Transcriptomic analysis of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway reveals the dual role of the c-Jun oncogene in cytotoxicity and the development of resistance in HL-60 leukemia cells in response to arsenic trioxide.
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AbstractArsenic trioxide (ATO) is a well-recognized antileukemic drug used for the treatment of newly diagnosed and relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). A major drawback of therapy with ATO is the development of APL cell resistance, the mechanisms of which are still not clear.
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in ATOtreated human acute myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cells and in ATO-resistant clones.
The cytotoxicity of ATO was assessed using Trypan blue staining or a WST-1 reduction assay. The Akt phosphorylation level was measured by immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry. Gene expression analysis was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
The clones derived by culturing for 8-12 weeks in the presence of 1.75, 2.5, and 5 μM ATO were characterized by high viability but a slower growth rate compared to the parental HL-60 cells. The flow cytometry analysis showed that in the parental cells the levels of p-Akt were undetectable or very low, and that ATO had no effect on the level of p-Akt in either the ATO-treated parental cells or the clones. The gene expression analysis revealed that some of the genes involved in the Akt pathway may play a key role in the induction of resistance to ATO, e.g., genes encoding cyclin D1 (CCND1), fork head box O1 (FOXO1), Jun oncogene (JUN), protein kinase C isoform B1 (PRKCB1), because their expression profiles were predominantly changed in the clones and/or the ATO-treated parental HL-60 cells.
The overall results indicate that CCND1, FOXO1, and JUN may contribute to the induction of resistance to ATO, and that the C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway may have greater significance than the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in mediating the cytotoxic effects of ATO and the development of resistance to ATO in the HL-60 cell line.
CitationAdv Clin Exp Med 2017, 26 (9):1335-1342
SponsorsThis research was supported by grant N N401 2806 33 (agreement 2806/B/P01/2007/33) from the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education
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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Archived with thanks to Advances in clinical and experimental medicine : official organ Wroclaw Medical University