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dc.contributor.authorGarí, Mercè
dc.contributor.authorKoch, Holger M
dc.contributor.authorPälmke, Claudia
dc.contributor.authorJankowska, Agnieszka
dc.contributor.authorWesołowska, Ewelina
dc.contributor.authorHanke, Wojciech
dc.contributor.authorNowak, Dennis
dc.contributor.authorBose-O'Reilly, Stephan
dc.contributor.authorPolańska, Kinga
dc.date.accessioned2019-05-08T11:02:19Z
dc.date.available2019-05-08T11:02:19Z
dc.date.issued2019-04-16
dc.identifier.citationEnviron. Int. 2019; 127: 742-753en_US
dc.identifier.issn1873-6750
dc.identifier.pmid31003057
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.envint.2019.04.011
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10146/618300
dc.description.abstractPhthalates are a group of widely used chemicals and humans are exposed to them in their daily life. Some phthalates may affect the hormonal balance in both children and adults. The aim of this study was to assess the phthalate exposure and its determinants among children at age of 7 years from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL). 250 urine samples collected in 2014-2015 were analysed for 21 metabolites of 11 parent phthalates using on-line high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). This represents the most extensive set of phthalate metabolites ever determined for Poland. Ten metabolites were quantifiable in 100% of the samples, another eight in >90%. The highest median concentrations were found for the primary monoester metabolites of di-iso-butyl (MiBP, 72.4 μg/l), di-n-butyl (MnBP, 56.3 μg/l) and diethyl (MEP, 42.0 μg/l) phthalate, followed by the sum of di-2-ethylhexyl (ΣDEHP, 89.3 μg/l) and di-iso-nonyl (ΣDiNP, 21.9 μg/l) phthalate metabolites. Metabolite concentrations were higher in children at 7 years than in the same children at age 2 or in their mothers during pregnancy. Generally, phthalate exposures in this study were much higher than exposures reported in other European populations. Multivariate regression models showed that body mass index, place of residence, breastfeeding duration, socio-economic status and parental education were associated with the metabolite levels in the 7-year old children. Daily intake and hazard index calculations revealed that a small percentage of children (around 3-10%) exceeded the tolerable daily intakes established by international institutions such as EFSA and U.S. EPA indicating that these children might be at risk of anti-androgenic effects from the individual and cumulative exposure to phthalates. Thus, further monitoring of this population, by educational programs and follow-up interventions, is required.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412019306580?via%3Dihuben_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/us/*
dc.subjectBirth cohorten_US
dc.subjectChildrenen_US
dc.subjectDaily intakeen_US
dc.subjectHazard risken_US
dc.subjectPhthalate metabolitesen_US
dc.subjectPolanden_US
dc.titleDeterminants of phthalate exposure and risk assessment in children from Poland.en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.departmentNofer Institute of Occupational Medicineen_US
dc.identifier.journalEnvironment Internationalen_US
dc.source.journaltitleEnvironment international
refterms.dateFOA2019-05-08T11:02:20Z


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