Meat intake and risk of stomach and esophageal adenocarcinoma within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
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AuthorsGonzález, Carlos A.
del Giudice, Giuseppe
Quirós, José R.
Key, Timothy J.
Day, Nicholas E.
Bergmann, Manuela M.
Jensen, Majken K.
Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
Peeters, Petra H. M.
Numans, Mattijs E.
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractBACKGROUND: Dietary factors are thought to have an important role in gastric and esophageal carcinogenesis, but evidence from cohort studies for such a role is lacking. We examined the risks of gastric cancer and esophageal adenocarcinoma associated with meat consumption within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: A total of 521,457 men and women aged 35-70 years in 10 European countries participated in the EPIC cohort. Dietary and lifestyle information was collected at recruitment. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine associations between meat intake and risks of cardia and gastric non-cardia cancers and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Data from a calibration substudy were used to correct hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for diet measurement errors. In a nested case-control study, we examined interactions between Helicobacter pylori infection status (i.e., plasma H. pylori antibodies) and meat intakes. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 6.5 years, 330 gastric adenocarcinoma and 65 esophageal adenocarcinomas were diagnosed. Gastric non-cardia cancer risk was statistically significantly associated with intakes of total meat (calibrated HR per 100-g/day increase = 3.52; 95% CI = 1.96 to 6.34), red meat (calibrated HR per 50-g/day increase = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.88), and processed meat (calibrated HR per 50-g/day increase = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.43 to 4.21). The association between the risk of gastric non-cardia cancer and total meat intake was especially large in H. pylori-infected subjects (odds ratio per 100-g/day increase = 5.32; 95% CI = 2.10 to 13.4). Intakes of total, red, or processed meat were not associated with the risk of gastric cardia cancer. A positive but non-statistically significant association was observed between esophageal adenocarcinoma cancer risk and total and processed meat intake in the calibrated model. In this study population, the absolute risk of development of gastric adenocarcinoma within 10 years for a study subject aged 60 years was 0.26% for the lowest quartile of total meat intake and 0.33% for the highest quartile of total meat intake. CONCLUSION: Total, red, and processed meat intakes were associated with an increased risk of gastric non-cardia cancer, especially in H. pylori antibody-positive subjects, but not with cardia gastric cancer.
CitationJ. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2006, 98 (5):345-354
DescriptionCancer epidemiologyCancer type: stomach and esophageal adenocarcinomaStudy design: cohortStudy size:521457Description of cohort(s) studied: 368010 women and 153447 men from 10 european countriesExposure(s) evaluated:88-266 food itemsConfounders controlled for: h.pylori infectionImpact on risk: risk for gastric cancer and Total meat intake PR=5.32, 95%CI=2.1-13.4Processed meat OR=2.67, 95%CI=1.2-5.93Dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers Dietary item or component studied:meat, processed meatOutcome studied (cancer or cancer biomarker): stomach and esophageal adenocarcinomaStudy type (in vitro, animals, humans): humansTissue/biological material/sample size:30ml bloodMode of exposure (if in vivo):through normal dietImpact on outcome (including dose-response):red meat and noncardia cancer (HR 1.73, CI 95%=1.03-2.88,P=0.19)Poultry meat and esophageal cancer HR 1.14, CI95%=1-1.3Processed meat and gastric cancer HR 2.45, 955CI=1.43-4.21, P=0.02Processed meat and esophageal cancer HR=3.54, CI95%=1.57-7.99, P=0.002. KEYWORDS CLASSIFICATION: Adenocarcinoma;Adult;Aged;complications;cancer epidemiology;Cardia;Case-Control Studies;Confidence Intervals;dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers;epidemiology;etiology;Esophageal Neoplasms;Europe;Female;Follow-Up Studies;Food Habits;Helicobacter Infections;Helicobacter pylori;Humans;Incidence;Life Style;microbiology;Male;Meat;Middle Aged;Odds Ratio;Proportional Hazards Models;Prospective Studies;Questionnaires;Research;Risk Assessment;Risk Factors;Spain;Stomach Neoplasms.
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