Environmental arsenic exposure and sputum metalloproteinase concentrations.
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AuthorsJosyula, Arun B.
Poplin, Gerald S.
McClellen, Hannah E.
Kopplin, Michael J.
Clark Lantz, R.
Burgess, Jefferey L.
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractExposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with an increased rate of lung cancer. The objective of this study was to determine whether arsenic exposure at relatively low concentrations (approximately 20 microg/L) is associated with changes in biomarkers of lung inflammation, as measured by the ratio of sputum metalloproteinase and antiproteinase activity. A total of 73 subjects residing in Ajo and Tucson, Arizona were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Tap water and first morning void urine were analyzed for arsenic. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), 9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) were measured in induced sputum. Household tap water arsenic levels in Ajo (20.3+/-3.7 microg/L) were higher than in those Tucson (4.0+/-2.3 microg/L), as were mean urinary total inorganic arsenic levels (29.1+/-20.4 and 11.0+/-12.0 microg/L, respectively). Log-normalized MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 concentrations in sputum were not significantly different between towns. However, after adjusting for town, asthma, diabetes, urinary monomethylarsonic acid/inorganic arsenic, and smoking history, total urinary arsenic was negatively associated with MMP-2 and TIMP-1 levels in sputum and positively associated with the ratio of MMP-2/TIMP-1 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 in sputum. Increased sputum proteinase/antiproteinase activity suggests a potential toxic mechanism for low-level arsenic exposure.
CitationEnviron. Res. 2006, 102 (3):283-290
DescriptionBiomarkers of exposure & early effects: field studiesBiomarker: arsenic, creatinin, MMP levelsExposure/effect represented: arsenicStudy design: cross-sectionalStudy size: 73 subjectsAnalytical technique: ELISA, HPLCTissue/biological material/sample size: urine samplesRelationship with exposure or effect of interest (including dose-response): inorganic arsenic positively correlated with logMMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in sputum (Pearson's r Ό 0:351, P Ό 0:009) and negatively correlated with the log of sputum levels of TIMP-1 (Pearson's r Ό _0:269, P Ό 0:050)Factors modulating biomarkers: diabetes (Diabetics had significantly higher mean levels of logMMP-2 (1.4971.12 ng/mL) than nondiabetics (0.4071.20 ng/mL) (P Ό 0:014). Similarly, diabetics had higher levels of logMMP-9 (6.5970.97 mg/mL) than nondiabetics (5.6771.30 mg/mL) (P Ό 0:048), asthma, smoking, inorganic arsenic. KEYWORDS CLASSIFICATION: analysis;Adult;Aged;Aged,80 and over;Arizona;Arsenic;biomarkers of exposure & effect: validation;Biological Markers;chemistry;Environmental Exposure;Female;history;Humans;mechanisms of carcinogenesis;Male;Matrix Metalloproteinase 2;Matrix Metalloproteinase 9;Methylation;Middle Aged;Pneumonia;Research;Sputum;Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1;urine;Water;Water Pollutants;Water Pollutants,Chemical;Water Supply.
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