Using biologic markers in blood to assess exposure to multiple environmental chemicals for inner-city children 3-6 years of age.
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Adgate, John L.
Fredrickson, Ann L.
Ryan, Andrew D.
Needham, Larry L.
Ashley, David L.
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractWe assessed concurrent exposure to a mixture of > 50 environmental chemicals by measuring the chemicals or their metabolites in the blood of 43 ethnically diverse children (3-6 years of age) from a socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood in Minneapolis. Over a 2-year period, additional samples were collected every 6-12 months from as many children as possible. We analyzed blood samples for 11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 2 heavy metals (lead and mercury, 11 organochlorine (OC) pesticides or related compounds, and 30 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. The evidence suggests that numerous VOCs originated from common sources, as did many PCBs. Longitudinal measurements indicate that between-child variance was greater than within-child variance for two VOCs (benzene, toluene), for both heavy metals (Pb, Hg), for all detectable OC pesticides, and for 15 of the measured PCB congeners (74, 99, 101, 118, 138-158, 146, 153, 156, 170, 178, 180, 187, 189, 194, 195). Despite the relatively small sample size, highest measured blood levels of 1,4-dichlorobenzene, styrene, m-/p-xylene, Pb, Hg, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p -DDE), trans-nonachlor, and PCB congeners 74, 99, 105, 118, 138, 146, 153, 156, 170, and 180 were comparable with or higher than 95th percentile measurements of older children and adults from national surveys. Results demonstrate that cumulative exposures to multiple environmental carcinogens and neurotoxins can be comparatively high for children from a poor inner-city neighborhood.
CitationEnviron. Health Perspect. 2006, 114 (3):453-459
DescriptionBiomarkers of exposure & early effects: field studiesBiomarker: 50 environmental chemicalsExposure/effect represented:detection of 11 VOCs, 2 heavy metals, 11organochlorine pesticides, 30 PCB congenersStudy design: cross-sectionalStudy size: 43 ethnically diverse childrenAnalytical technique: GC/MSTissue/biological material/sample size: bloodIntra-individual variation: for 6 VOCs (1,4 dichlorobenzene, ethylbenzene, m-l-p-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, tetrachloroethylene) and PCB 66, 105, 110, 183Inter-individual variation: for benzene, toluene, Pb, Hg, for all OC pesticides, and 12 PCBSurrogate/target tissue relationship:not mentionedRelationship with exposure or effect of interest (including dose-response):detection obove the detection limit for toluene 42%, m-l-p xylene 79.4% (max 1.4ng/ml) 1,4 dichlorobenzane max.27ng/ml toluene max. 0.7ng/ml above the detection limits found Pb 98.3% (max.21.2μg/dl), Hg 51.5% (5.1 μg/l)of the samples. KEYWORDS CLASSIFICATION: biomarkers of exposure & effect: field studies;blood;Biological Markers;Child,Preschool;Cities;Environmental Monitoring;Environmental Pollutants;Female;Humans;Hydrocarbons;Lead;Male;Mercury;Minnesota;Pesticides;Poverty;Public Health;Research.