• Papain-induced occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma – A case report

      Tymoszuk, Diana; Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2016)
      This report presents a case of occupational asthma, rhinitis and conjunctivitis to papain in a 50-year-old herbs and spices packer, with documented increased eosinophilia in induced sputum and in the nasal lavage fluids after a specific inhalation challenge test (SICT) and specific nasal challenge test (SNCT) with this enzyme. Immunoglobulin E-mediated (IgE) sensitization to papain was confirmed by positive results of a skin prick test with specific solution. Specific inhalation and nasal challenge tests demonstrated a direct and significant link between the exposure to this protease and the allergic response from the respiratory system. Additionally, the SNCT induced a severe reaction of the conjunctivae and a significant increase in the count of eosinophils in tears, despite the lack of direct contact of the allergen with the conjunctiva. W artykule opisano przypadek zawodowej astmy oskrzelowej, alergicznego nieżytu nosa i zapalenia spojówek wywołanych papainą u 50-letniej pakowaczki ziół i przypraw. W badaniu cytologicznym udokumentowano wzrost odsetka eozynofilów w indukowanej plwocinie i popłuczynach nosowych po swoistej próbie prowokacyjnej wziewnej i donosowej z tym enzymem. Zależną od immunoglobuliny E (IgE) nadwrażliwość pacjentki na papainę potwierdzono dodatnimi wynikami punktowych testów skórnych z roztworem tej proteazy. Wyżej wymienione próby prowokacyjne wykazały istotny związek między ekspozycją na papainę a reakcją alergiczną ze strony układu oddechowego. Ponadto swoista próba prowokacyjna donosowa wywołała wzmożoną reakcję ze strony spojówek i istotny wzrost odsetka eozynofilów we łzach mimo braku bezpośredniego kontaktu alergenu ze spojówkami.
    • Past and present work practices of European interventional cardiologists in the context of radiation protection of the eye lens-results of the EURALOC study.

      Domienik-Andrzejewska, Joanna; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Askounis, Panagiotis; Covens, Peter; Dragusin, Octavian; Jacob, Sophie; Farah, Jad; Gianicolo, Emilio; Padovani, Renato; Teles, Pedro; et al. (2018-09)
      This paper investigates over five decades of work practices in interventional cardiology, with an emphasis on radiation protection. The analysis is based on data from more than 400 cardiologists from various European countries recruited for a EURALOC study and collected in the period from 2014 to 2016. Information on the types of procedures performed and their annual mean number, fluoroscopy time, access site choice, x-ray units and radiation protection means used was collected using an occupational questionnaire. Based on the specific European data, changes in each parameter have been analysed over decades, while country-specific data analysis has allowed us to determine the differences in local practices. In particular, based on the collected data, the typical workload of a European cardiologist working in a haemodynamic room and an electrophysiology room was specified for various types of procedures. The results showed that when working in a haemodynamic room, a transparent ceiling-suspended lead shield or lead glasses are necessary in order to remain below the recommended eye lens dose limit of 20 mSv. Moreover, the analysis revealed that new, more complex cardiac procedures such as chronic total occlusion, valvuloplasty and pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation ablation might contribute substantially to annual doses, although they are relatively rarely performed. The results revealed that considerable progress has been made in the use of radiation protection tools. While their use in electrophysiology procedures is not generic, the situation in haemodynamic procedures is rather encouraging, as ceiling-suspended shields are used in 90% of cases, while the combination of ceiling shield and lead glasses is noted in more than 40% of the procedures. However, we find that still 7% of haemodynamic procedures are performed without any radiation protection tools.
    • Pathophysiology of Depression: Molecular Regulation of Melatonin Homeostasis - Current Status.

      Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Reszka, Edyta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2017)
      Circadian rhythm alterations resulting in disturbed sleep and disturbed melatonin secretion are flagship features of depression. Melatonin, known as a hormone of darkness, is secreted by the pineal gland located near to the center of the brain between the two hemispheres. Melatonin has an antidepressant effect by maintaining the body's circadian rhythm, by regulating the pattern of expression of the clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and modifying the key genes of serotoninergic neurotransmission that are linked with a depressive mood. Melatonin is produced via the metabolism of serotonin in two steps which are catalyzed by serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and acetylserotonin-O-methyltransferase (ASMT). Serotonin, SNAT, and ASMT are key melatonin level regulation factors. Melatonin acts mainly on the MT1 and MT2 receptors, which are present in the SCN, to regulate physiological and neuroendocrine functions including circadian entrainment, referred to as a chronobiotic effect. Although melatonin has been known about and refereed to for almost 50 years, the relationship between melatonin and depression is still not clear. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the genetic and epigenetic regulation of enzymes involved in melatonin synthesis and metabolism as potential features of depression pathophysiology and treatment. Confirmation that melatonin metabolism in peripheral blood partially reflects a disorder in the brain could be a breakthrough in the standardization of measurements of melatonin level for the development of treatment standards, finding new therapeutic targets, and elaborating simple noninvasive clinical tests.
    • Perceived barriers and motivators to smoking cessation among socially-disadvantaged populations in Poland.

      Milcarz, Katarzyna; Polańska, Kinga; Balwicki, Łukasz; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Hanke, Wojciech; Bąk-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Kaleta, Dorota; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-06-14)
      OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at assessment of the perceived barriers and motivators to smoking cessation among socially-disadvantaged populations in Poland. It is hypothesized that different factors can be considered depending on the level of smoking addiction. Therefore, a comparison between light and heavy smokers was performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data collected during the second wave of a cross-sectional study carried out in the Piotrkowski District in October 2016 - February 2017 among 1668 socio-economically disadvantaged persons constituted the source of information for the present study. Barriers and motivators to smoking cessation among daily smokers were identified via face-to face interviews. RESULTS: About one-third of the studied population admitted to being current daily smokers, almost 75% of whom were heavy smokers. The most common barriers to quitting smoking were related to difficulties in quitting (62%), the lack of willingness to quit (56%), as well as addiction and withdrawal symptoms (craving cigarettes [65%], habit [56%], stress and mood swings [55%]). A significantly higher proportion of such barriers was noted among heavy smokers compared to light smokers (p < 0.05). The following motivations to quit were pointed out by the respondents: available pharmacotherapy (47%), access to a free-of-charge cessation clinic (40%), and encouragement and support provided by their doctor (30%), with no differences between various levels of smoking addiction (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Developing effective interventions targeted at unique deprived populations requires understanding the barriers and motivators to quitting smoking. Social support and financial issues, including free-of-charge pharmacotherapy and cessation clinics, as well as doctor's encouragement and support, are crucial for successful smoking cessation in this vulnerable population
    • Pesticide poisonings in 2004-2014 in Łódź, Poland - an analysis of selected clinical and sociodemographic parameters.

      Krakowiak, Anna; Zajdel, Radosław; Kobza-Sindlewska, Katarzyna; Krakowiak, Michał; Piekarska-Wijatkowska, Anna; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-12-03)
      Background: Acute pesticide poisonings constitute an important toxicological problem in numerous countries. This report refers to patients treated for poisonings at the Toxicology Unit, Łódź, Poland, in the period 2004−2014. Material and Methods: Data to be analyzed were obtained from medical records of hospitalized people. A group of 24 301 patients aged ≥ 15 were selected. In the group of 149 people poisoned with pesticides (0.61% of all poisoning cases), there were 40 women and 109 men. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the impact of age on suicide attempts using pesticides. Results: Suicide attempts significantly more frequently concerned younger people. In this type of behavior, coumarin derivatives were significantly more often used than organophosphorus compounds or pesticides classified as “others.” The patients with suicidal pesticide poisonings stayed in the ward significantly longer than those poisoned unintentionally. Conclusions: In the analyzed population inhabiting an area with a high degree of urbanization, in terms of the place of residence and employment, pesticide poisonings were more common in men than in women. Suicide attempts using pesticides more frequently concerned younger people. Information found in this study may prove useful for education purposes, and also in informing clinicians.
    • Physical activity and features of the environment in which school children grow up as low mood determinants.

      Kleszczewska, Dorota; Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Mazur, Joanna; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019)
      Introduction: Reduced wellbeing and low mood also apply to young people and may lead to serious mental problems. Aim of the study: The purpose of the study was to analyse the prevalence of depression threat symptoms depending on the level of physical activity of young people, taking into account environmental factors and the quality of social relations. Material and methods: The survey conducted within the framework of the last round of international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) studies in the academic year 2017/2018 covered 5225 students aged 11–15 years from all over Poland. The mental wellbeing of young people measured by the WHO-5 screen test was the dependent variable. Sixteen independent variables were taken into account, in blocks related to the assessment of demographic features, physical activity, social and economic position, and social relations. Results: The study demonstrated that 14.2% of respondents had depression threat symptoms. After a mul- tidimensional analysis the main risk factors were low level of family support (OR = 3.20), maladjustment to school (OR = 2.79), inability to cope in social situations (OR = 2.52), and low physical activity (OR = 2.15). Factors associated with living conditions do not have a direct effect on depression risk but moderate the impact of physical activity on its symptoms. Conclusions: The protective effect of physical activity on the mental health of teenagers is maintained after taking into account several other predictors of reduced wellbeing. Factors associated with living conditions do not have a direct influence on depression risk but moderate the effect of physical activity on its symptoms. The protective effect of physical activity is particularly visible in single-parent families, in poor families, and in large cities. It is important to design programs providing equal opportunities to children growing up in a less favourable environment by providing young people from the poorest families with the ability to participate in free of charge sports activities, particularly team sports
    • Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviours and Duration of Sleep as Factors Affecting the Well-Being of Young People against the Background of Environmental Moderators.

      Kleszczewska, Dorota; Szkutnik, Agnieszka Małkowska; Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Mazur, Joanna; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-03-14)
      Mental health problems during adolescence are becoming increasingly frequent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total impact of selected behavioural and environmental factors on the variability of mental well-being indexes of young people aged 15 to 17 years. The survey, conducted as part of the last round of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 2017/18 study, covered 3693 secondary school students in Poland at the average age of 16.53 years (SD = 1.09). Dependent variables: depression (CES-DC), stress (Cohen scale), satisfaction with life (Cantril's Ladder), and self-efficacy in social relations (Smith and Betz scale). Independent variables included: physical activity; sedentary behaviours; length of sleep; and perception of the environment in which the respondent was raised. The analyses were adjusted by gender, age, and occurrence of chronic disease. It was demonstrated that gender, duration of sleep, and perception of the surrounding environment proved to be significant predictors of all four mental health indicators. The protective influence of physical activity appeared to be a particular advantage in a less-supportive environment. The intervention programmes aimed at improving the mental well-being of young people should include promoting physical activity and sufficient sleep; furthermore, environmental moderators should be taken into consideration.
    • Physicians’ knowledge on the work-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

      Kleniewska, Aneta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Piotrowski, Wojciech; Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Szczesniak, Kamila; Wiszniewska, Marta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland; Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland (2016)
      Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be induced by the work environment conditions. According to the estimates, 10–20% of all COPD cases are associated with occupational exposure to dusts and irritant gases. However, in 2014, only 11 cases of work-related COPD were recognized in Poland. The aim of the study was to analyze the reasons for the low incidence of work-related COPD in the context of pulmonologists’ knowledge about occupational risk factors and procedures on reporting suspected occupational diseases. Material and Methods: A survey included 94 pulmonologists randomly selected out of 225 specialists registered at the Local Physicians Chamber in Łódź. The study was performed anonymously with the use of original questionnaire. Results: More than a half of the surveyed pulmonologists identified environmental risk factors for COPD correctly, while only 23.4% properly identified the main occupational risk factors as the cause of COPD. Only 58.5% of the pulmonologists always asked their patients suffering from COPD about their job/profession and 60.6% of them did not have any knowledge about procedures on reporting suspected occupational diseases. Conclusions: The physicians rarely ask patients suffering from COPD about their job/profession and the relationship between their ailments and occupational exposure. What is more, they do not know legal regulations on proper referral of a patient with a suspected case of occupational disease. The results of the study clearly indicate that there is an urgent need for increasing pulmonologists’ knowledge on work-related COPD.
    • Podstawowe błędy w realizacji promocji zdrowia w firmie.

      Instytut Medycyny Pracy. Krajowe Centrum Promocji Zdrowia w Miejscu Pracy; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine
    • Poisoning deaths in Poland: Types and frequencies reported in Łódź, Kraków, Sosnowiec, Gdańsk, Wrocław and Poznań during 2009-2013.

      Krakowiak, Anna; Piekarska-Wijatkowska, Anna; Kobza-Sindlewska, Katarzyna; Rogaczewska, Anna; Politański, Piotr; Hydzik, Piotr; Szkolnicka, Beata; Kłopotowski, Tomasz; Picheta, Sebastian; Porębska, Barbara; et al. (2017-10-06)
      The aim of this study has been to assess the characteristics of acute poisoning deaths in Poland over a period of time 2009-2013.
    • Poisonings in Poland reported to the Polish National Health Fund in the years 2009-2011.

      Świderska, Aleksandra; Wiśniewski, Marek; Wiergowski, Marek; Krakowiak, Anna; Sein Anand, Jacek; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-10-10)
      Poisonings constitute a significant medical, social and economic problem worldwide. In Poland there is no nationwide registry of poisonings, which results in a lack of accurate epidemiological data. Few publications dealing with the problem are based on data obtained from toxicology units and therefore do not include information about cases treated at emergency departments and other non-toxicology units. We analyzed all admissions due to poisonings reported to the Polish National Health Fund by all hospital units in Poland in the 2009-2011 period. Diagnoses were encoded according to the ICD-10 classification. A total of 254,425 admissions were reported, 85,398 in 2009, 85,230 in 2010 and 83,797 in 2011. The male to female ratios were 1.88, 1.75 and 1.80 respectively. The most frequent causes of admissions were poisonings with ethanol (n = 121,874; 47.9%), carbon monoxide (n = 17,179; 6.8%) and benzodiazepines (n = 10,340; 4.1%). Alcohols were the reason for 104,680 admissions in men (63.2%) and 22,612 admissions in women (25.5%; p < 0.01). Poisonings with pharmaceuticals and other drugs were reported in 34,616 men (20.9%) and 45,238 women (51%; p < 0.01). There were 1680 cases of fatal poisonings in the analyzed period. The hospital mortality due to poisonings increased from 1.1% in 2009 to 1.5% in 2011 (p < 0.01). The mortality in general Intensive Care Units increased from 14.4% in 2009 to 22.3% in 2011 (p < 0.01). The etiology of fatal poisonings was highly dependent on the type of hospital unit. The overall number of admissions due to poisonings decreased slightly during the study period, but they remained a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcohols were the main cause of admissions in the analyzed period. Alcohol intoxications were more frequent in men while poisonings with pharmaceuticals were more frequent in women. Carbon monoxide exposures were a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the studied period in Poland. A national poison information and toxicovigilance system should be created in Poland, ideally allowing for near real-time monitoring of cases of poisonings.
    • Polish mother and child cohort study(REPRO_PL) – Methodology of the follow-up of the children at the age of 7

      Polanska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Krol, Anna; Potocka, Adrianna; Waszkowska, Malgorzata; Jacukowicz, Aleksandra; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Jerzynska, Joanna; Stelmach, Wlodzimierz; et al. (2016)
      Effects of environmental exposures in utero and in the first years of life on early life health and development is a growing research area with major public health implications. The main aim of this work has been to provide an overview of the next step of the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL) covering exposure, health and neurodevelopment assessments of children at 7 years of age. Details regarding methodology of the follow-up of the children are crucial for cross-cohort collaboration and a full understanding of the future research questions. Phase III of the REPRO_PL cohort covers a follow-up of 900 children at the age of 7 years old. The questionnaire filled in by the mothers is composed of: socio- demographic, child exposure and home environment information, nutritional status and health data. In the case of 400 children, environmental (including collection of urine, saliva and buccal cells), health status and psychomotor assessments are performed. Health and development check consists of physical measurements, child health status assessment (including lung function tests, skin prick testing, an interview/examination by an allergist) and psychomotor development tests (the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Intelligence and Development Scales). The results of the study will become available within the next few years. Extension of the REPRO_PL cohort with examinations of children at the age of 7 years old may provide a better understanding of the relationship between environmental and lifestyle-related factors and children’s health and neurodevelopment; and may further strengthen scientific base for policies and interventions promoting healthy lifestyle.
    • Praca zawodowa a nadwaga i otyłość pracowników

      Instytut Medycyny Pracy. Krajowe Centrum Promocji Zdrowia w Miejscu Pracy; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2017-12-14)
      Głównym problemem zdrowotnym, który dotyka pracowników różnych grup zawodowych, jest nieprawidłowy wskaźnik masy ciała.
    • Predictors of Counselling Related to a Healthy Lifestyle Carried Out by a General Practitioner.

      Znyk, Małgorzata; Polańska, Kinga; Wojtysiak, Piotr; Szulc, Michał; Bąk-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Zajdel-Całkowska, Justyna; Kaleta, Dorota; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-11-14)
      The aim of the study was to assess whether general practitioners (GPs) monitor and evaluate the health behavior of their patients in the field of a diet, physical activity, and weight control, and whether they provide appropriate counselling as part of this evaluation. Predictors of those activities among physicians were also determined. The cross-sectional study was conducted in the Piotrkowski district among 200 GPs. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic data and lifestyle characteristics of the physicians, their role as healthy lifestyle providers, and whether they assess lifestyle characteristics of their patients and perform healthy lifestyle counselling. More than 60% of the GPs did not evaluate lifestyle features during their patients' examination. In total, 56% of the GPs provided healthy lifestyle recommendations among patients who have not been diagnosed with chronic lifestyle-related diseases but who do not follow healthy recommendations, and 73% of GPs provided recommendations to patients with chronic diseases related to lifestyle. The study showed that the chance to assess lifestyle characteristics of the patients was significantly higher for the GPs who believed that they were obliged to do so (OR = 6.5; p = 0.002). The chance to recommend a healthy lifestyle among patients who have not been diagnosed with chronic lifestyle-related diseases but who do not follow healthy recommendations was 5.9 times higher among the GPs working in the public sector (p < 0.001) and 16.3 times higher for these who believed that they had sufficient knowledge to provide the advice (p = 0.02). The following predictors of providing a healthy lifestyle counselling among patients with diagnosed chronic lifestyle-related diseases were identified: conviction that a GPs is obligated to provide it (OR = 4.4; p = 0.02), sufficient knowledge (OR = 8.7; p = 0.01), and following health recommendations by themselves (OR = 3.9; p = 0.04). Conclusions: The identified predictors are crucial for the development of appropriate strategies aiming at increasing GPs' involvement in preventive measures and consequently at improving the population's health.
    • Predictors of E-Cigarette Use Susceptibility-A Study of Young People from a Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Rural Area in Poland.

      Kaleta, Dorota; Niedzin, Mirosław; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Polańska, Kinga; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-10-16)
      Identification of the youth at risk of e-cigarette use is crucial for development of effective prevention strategies. The current study aims at evaluation of predictors of susceptibility to e-cigarette initiation and experimentation among adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 1693 students (non-current users of e-cigarettes) attending 21 schools in Piotrkowski district (a socially disadvantaged rural area in central Poland). The regression models were applied so as to study factors linked to susceptibility to e-cigarette use among never users (n = 1054) and ever users (n = 639) of e-cigarettes, with susceptibility defined as the absence of a firm decision not to use these products. A high proportion of the youth was susceptible to e-cigarette use (68% of never and 78% of ever e-cigarette users). The adjusted model confirmed the following risk factors: smoking parents and friends (never users: OR = 3.0; p < 0.001; OR = 2.0; p < 0.05; ever users: OR = 2.2; OR = 2.2; p < 0.01), alcohol consumption (never users: moderate drinking OR = 2.9; p < 0.001; binge drinking OR = 2.2; p < 0.01; ever users: moderate drinking OR = 4.2; p < 0.001), cigarette smoking (never users: OR = 14.1; ever users: OR = 11.3; p < 0.001), and perception that e-cigarettes are less harmful than traditional cigarettes (never users: OR = 1.8; p < 0.001). The youth whose mothers had a medium and high educational level (never users: OR = 2.7; p < 0.01; OR = 2.7; p < 0.05; ever users: OR = 5.4; OR = 4.4; p < 0.001), those who perceived girls who use e-cigarettes as more attractive (never users: OR = 4.1; p < 0.001; ever users: OR = 2.9; p < 0.01), and secondary school students (ever users: OR = 5.6; p < 0.001) had higher odds of susceptibility to e-cigarette use. The youth who had more money per month were less susceptible to e-cigarette experimentation (OR = 0.4; p < 0.001). A multi-level intervention approach, considering vulnerable populations, is required to prevent the youth from e-cigarette initiation and experimentation.
    • Predictors of short- and long-term sickness absence in female post office workers in Poland

      Szubert, Zuzanna; Makowiec-Dabrowska, Teresa; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Sobala, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2016)
      Background: The aim of this study was to highlight major predictors of the frequency of sickness absence in a group of workers directly involved in customer service. Material and Methods: The study was carried out on a random sample of 229 women employed as assistants and clerks in post offices. The survey was based on the Subjective Work, Health Status and Life Style Characteristics Questionnaire, and sickness absence data for the years 2004–2006. Results: The negative binominal regression model of sickness absence risk revealed the following significant predictors of short-term absence spells (1–29 days): 1) marital status, sickness absence risk for single women was (rate ratio (RR)) = 1.56 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01–2.39) vs. married women; 2) post offices employing 7 workers had a rate ratio of sickness absence of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.04–2.42); 13–25 workers – RR = 2.03 (95% CI: 1.41–2.93); > 25 workers – RR = 1.82 (95% CI: 1.15–2.88) compared with an average number of 8–12 workers; 3) shift work, RR = 1.57 (95% CI: 1.14–2.14); 4) breaks from work – the risk of absence in the case of any breaks amounted to RR = 1.5 (95% CI: 1.07–2.07) in comparison with the statutory breaks; 5) self-rated health reported as moderate relative to good health, RR = 1.71 (95% CI: 1.26–2.32); and 6) occurrence of respiratory diseases resulted in the risk of RR = 1.51 (95% CI: 1.08–2.08). The Poisson regression model of long-term sickness absence spells (≥ 30 days) revealed the following significant predictors: 1) number of clients per shift: 51–100 clients, RR = 3.62 (95% CI: 1.07–22.6) compared with a lower number of clients; 2) self-rated health, assessed as moderate, RR = 1.97 (95% CI: 1.06–3.78) and 3) household chores performed for at least 4 h a day, RR = 0.4 (95% CI: 0.18–0.79). Conclusions: Association between sickness absence and workload as well as work organization indicates directions of corrective actions, which could reduce the scale of the problem.
    • Prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution and emotional and aggressive symptoms in children from 8 European birth cohorts.

      Jorcano, Ainhoa; Lubczyńska, Małgorzata J; Pierotti, Livia; Altug, Hicran; Ballester, Ferran; Cesaroni, Giulia; El Marroun, Hanan; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Freire, Carmen; Hanke, Wojciech; et al. (2019-01-01)
      We analysed data of 13182 children from 8 European population-based birth cohorts. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) with diameters of ≤10 μm (PM10), ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and between 10 and 2.5 μm (PMcoarse), the absorbance of PM2.5 filters (PM2.5abs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were estimated at residential addresses of each participant. Depressive and anxiety symptoms and aggressive symptoms were assessed at 7-11 years of age using parent reported tests. Children were classified in borderline/clinical range or clinical range using validated cut offs. Region specific models were adjusted for various socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics and then combined using random effect meta-analysis. Multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting methods were applied to correct for potential attrition bias.
    • Preservatives as important etiologic factors of allergic contact dermatitis

      Krecisz, Beata; Chomiczewska-Skora, Dorota; Kiec-Swierczynska, Marta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2015)
      Background: Preservatives present in cosmetics and other industrial products can cause allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of allergy to selected preservatives in consecutive patients examined due to contact dermatitis in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and to establish whether individuals sensitized to formaldehyde react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers. Material and Methods: A group of 405 patients (308 females and 97 males) was examined in 2011–2013. In all participants patch tests with a series of 13 preservatives (paraben mix, formaldehyde, Quaternium 15, chloromethylisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone mix, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, diazolidinyl urea, imidazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, benzalkonium chloride, sodium metabisulfite, produced by Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden) were performed. Results: Of the 405 patients 74 (including 52 females) showed positive results of patch tests. Contact allergy to at least 1 preservative was noted in 47 (11.6%) patients, including 34 (11%) females and 13 (13.4%) males. Methylisothiazolinone proved to be the most frequent sensitizer – 4.7% (5.2% females, 3.1% males) while parabens, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and imidazolidinyl urea (0.2%) were found to be the least frequent. Fourteen (3.4%) participants, 10 women and 4 men, were allergic to formaldehyde and/or formaldehyde releasers. In 11 (78.6%) of them monovalent hypersensitivity was observed. In 13 (3.2% of the examined group) patients allergy to preservatives might have been of occupational origin. Conclusions: Preservatives, particularly isothiazolinones, are significant causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis, including occupational cases. Individuals sensitized to formaldehyde may react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers, however, such reactions are relatively rare.
    • Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity during Leisure-Time and Commuting among Beneficiaries of Government Welfare Assistance in Poland.

      Kaleta, Dorota; Kalucka, Sylwia; Szatko, Franciszek; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2017-09-26)
      Physical activity (PA) has well-documented health benefits helping to prevent development of non-communicable diseases. The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity during leisure-time (LTPA) and commuting (CPA) among adult social assistance beneficiaries in Piotrkowski district. The studied sample consisted of 1817 respondents. Over 73% of the study population did not meet the recommended levels of LTPA. Fifty two % of the respondents had none leisure-time physical activity and 21.5% exercised occasionally. Main reasons for not taking up LTPA included: high general physical activity (36.4%), lack of time (28.1%), no willingness to exercise (25.4%). Close to 82% of the surveyed population did not practice commuting physical activity (CPA). The men had higher risk for inactivity during LTPA compared to the women (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.11-1.65; p ≤ 0.05). Higher odds of CPA inactivity were associated with unemployment, moderate and heavy drinking and having a number of health problems. The prevalence of physical inactivity among the social assistance recipients is much higher than it is in the general population. Promotion of an active lifestyle should take into consideration substantial differences between the general population and disadvantaged individuals and their various needs.
    • Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity during Leisure-Time and Commuting among Beneficiaries of Government Welfare Assistance in Poland.

      Kaleta, Dorota; Kalucka, Sylwia; Szatko, Franciszek; Makowiec-Dabrowska, Teresa; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2017-10-19)