Uptake of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone by Moldovan children.
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AbstractThe evidence of an association between childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and an increased risk of lung cancer is inconsistent. However, taking into account the existing association between lung cancer and adulthood ETS exposure, it is plausible that children exposed to ETS also would be at risk of developing lung cancer later in life. In this study, we investigated the uptake by Moldovan children of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) by measuring total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), the sum of the NNK metabolites, NNAL, and its O-glucuronide and N-glucuronide (NNAL-Glucs) in urine. We also measured urinary cotinine and its glucuronide (total cotinine). Total NNAL was detected in 69 of 80 samples, including those that were low in cotinine (<5 ng/mL). The mean+/- SD level of total NNAL (0.09+/- 0.077 pmol/mL) was comparable with those observed in previous studies of children and adults exposed to ETS. Total NNAL correlated with total cotinine (r=0.8, P<0.0001). The mean+/- SD levels of total NNAL and total cotinine were higher in children who were exposed to ETS (0.1+/- 0.08 and 109+/- 126 pmol/mL, respectively) than in those who were classified as unexposed to ETS based on questionnaire data (0.049+/- 0.016 pmol/mL and 0.043+/- 0.040 nmol/mL). The results of this study for the first time show widespread and considerable uptake of nicotine and the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen NNK in Moldovan children. These results should be useful in heightening the awareness of the dangers of smoking and ETS exposure in this eastern European country.
CitationCancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2006, 15 (1):7-11
JournalCancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
DescriptionBiomarkers of exposure & early effects: field studiesBiomarker: 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), the sum of the NNK metabolites, NNAL, and its Oglucuronide and N-glucuronide (NNAL-Glucs)Exposure/effect represented: 4-(methylnitrosamino)- 1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)Study design: cross-sectionalStudy size:80 childrenAnalytical technique: ref 27(Hecht SS, Ming Ye, Carmella SG, et al. Metabolites of a tobacco-specific lungcarcinogen in the urine of elementary school-aged children. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001;10:1109 - 16.) and ref 28 (Hecht SS, Carmella SG, Chen M, et al. Quantitation of urinary metabolites ofa tobacco-specific lung carcinogen after smoking cessation. Cancer Res 1999; 59:590 - 6.)Tissue/biological material/sample size: 15-100 ml urine samplesRelationship with exposure or effect of interest (including dose-response): Both total NNAL and total cotinine were detected when no exposure was reported: 0.049 F 0.016 pmol/mL and 7.5 F 7.0 ng/mL (or 0.043 F 0.040 nmol/mL), respectively.NNAL and total cotinine levels were significantly higher exposed to ETS at home from the primary caregiver who smoked (P = 0.0032 and P = 0.0012, respectively)The highest mean levels of total NNAL and total cotinine (0.13 pmol/mL and27 ng/mL, respectively) in children who were exposed to ETS both at home and elsewhereFactors modulating biomarkers: ETS, sex and age: Total NNAL was higher in boys(0.097 F 0.089 pmol/mL, n = 41) than girls (0.081 F 0.058 pmol/mL, n = 39) (P = 0.0015) and in younger children than in older ones (P = 0.0081)Correlation with other biomarkers: correlation between total NNAL and totalcotinine (r = 0.8, P < 0.0001, N = 80). KEYWORDS CLASSIFICATION: analysis;Adenocarcinoma;biomarkers of exposure & effect: field studies;Biological Markers;Carcinogens;Child;Child,Preschool;Cotinine;etiology;Environmental Exposure;Female;Humans;Lung Neoplasms;Male;Minnesota;Moldova;Nitrosamines;pharmacokinetics;Research;Rural Population;Smoke;Tobacco;Tobacco Smoke Pollution;urine;Urban Population.
- Metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in the urine of elementary school-aged children.
- Authors: Hecht SS, Ye M, Carmella SG, Fredrickson A, Adgate JL, Greaves IA, Church TR, Ryan AD, Mongin SJ, Sexton K
- Issue date: 2001 Nov
- Metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in nonsmoking women exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.
- Authors: Anderson KE, Carmella SG, Ye M, Bliss RL, Le C, Murphy L, Hecht SS
- Issue date: 2001 Mar 7
- 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides in the urine of infants exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.
- Authors: Hecht SS, Carmella SG, Le KA, Murphy SE, Boettcher AJ, Le C, Koopmeiners J, An L, Hennrikus DJ
- Issue date: 2006 May
- Quantitation of urinary metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen after smoking cessation.
- Authors: Hecht SS, Carmella SG, Chen M, Dor Koch JF, Miller AT, Murphy SE, Jensen JA, Zimmerman CL, Hatsukami DK
- Issue date: 1999 Feb 1
- Metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in nonsmoking casino patrons.
- Authors: Anderson KE, Kliris J, Murphy L, Carmella SG, Han S, Link C, Bliss RL, Puumala S, Murphy SE, Hecht SS
- Issue date: 2003 Dec