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AbstractDetermination of biomarkers may be useful in the surveillance of occupational exposure and workers' health. The possibility of predicting development/clinical course of specific disorders or current disease, diagnosing in early steps, and health condition monitoring is a real necessity. Various agents present in the workplace environment (or their metabolites) can be measured in samples possessed from human body (blood and urine, saliva, etc.). On the other hand, inhalant exposure may induce specific or non-specific, local or systemic, acute or chronic biological response expressed by synthesis or releasing specific or non-specific substances/mediators that also can be determined in blood, nasal and bronchial lavage or sputum, tear fluid, exhaled breath, etc. The least is known about genetic markers which may predict individual susceptibility to develop some work-related disorders under the influence of occupational exposure. Due to common exposure to inhalant agents at workplace, researches on biomarkers that allow to inspect the impact of exposure to humans' health are still needed. The authors of this article summarize the utility of biomarkers' determination in work-related airway diseases in a recent clinical approach.
CitationCurr Treat Options Allergy 2017, 4 (2):181-190
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[Non-occupational but work-related diseases - Legislation, judicature and potential implications to employers and employees in Poland].Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Tomczak, Paulina; Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Dorre-Kolasa, Dominika; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-10-30)Non-occupational work-related diseases refer to health problems of multifactorial etiology, the occurrence, development and prognosis of which may be affected by work environment or by the way the work is performed but are not treated as occupational diseases under the applicable law. When analyzing their impact on labor market, it is necessary to also consider the employees' right to put in a claim for compensation due to the consequences of the occurrence of such diseases. Legal regulations as well as judicial decisions on the possibilities and methods of pursuing claims for compensation from an employer due to the occurrence of non-occupational work-related disease were analyzed. The analyzed legal regulations and judicial decisions referred to the regulations of the Labour Code, Civil Code and Resolution of the Supreme Court of 4 December 1987. The paper presents examples of non-occupational diseases considered to be work-related and conditions necessary to assert a claim by the employee at the court. Despite the lack of precise legal regulations in Poland, non-occupational work-related diseases may impact the legal situation of employees as well as employers. Employees are granted the right to claim for compensation from their employers in accordance with the Civil Code. Depending on the employer's legal responsibility, it is necessary to prove the meeting of the appropriate essential conditions to put in a claim for damage. Raising the employers' awareness of the legal and financial consequences shall support the occupational medicine services in intensifying their activity aimed at preventing all work-related diseases. Med Pr 2018;69(5):539-546.
WHO/ILO work-related burden of disease and injury: Protocol for systematic reviews of exposure to occupational noise and of the effect of exposure to occupational noise on cardiovascular disease.Teixeira, Liliane R; Azevedo, Tatiana M; Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Corrêa da Silva, Denise T; de Abreu, Wagner; de Almeida, Márcia S; de Araujo, Marco A N; Gadzicka, Elzbieta; Ivanov, Ivan D; Leppink, Nancy; et al. (2019-04-01)The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. In this paper, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from cardiovascular disease attributable to exposure to occupational noise, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology. We aim to systematically review studies on exposure to occupational noise (Systematic Review 1) and systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the effect of occupational noise on cardiovascular diseases (Systematic Review 2), applying the Navigation Guide systematic review methodology as an organizing framework, conducting both systematic reviews in tandem and in a harmonized way. Separately for Systematic Reviews 1 and 2, we will search electronic academic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, including Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science and CISDOC. We will also search electronic grey literature databases, Internet search engines and organizational websites; hand search reference list of previous systematic reviews and included study records; and consult additional experts. We will include working-age (≥15 years) workers in the formal and informal economy in any WHO and/or ILO Member State, but exclude children (<15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. The eligible risk factor will be occupational noise. Eligible outcomes will be hypertensive heart disease, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, endocarditis and other circulatory diseases. For Systematic Review 1, we will include quantitative prevalence studies of exposure to occupational noise (i.e., low: <85 dB(A) and high: ≥85 dB(A)) stratified by country, sex, age and industrial sector or occupation. For Systematic Review 2, we will include randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and other non-randomized intervention studies with an estimate of the relative effect of high exposure to occupational noise on the prevalence of, incidence of or mortality due to cardiovascular disease, compared with the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (i.e., low exposure).
Identification of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants in subjects reporting work-related respiratory symptoms.Wiszniewska, Marta; Zgorzelska-Kowalik, Joanna; Nowakowska-Swirta, Ewa; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2015-02-28)Objectives: The role of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) in diagnostics of occupational allergy remains unclarified and its clinical relevance is still questioned. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of positive response to CCDs in the subjects with suspected occupational allergy and the relationship between other diagnostic test results and final diagnosis. Material and Methods: The study group included 201 patients. They underwent clinical examination, skin prick test (SPT) to common and occupational allergens, specific serum immunoglobulin (sIgE) determinations, spirometry and specific inhalation challenge test. Moreover, sIgE to CCDs from bromelain was assessed in all subjects. Results: Occupational respiratory allergy was recognized in 64.3% of CCD-positive and 52.4% of CCD-negative patients. Positive SPT results to common and occupational allergens were found in 64.3% and 35.7% of CCD-positive subjects, respectively. In all subjects with CCDs, the sIgE to grass pollens as well as to occupational allergens were detected. The total IgE level > 100 kU/l was significantly associated with the presence of sIgE to CCDs. Conclusions: sIgE to CCDs were found in 7% of subjects suspected to suffer from occupational respiratory allergy. The presence of CCDs is not significantly associated with occupational respiratory allergy. It is also not more frequent in subjects reporting work-related respiratory symptoms in whom occupational allergy was not confirmed. The elevated total IgE level was related with CCD positivity. In patients with suspected occupational allergy, the presence of sIgE to CCDs in serum did not indicate the irrelevance of positive sIgE to occupational allergens.