Decreasing urinary PAH metabolites and 7-methylguanine after smoking cessation.
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AbstractOBJECTIVE: Humans are exposed to various carcinogens by smoking. Urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), one of the major carcinogens in cigarette smoke, were measured as the environmental carcinogen exposure marker for humans. We evaluated urinary exposure markers for smoking cessation. METHOD: In this study, we measured cigarette smoke exposure markers, such as urinary cotinine, PAH exposure markers, such as urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), 2-naphthol (2-NP) and 1-naphthol (1-NP), as well as a methylating chemical exposure marker, 7-methylguanine (7-MeG). The before smoking cessation levels of these markers, and the after smoking cessation levels were then compared. Eighteen subjects participated in this smoking cessation program. RESULTS: Levels of all of four markers were found to have decreased by 19-54% after smoking cessation. Urinary cotinine, 1-OHP, 2-NP and 7-MeG levels were found to have significantly decreased after smoking cessation. There were positive correlations between cotinine and three urinary PAH markers and between 1-OHP, 2-NP and 7-MeG. CONCLUSION: PAH metabolites were better biomarkers of smoking cessation than 7-MeG. Analyzing urinary metabolites or urinary DNA adducts is suitable for epidemiological studies.
CitationInt Arch Occup Environ Health 2006, 79 (7):545-549
DescriptionBiomarkers of exposure & effect:: validationBiomarker: cigarette Smoke: urinary cotinine, PAH Exposure: urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1- OHP), 2-naphthol (2-NP) and 1-naphthol (1-NP) methylating chemical exposure: 7- methylguanine (7-MeG).Exposure/effect represented: PAHStudy type (in vitro, animals, humans): humansStudy design (if human): cross-sectionalStudy size (if human): 18 individualsMode of exposure (if in vivo) (acute, chronic, root of exposure): smoking cessationMethod of analysis: HPLCSensitivity (LOD): for 1-OHP 0.001μg/l, for 1 and2-NP 0.04μg/lAccuracy: for 1-OHP CV 8%, for 1 and2-NP CV 7.2%, 2.5% respectively, for 7-MeG CV 4.3%Inter-individual variation: The urinary 1-OHP levels of smokers ranged from 0.032 to 0.407, and the mean ± SD was 0.16±0.11 lg/g Cr.Dose-response: The mean levels of five markers decreased after smoking cessation by 54% (7-MeG) to 19% (1-NP). The levels of cotinine, 1-OHP, 2-NP and 7-MeG significantly decreased after smoking cessation. KEYWORDS CLASSIFICATION: analogs & derivatives;analysis;Adult;biomarkers of exposure & effect: field studies;Guanine;Humans;Hydrocarbons;Japan;Middle Aged;Polycyclic Hydrocarbons,Aromatic;Research;Smoking Cessation;urine.
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