Levels of 1-hydroxypyrene and other monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in children: a study based on U.S. reference range values.
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AbstractUrine samples collected in 1999 and 2000 as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed for 14 monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, metabolites of 7 PAH compounds) and for the first time reference range values were calculated for these metabolites in the U.S. population. The purpose of this paper is to explore differences in these PAH metabolites between children (6-11 years old), adolescents, and adults. More than 99% of the urine samples contained a detectable amount of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHpyrene), a metabolite of pyrene. We found that children in the youngest age group (6-11 years) had a geometric mean level (creatinine corrected data) 30% higher than children and adults in the other age groups, but no statistical differences existed between the two genders and among different racial groups. Smokers and persons exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in 12-19-year-old group and the 20-year-and-older group had higher levels of urinary 1-OHpyrene by a factor of 2-3 than non-smokers in the corresponding age group. Measurements of 3-hydroxyphenanthrene also suggested increased levels in children and in smokers. These results may indicate that young children are at a greater risk for PAH exposure, or that they absorb, distribute, metabolize, or eliminate PAH differently than adults.
CitationToxicol. Lett. 2006, 163 (1):10-19
DescriptionBiomarkers of exposure & early effects: field studiesBiomarker: 1-OHpyreneExposure/effect represented: PAH, ETSStudy design: cross-sectionalStudy size: 2312 americansAnalytical technique: ref. (Huang, W., Grainger, J., Patterson Jr., D.G., 2002a. Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention, DLS CLIA protocol-monohydroxypolycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons),( Huang,W., Smith, C.J.,Walcott, C.J., Grainger, J., Patterson Jr., D.G., 2002b. Comparison of sample preparation and analysis using solid phase extraction and solid phase microextraction to determine monohydroxy-PAH in urine by GC/HRMS. Polycycl. Aromatic Comp. 22, 339-351.)(Smith, C.J., Huang, W., Walcott, C.J., Grainger, J., Patterson Jr., D.G., 2002a. Quantification of monohydroxy-PAH metabolites in urine by solid-phase extraction with isotope dilution-GC/MS. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 372, 216-220.)(Smith, C.J., Walcott, C.J., Huang, W., Maggio, V., Grainger, J., Patterson Jr., D.G., 2002b. Determination of selected monohydroxy metabolites of 2-, 3- and 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine by solid-phase microextraction and isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.)Relationship with exposure or effect of interest (including dose-response): The urinaryconcentration is comparable in children aged 6-11 years and adolescents aged 12-19 years (p = 0.602); Slightly higher in children and adolescents than in adults (p = 0.046 and 0.0028, respectively)Higher in males than in females (p = 0.001)Comparable in non-Hispanic whites and Mexican-Americans (p = 0.905); and higher in non-Hispanic blacks than in Mexican-Americans and non-Hispanic whites (p = 0.008 and 0.007, respectively).Quality control: pooled samples, 20 replicates. KEYWORDS CLASSIFICATION: Adolescent;Adult;biomarkers of exposure & effect: field studies;Biological Markers;Child;Disease;Environmental Health;Environmental Monitoring;Female;Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry;Humans;metabolism;Male;Pyrenes;Reference Values;Smoking;urine;United States.