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dc.contributor.authorGabriel, Helen E.
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Zhenhua
dc.contributor.authorCrott, Jimmy W.
dc.contributor.authorChoi, Sang-Woon
dc.contributor.authorSong, Byeng Chun
dc.contributor.authorMason, Joel B.
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, Elizabeth J.
dc.date.accessioned2009-05-28T09:34:54Z
dc.date.available2009-05-28T09:34:54Z
dc.date.issued2006-05
dc.identifier.citationCancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.2006, 15 (5):993-999en
dc.identifier.issn1055-9965
dc.identifier.pmid16702382
dc.identifier.doi10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0664
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10146/69214
dc.descriptionBiomarker: micronucleiDiet, food or substance: carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols. Study type: humans Study design: case-control studyStudy size: 35 smokers and 21 nonsmokers Tissue/biological material/sample size: Buccal Mucosa Cells (BMC); blood. Method of analysis: freshly prepared BMC suspension were smeared on a microscope slide and scored for the presence of micronuclei. Impact on outcome (including dose-response): General linear regression with adjustments for dietary intake showed that smokers possess lower serum concentrations of beta- and alpha-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin (P </= 0.01) and a significantly higher serum gamma-tocopherol (P = 0.03). In BMCs, smokers had significantly lower concentrations of beta- and alpha-carotene, lycopene, and alpha-tocopherol (P < 0.05) but significantly higher gamma-tocopherol (P < 0.01). Among nonsmokers, many serum carotenoid concentrations correlated with concentrations of the corresponding nutrient in BMCs whereas no such correlations existed among smokers. BMC micronuclei did not correlate with the oral concentration of any micronutrient. KEYWORD CLASSIFICATION: Adult;Aged;Aging;Agriculture;analysis;Biological Markers;biomarkers of dietary exposure;blood;Body Mass Index;Boston;Carotenoids;Chi-Square Distribution;Cross-Sectional Studies;Diet;Female;genetic;Human;Humans;Linear Models;Male;metabolism;Middle Aged;Mouth Mucosa;Research;Retinoids;Smoking;Tocopherols;Washington;en
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking, a major risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer, is reported to alter oral levels of carotenoids and tocopherols. Such effects may be important because these nutrients, as well as retinoids, are putative chemoprotective agents. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether chronic smoking is associated with altered concentrations of these nutrients in serum and buccal mucosa; to distinguish whether such effects are ascribable to diet; and to determine whether oral concentrations of these nutrients correlate with a putative biomarker of oral cancer risk. METHODS: Serum and buccal mucosal cells (BMC) were analyzed for these nutrients and for BMC micronuclei in smokers (n = 35) and nonsmokers (n = 21). RESULTS: General linear regression with adjustments for dietary intake showed that smokers possess lower serum concentrations of beta- and alpha-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin (P
dc.language.isoenen
dc.relation.urlhttp://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/full/15/5/993en
dc.subject.meshAdult
dc.subject.meshAged
dc.subject.meshBiological Markers
dc.subject.meshBody Mass Index
dc.subject.meshCarotenoids
dc.subject.meshChi-Square Distribution
dc.subject.meshCross-Sectional Studies
dc.subject.meshFemale
dc.subject.meshHumans
dc.subject.meshLinear Models
dc.subject.meshMale
dc.subject.meshMiddle Aged
dc.subject.meshMouth Mucosa
dc.subject.meshRetinoids
dc.subject.meshSmoking
dc.subject.meshTocopherols
dc.titleA comparison of carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols in the serum and buccal mucosa of chronic cigarette smokers versus nonsmokers.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.identifier.journalCancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncologyen
html.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking, a major risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer, is reported to alter oral levels of carotenoids and tocopherols. Such effects may be important because these nutrients, as well as retinoids, are putative chemoprotective agents. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether chronic smoking is associated with altered concentrations of these nutrients in serum and buccal mucosa; to distinguish whether such effects are ascribable to diet; and to determine whether oral concentrations of these nutrients correlate with a putative biomarker of oral cancer risk. METHODS: Serum and buccal mucosal cells (BMC) were analyzed for these nutrients and for BMC micronuclei in smokers (n = 35) and nonsmokers (n = 21). RESULTS: General linear regression with adjustments for dietary intake showed that smokers possess lower serum concentrations of beta- and alpha-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin (P </= 0.01) and a significantly higher serum gamma-tocopherol (P = 0.03). In BMCs, smokers had significantly lower concentrations of beta- and alpha-carotene, lycopene, and alpha-tocopherol (P < 0.05) but significantly higher gamma-tocopherol (P < 0.01). Among nonsmokers, many serum carotenoid concentrations correlated with concentrations of the corresponding nutrient in BMCs whereas no such correlations existed among smokers. BMC micronuclei did not correlate with the oral concentration of any micronutrient. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic cigarette smokers have lower concentrations of many dietary antioxidants in serum and BMCs compared with nonsmokers, an effect which is not entirely ascribable to diet. Nevertheless, the lack of concordance between oral concentrations of these nutrients and genetic damage in the BMCs of smokers does not support a protective role for these nutrients in oral carcinogenesis.


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