A comparison of carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols in the serum and buccal mucosa of chronic cigarette smokers versus nonsmokers.
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AuthorsGabriel, Helen E.
Crott, Jimmy W.
Song, Byeng Chun
Mason, Joel B.
Johnson, Elizabeth J.
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractBACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking, a major risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer, is reported to alter oral levels of carotenoids and tocopherols. Such effects may be important because these nutrients, as well as retinoids, are putative chemoprotective agents. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether chronic smoking is associated with altered concentrations of these nutrients in serum and buccal mucosa; to distinguish whether such effects are ascribable to diet; and to determine whether oral concentrations of these nutrients correlate with a putative biomarker of oral cancer risk. METHODS: Serum and buccal mucosal cells (BMC) were analyzed for these nutrients and for BMC micronuclei in smokers (n = 35) and nonsmokers (n = 21). RESULTS: General linear regression with adjustments for dietary intake showed that smokers possess lower serum concentrations of beta- and alpha-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin (P
CitationCancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.2006, 15 (5):993-999
JournalCancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
DescriptionBiomarker: micronucleiDiet, food or substance: carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols. Study type: humans Study design: case-control studyStudy size: 35 smokers and 21 nonsmokers Tissue/biological material/sample size: Buccal Mucosa Cells (BMC); blood. Method of analysis: freshly prepared BMC suspension were smeared on a microscope slide and scored for the presence of micronuclei. Impact on outcome (including dose-response): General linear regression with adjustments for dietary intake showed that smokers possess lower serum concentrations of beta- and alpha-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin (P </= 0.01) and a significantly higher serum gamma-tocopherol (P = 0.03). In BMCs, smokers had significantly lower concentrations of beta- and alpha-carotene, lycopene, and alpha-tocopherol (P < 0.05) but significantly higher gamma-tocopherol (P < 0.01). Among nonsmokers, many serum carotenoid concentrations correlated with concentrations of the corresponding nutrient in BMCs whereas no such correlations existed among smokers. BMC micronuclei did not correlate with the oral concentration of any micronutrient. KEYWORD CLASSIFICATION: Adult;Aged;Aging;Agriculture;analysis;Biological Markers;biomarkers of dietary exposure;blood;Body Mass Index;Boston;Carotenoids;Chi-Square Distribution;Cross-Sectional Studies;Diet;Female;genetic;Human;Humans;Linear Models;Male;metabolism;Middle Aged;Mouth Mucosa;Research;Retinoids;Smoking;Tocopherols;Washington;
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