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dc.contributor.authorVoerman, Ellis
dc.contributor.authorSantos, Susana
dc.contributor.authorPatro Golab, Bernadeta
dc.contributor.authorAmiano, Pilar
dc.contributor.authorBallester, Ferran
dc.contributor.authorBarros, Henrique
dc.contributor.authorBergström, Anna
dc.contributor.authorCharles, Marie-Aline
dc.contributor.authorChatzi, Leda
dc.contributor.authorChevrier, Cécile
dc.contributor.authorChrousos, George P
dc.contributor.authorCorpeleijn, Eva
dc.contributor.authorCostet, Nathalie
dc.contributor.authorCrozier, Sarah
dc.contributor.authorDevereux, Graham
dc.contributor.authorEggesbø, Merete
dc.contributor.authorEkström, Sandra
dc.contributor.authorFantini, Maria Pia
dc.contributor.authorFarchi, Sara
dc.contributor.authorForastiere, Francesco
dc.contributor.authorGeorgiu, Vagelis
dc.contributor.authorGodfrey, Keith M
dc.contributor.authorGori, Davide
dc.contributor.authorGrote, Veit
dc.contributor.authorHanke, Wojciech
dc.contributor.authorHertz-Picciotto, Irva
dc.contributor.authorHeude, Barbara
dc.contributor.authorHryhorczuk, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorHuang, Rae-Chi
dc.contributor.authorInskip, Hazel
dc.contributor.authorIszatt, Nina
dc.contributor.authorKarvonen, Anne M
dc.contributor.authorKenny, Louise C
dc.contributor.authorKoletzko, Berthold
dc.contributor.authorKüpers, Leanne K
dc.contributor.authorLagström, Hanna
dc.contributor.authorLehmann, Irina
dc.contributor.authorMagnus, Per
dc.contributor.authorMajewska, Renata
dc.contributor.authorMäkelä, Johanna
dc.contributor.authorManios, Yannis
dc.contributor.authorMcAuliffe, Fionnuala M
dc.contributor.authorMcDonald, Sheila W
dc.contributor.authorMehegan, John
dc.contributor.authorMommers, Monique
dc.contributor.authorMorgen, Camilla S
dc.contributor.authorMori, Trevor A
dc.contributor.authorMoschonis, George
dc.contributor.authorMurray, Deirdre
dc.contributor.authorChaoimh, Carol Ní
dc.contributor.authorNohr, Ellen A
dc.contributor.authorNybo Andersen, Anne-Marie
dc.contributor.authorOken, Emily
dc.contributor.authorOostvogels, Adriëtte J J M
dc.contributor.authorPac, Agnieszka
dc.contributor.authorPapadopoulou, Eleni
dc.contributor.authorPekkanen, Juha
dc.contributor.authorPizzi, Costanza
dc.contributor.authorPolanska, Kinga
dc.contributor.authorPorta, Daniela
dc.contributor.authorRichiardi, Lorenzo
dc.contributor.authorRifas-Shiman, Sheryl L
dc.contributor.authorRonfani, Luca
dc.contributor.authorSantos, Ana C
dc.contributor.authorStandl, Marie
dc.contributor.authorStoltenberg, Camilla
dc.contributor.authorThiering, Elisabeth
dc.contributor.authorThijs, Carel
dc.contributor.authorTorrent, Maties
dc.contributor.authorTough, Suzanne C
dc.contributor.authorTrnovec, Tomas
dc.contributor.authorTurner, Steve
dc.contributor.authorvan Rossem, Lenie
dc.contributor.authorvon Berg, Andrea
dc.contributor.authorVrijheid, Martine
dc.contributor.authorVrijkotte, Tanja G M
dc.contributor.authorWest, Jane
dc.contributor.authorWijga, Alet
dc.contributor.authorWright, John
dc.contributor.authorZvinchuk, Oleksandr
dc.contributor.authorSørensen, Thorkild I A
dc.contributor.authorLawlor, Debbie A
dc.contributor.authorGaillard, Romy
dc.contributor.authorJaddoe, Vincent W V
dc.identifier.citationPLOS Medicine 16(2): e1002744en_US
dc.description.abstractMaternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.en_US
dc.rightsAttribution 3.0 United States*
dc.subjectBody mass indexen_US
dc.subjectChildhood obesityen_US
dc.subjectGestiational diabetesen_US
dc.titleMaternal body mass index, gestational weight gain, and the risk of overweight and obesity across childhood: An individual participant data meta-analysis.en_US
dc.contributor.departmentNofer Institute of Occupational Medicineen_US
dc.identifier.journalPLOS Medicineen_US
dc.source.journaltitlePLoS medicine

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Attribution 3.0 United States
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