention of osteoporosis in workplace.
    • [Evaluation of noise exposure and risk of hearing impairment in employees using communication headsets or headphones].

      Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska, Małgorzata; Zaborowski, Kamil; Zamojska-Daniszewska, Małgorzata; Dudarewicz, Adam; Rutkowska-Kaczmarek, Paulina; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-02-28)
      The aim of the study was to assess the noise exposure and risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among users of communication headsets (CHs) or headphones. Noise measurements and questionnaire surveys were carried out in 74 workers (aged: 31.8±7.3 years), including military aviation personnel (N = 12), transcribers (N = 18) and call center operators (N = 44). Sound pressure levels (SPLs) emitted by CHs (or headphones) were determined using the microphone in the real ear (MIRE) technique and artificial ear techniques according to PN-EN ISO 11904-1:2008 and CSA Z107.56-13, respectively. The risk of NIHL was evaluated in accordance with PN-ISO 1999:2000. The diffused-field-related A-weighted equivalent-continuous SPLs measured under CHs (or headphones) using the MIRE and artificial ear techniques reached values of 67-86 dB (10-90th percentile) and 68-89 dB (10-90th percentile), respectively. The study subjects used these devices 1.5-8 h (10-90th percentile) per day. Exposure to such noise levels for 40 years of employment causes the risk of hearing impairment (mean hearing threshold level for 2, 3 and 4 kHz > 25 dB) up to 10-12% (MIRE technique) or 19-22% (artificial ear technique). Individual daily noise exposure levels in study group varied 71-85 dB (10-90th percentile). A number of workers complained of problems with understanding speech in noisy environment (28.4%) and hearing whisper (16.2%) and experienced post-work temporary hearing symptoms (16.2-25.7%) as well. The users of CHs and headphones should be included in the hearing conservation program. Further studies are also needed among employees of other industries. Med Pr. 2019;70(1):27-52.
    • WHO/ILO work-related burden of disease and injury: Protocol for systematic reviews of exposure to occupational noise and of the effect of exposure to occupational noise on cardiovascular disease.

      Teixeira, Liliane R; Azevedo, Tatiana M; Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Corrêa da Silva, Denise T; de Abreu, Wagner; de Almeida, Márcia S; de Araujo, Marco A N; Gadzicka, Elzbieta; Ivanov, Ivan D; Leppink, Nancy; et al. (2019-04-01)
      The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. In this paper, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from cardiovascular disease attributable to exposure to occupational noise, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology. We aim to systematically review studies on exposure to occupational noise (Systematic Review 1) and systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the effect of occupational noise on cardiovascular diseases (Systematic Review 2), applying the Navigation Guide systematic review methodology as an organizing framework, conducting both systematic reviews in tandem and in a harmonized way. Separately for Systematic Reviews 1 and 2, we will search electronic academic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, including Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science and CISDOC. We will also search electronic grey literature databases, Internet search engines and organizational websites; hand search reference list of previous systematic reviews and included study records; and consult additional experts. We will include working-age (≥15 years) workers in the formal and informal economy in any WHO and/or ILO Member State, but exclude children (<15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. The eligible risk factor will be occupational noise. Eligible outcomes will be hypertensive heart disease, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, endocarditis and other circulatory diseases. For Systematic Review 1, we will include quantitative prevalence studies of exposure to occupational noise (i.e., low: <85 dB(A) and high: ≥85 dB(A)) stratified by country, sex, age and industrial sector or occupation. For Systematic Review 2, we will include randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and other non-randomized intervention studies with an estimate of the relative effect of high exposure to occupational noise on the prevalence of, incidence of or mortality due to cardiovascular disease, compared with the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (i.e., low exposure).
    • Associations between maternal physical activity in early and late pregnancy and offspring birth size: remote federated individual level meta-analysis from eight cohort studies.

      Pastorino, S; Bishop, T; Crozier, S R; Granström, C; Kordas, K; Küpers, L K; O'Brien, E C; Polanska, K; Sauder, K A; Zafarmand, M H; et al. (2019-03-01)
      Evidence on the impact of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in pregnancy on birth size is inconsistent. We aimed to examine the association between LTPA during early and late pregnancy and newborn anthropometric outcomes. Individual level meta-analysis, which reduces heterogeneity across studies. A consortium of eight population-based studies (seven European and one US) comprising 72 694 participants. Generalised linear models with consistent inclusion of confounders (gestational age, sex, parity, maternal age, education, ethnicity, BMI, smoking, and alcohol intake) were used to test associations between self-reported LTPA at either early (8-18 weeks gestation) or late pregnancy (30+ weeks) and the outcomes. Results were pooled using random effects meta-analyses.
    • The relationship between psychosocial risks and occupational functioning among miners.

      Mościcka-Teske, Agnieszka; Sadłowska-Wrzesińska, Joanna; Najder, Anna; Butlewski, Marcin; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-02-27)
      This paper presents the results of research on the scale of psychosocial risks among miners. A comparative analysis was made, comparing the research results with the data obtained from workers in the following industries: metal, energy, chemical and construction - along with an indication of the relationship between stressful working conditions and the occupational functioning of the respondents. The study involved 483 adults employed in mines in Poland. The study on psychosocial risks in the workplace was performed using <i>Psychosocial Risk Scale</i>, developed by the Department of Health and Work Psychology of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland. <i>Psychosocial Risk Scale</i> is the scientifically validated diagnostic tool and is characterized by high reliability and validity of coefficients. The analysis of differences in occupational functioning between miners and other workers in heavy industry provides that miners are in general more healthy, less stressed, more positive emotionally and normatively committed to work, more satisfied with work, and more stable in the employment (as opposite to turnover intention) than the other workers. The results suggest that miners with a lower level of stress functioned at work better - they evaluated their health and ability to work better than miners with a higher level of stress. Their intention to change a job was lower than among those experiencing more stress. The most pronounced effect was observed for the influence on this dimension of functioning by job context risks (the higher level of probability, and the higher t-test value). Occupational functioning of miners in Poland is better than the other employees in heavy industry. The analysis of differences in occupational functioning dimensions provides that a lower level of psychosocial risk in a workplace is connected with a higher level of job satisfaction, positive affective and normative work commitment and a lower level of turnover intension. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(1):87-98.
    • Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviours and Duration of Sleep as Factors Affecting the Well-Being of Young People against the Background of Environmental Moderators.

      Kleszczewska, Dorota; Szkutnik, Agnieszka Małkowska; Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Mazur, Joanna; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-03-14)
      Mental health problems during adolescence are becoming increasingly frequent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total impact of selected behavioural and environmental factors on the variability of mental well-being indexes of young people aged 15 to 17 years. The survey, conducted as part of the last round of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 2017/18 study, covered 3693 secondary school students in Poland at the average age of 16.53 years (SD = 1.09). Dependent variables: depression (CES-DC), stress (Cohen scale), satisfaction with life (Cantril's Ladder), and self-efficacy in social relations (Smith and Betz scale). Independent variables included: physical activity; sedentary behaviours; length of sleep; and perception of the environment in which the respondent was raised. The analyses were adjusted by gender, age, and occurrence of chronic disease. It was demonstrated that gender, duration of sleep, and perception of the surrounding environment proved to be significant predictors of all four mental health indicators. The protective influence of physical activity appeared to be a particular advantage in a less-supportive environment. The intervention programmes aimed at improving the mental well-being of young people should include promoting physical activity and sufficient sleep; furthermore, environmental moderators should be taken into consideration.
    • [Health criteria and scope of workers' periodic health check-ups for selected types of work and exposure factors - Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine guidelines].

      Rybacki, Marcin; Wiszniewska, Marta; Wdówik, Paweł; Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Pas-Wyroślak, Alicja; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-02-28)
      Workers' medical prophylactic examinations referred to in the Labor Code are one of the tasks of the occupational medicine services. They are regulated by law which has been in force for more than 20 years in unchanged form. During this period, new harmful, burdensome or dangerous to health factors appeared in the workplaces, for which no preventive health check-up standard was defined. In the meantime, the health criteria for drivers and persons applying for driving licenses have also been significantly liberalized. The above changes, the authors' own experience, comments and problems reported by physicians who provide workers' prophylactic health care and employers as well as analysis of literature related to workers' health care in other countries have created the need to harmonize and update guidelines on health requirements for selected types of work. In addition the scope and frequency of prophylactic examinations for exposures, which are not included in applicable legal acts, has been developed. Med Pr. 2019;70(1):125-37. Badania profilaktyczne pracowników, o których mowa w Kodeksie pracy, to jedno z zadań służby medycyny pracy. Są one regulowane przepisami prawa obowiązującymi w niezmienionej formie już od ponad 20 lat. W tym okresie na wielu stanowiskach pracy pojawiły się nowe czynniki szkodliwe, uciążliwe lub niebezpieczne dla zdrowia, dla których nie określono standardu badania profilaktycznego. Znacznie zliberalizowano także kryteria zdrowotne dla kierowców i osób ubiegających się o uprawnienia do prowadzenia pojazdów silnikowych. Powyższe zmiany, doświadczenia własne autorów, uwagi i problemy zgłaszane przez lekarzy sprawujących opiekę profilaktyczną i pracodawców oraz analiza piśmiennictwa związanego z ochroną zdrowia pracujących w innych krajach stworzyły konieczność ujednolicenia i uaktualnienia wytycznych dotyczących wymagań zdrowotnych dla wybranych rodzajów prac. Ponadto opracowano zakres i częstotliwość badań profilaktycznych dla narażeń, które nie są ujęte w obowiązujących aktach prawnych. Med. Pr. 2019;70(1):125–137.
    • Climate conditions and work-related fatigue among professional drivers.

      Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Szyjkowska, Agata; Viebig, Piotr; Kozak, Piotr; Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-02-01)
      The possible associations between climate parameters and drivers' fatigue have not been subject to specific studies thus far. We have undertaken a study to investigate whether the particular climate parameters are related to fatigue perception by motor vehicle drivers. The study was performed from July to October. Each driver was surveyed four times: before and after workshift on a monotonous route outside the city center (MR), and on a heavy traffic route in the city center (HTR). The study was conducted among 45 city bus drivers aged 31-58 years (43.7 ± 7.9), seniority as driver 3-34 years (14.7 ± 8.6). Data on climate conditions (ambient temperature, air pressure, humidity, wind speed, precipitations) on particular study days was obtained from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, National Research Institute Warsaw, Poland. Fatigue was assessed using the Fatigue Assessment Questionnaire, developed at Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Lodz, Poland). The total level of fatigue was significantly (p = 0.045) higher after driving on HTR than on MR. The number of symptoms was also significantly higher (p < 0.05) among drivers working on HTR. After MR, significant correlations were found between wind speed and heavy eyelid feeling, being prone to forgetting, eye strain, frequent blinking, and between ambient temperature and feeling thirsty. After HTR feeling thirsty, tiredness and difficulty in making decisions correlated with ambient temperature and feeling thirsty with wind speed. Climate conditions can modify the drivers fatigue; therefore, we should be aware of their impact on well-being.
    • [Emission of nanometer size particles during selected processes with construction materials using].

      Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-02-28)
      The aim of the presented work was the assessment of occupational exposure to nanoparticles and ultrafine particles during selected processes of using construction materials. The tests were carried out at the following workplaces: abrasion and pouring of 2 products - nanomortar and nanocrete. Measurements were carried out using the following devices: DiSCmini measurer, GRIMM 1.109 optical counter and DustTrak monitor. The number, surface area, mass concentration and size distribution were analyzed. DiSCmini measurements showed that the mean number concentration of particles during the analyzed processes ranged of 1.4×104-1.0×105 particles/cm<sup>3</sup>, and the highest one was during nanomortar abrasion. The mean particles diameters during the processes ranged 28.9-47.1 nm depending on the process. An increase in the average value of the particles surface area concentration was observed, the largest value was found during nanomortar abrasion - 255.9 μm<sup>2</sup>/cm<sup>3</sup>. The size distributions analysis (GRIMM 1.109) showed that the dimensions of particles released in the processes had a wide range, however the majority of particles were in the range of 60-145 nm. The analysis of the mass concentration (DustTrak) showed that the fraction of particles < 1 μm was minimum 50% of the total analyzed particles during the process. During the processes under study, a large increase in all analyzed parameters describing the emission of ultrafine particles was observed. This allows to conclude that the smallest particles emitted during the using of nanostructures containing construction materials may be a potential health risk factor for people exposed to these materials. Med Pr. 2019;70(1):67-88.