• Laryngeal manual therapy palpatory evaluation scale: A preliminary study to examine its usefulness in diagnosis of occupational dysphonia.

      Woźnicka, Ewelina; Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Morawska, Joanna; Wiktorowicz, Justyna; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2017-03-24)
      The aim of this study has been to assess the larynx and soft tissue around the vocal tract in a group of people with healthy voice, and in a group of patients with occupational dysphonia using the new laryngeal manual therapy palpatory evaluation scale (LMTPE).
    • Late effects of mass acute phosphine poisoning – Case report

      Waszkowska, Małgorzata; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Wiszniewska, Marta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2018-03-15)
      This paper reports the case of collective acute phosphide (PH3) intoxication among the crew aboard a merchant ship. All the intoxicated individuals were hospitalized 3 months after the accident. The aim of examinations was to identify late health effects of the accident. Laboratory tests and consultations were performed during their stay in the hospital. There were 5 cases of toxic liver damage. other 5 patients were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder and adjustment disorders. The results of the study suggest that in cases of acute phosphide intoxication, the assessment of patients’ psychological functioning should be an indispensable part of diagnostic procedure.
    • Legal grounds for 'extending the scope or type of procedure'.

      Zajdel, Justyna; Dziki, Adam; Krakowiak, Anna; Zajdel, Radosław; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2017-12-23)
      The development of patient rights and increasing number of lawsuits based on medical malpractice make medical doctors constantly improve knowledge regarding the acceptability of changing the scope of operation. This is particularly important when patients have expressed their refusal to changing the scope and type of procedure (ESTP) or no informed consent (IC) has been obtained from the patient prior to the procedure.
    • Lung cancer and socioeconomic status in a pooled analysis of case-control studies.

      Hovanec, Jan; Siemiatycki, Jack; Conway, David I; Olsson, Ann; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Brüske, Irene; et al. (2018)
      An association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and lung cancer has been observed in several studies, but often without adequate control for smoking behavior. We studied the association between lung cancer and occupationally derived SES, using data from the international pooled SYNERGY study.
    • Mammographic density and ageing: A collaborative pooled analysis of cross-sectional data from 22 countries worldwide.

      Burton, Anya; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Vachon, Celine; Miao, Hui; Lajous, Martín; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Rice, Megan; Pereira, Ana; Garmendia, Maria Luisa; et al. (2017-06)
      Mammographic density (MD) is one of the strongest breast cancer risk factors. Its age-related characteristics have been studied in women in western countries, but whether these associations apply to women worldwide is not known.
    • Maternal body mass index, gestational weight gain, and the risk of overweight and obesity across childhood: An individual participant data meta-analysis.

      Voerman, Ellis; Santos, Susana; Patro Golab, Bernadeta; Amiano, Pilar; Ballester, Ferran; Barros, Henrique; Bergström, Anna; Charles, Marie-Aline; Chatzi, Leda; Chevrier, Cécile; et al. (2019-02-01)
      Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.
    • Maternal Stress During Pregnancy and Allergic Diseases in Children During the First Year of Life.

      Smejda, Katarzyna; Polanska, Kinga; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Krol, Anna; Hanke, Wojciech; Jerzynska, Joanna; Stelmach, Wlodzimierz; Majak, Paweł; Stelmach, Iwona; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-01)
      Many recent studies indicate that prenatal maternal distress increases the risk of allergic diseases in children. The mechanisms that favor it are still unclear.
    • Matrix metalloproteinases and genetic mouse models in cancer research: a mini-review.

      Wieczorek, Edyta; Jablonska, Ewa; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Reszka, Edyta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2015-01)
      Carcinogenesis is a multistep and also a multifactorial process that involves agents like genetic and environmental factors. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are major proteolytic enzymes which are involved in cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Genetic variations in genes encoding the MMPs were shown in human studies to influence cancer risk and phenotypic features of a tumor. The complex role of MMPs seems to be important in the mechanism of carcinogenesis, but it is not well recognized. Rodent studies concentrated particularly on the better understanding of the biological functions of the MMPs and their impact on the pathological process, also through the modification of Mmp genes. This review presents current knowledge and the existing evidence on the importance of selected MMPs in genetic mouse models of cancer and human genetic association studies. Further, this work can be useful for scientists studying the role of the genetic impact of MMPs in carcinogenesis.
    • The mechanism of DNA damage induced by Roundup 360 PLUS, glyphosate and AMPA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells - genotoxic risk assessement.

      Woźniak, Ewelina; Sicińska, Paulina; Michałowicz, Jaromir; Woźniak, Katarzyna; Reszka, Edyta; Huras, Bogumiła; Zakrzewski, Jerzy; Bukowska, Bożena; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-10)
      Glyphosate is the most heavily applied among pesticides in the world, and thus human exposure to this substance continues to increase. WHO changed classification of glyphosate to probably cancerogenic to humans, thus there is urgent need to assess in detail genotoxic mechanism of its action. We have assessed the effect of glyphosate, its formulation (Roundup 360 PLUS) and its main metabolite (aminomethylphosphonic acid, AMPA) in the concentration range from 1 to 1000 μM on DNA damage in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The cells were incubated for 24 h. The compounds studied and formulation induced DNA single and double strand-breaks and caused purines and pyrimidines oxidation. None of compounds examined was capable of creating adducts with DNA, while those substances increased ROS (including •OH) level in PBMCs. Roundup 360 PLUS caused damage to DNA even at 5 μM, while glyphosate and particularly AMPA induced DNA lesions from the concentration of 250 μM and 500 μM, respectively. DNA damage induced by glyphosate and its derivatives increased in order: AMPA, glyphosate, Roundup 360 PLUS. We may conclude that observed changes were not associated with direct interaction of xenobiotics studied with DNA, but the most probably they occurred through ROS-mediated effects.
    • Mechanisms of Breast Cancer in Shift Workers: DNA Methylation in Five Core Circadian Genes in Nurses Working Night Shifts.

      Samulin Erdem, Johanna; Skare, Øivind; Petersen-Øverleir, Marte; Notø, Heidi Ødegaard; Lie, Jenny-Anne S; Reszka, Edyta; Pepłońska, Beata; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2017)
      Shift work has been suggested to be associated with breast cancer risk, and circadian disruption in shift workers is hypothesized as one of the mechanisms of increased cancer risk. There is, however, insufficient molecular evidence supporting this hypothesis. Using the quantitative methodology of pyrosequencing, epigenetic changes in 5-methyl cytosine (5mC) in five circadian genes CLOCK, BMAL1, CRY1, PER1 and PER2 in female nurses working night shift work (278 breast cancer cases, 280 controls) were analyzed. In breast cancer cases, a medium exposure to night work was associated with increased methylation levels of the CLOCK (p=0.050), BMAL1 (p=0.001) and CRY1 (p=0.040) genes, compared with controls. Within the cases, analysis of the effects of shift work on the methylation patterns showed that methylation of CRY1 was lower in those who had worked night shift and had a high exposure (p=0.006) compared with cases that had worked only days. For cases with a medium exposure to night work, an increase in BMAL1 (p=0.003) and PER1 (p=0.035) methylation was observed compared with day working (unexposed) cases. The methylation levels of the five core circadian genes were also analyzed in relation to the estrogen and progesterone receptors status of the tumors in the cases, and no correlations were observed. Furthermore, nineteen polymorphisms in the five circadian genes were assessed for their effects on the methylation levels of the respective genes, but no associations were found. In summary, our data suggest that epigenetic regulation of CLOCK, BMAL1, CRY1 and PER1 may contribute to breast cancer in shift workers.
    • Mental health status of drivers – Motor vehicle accidents perpetrators

      Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Waszkowska, Malgorzata; Wezyk, Agata; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2015)
      Wstęp: W prezentowanym artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań nad konsekwencjami psychologicznymi uczestnictwa w wypadku drogowym u jego sprawców. Poszukiwano odpowiedzi na następujące pytania badawcze: jakie są bezpośrednie reakcje sprawców na wypadek drogowy, czy u sprawców wypadków drogowych występują objawy zaburzenia po stresie traumatycznym (post-traumatic stress disorder – PTSD) i co różnicuje osoby o wysokim nasileniu symptomów PTSD od osób o niskim nasileniu tego stresu? Materiał i metody: W badaniu wykorzystano Kwestionariusz do badania zaburzenia po stresie traumatycznym (K-PTSD) i ankietę pozwalającą uzyskać informacje na temat charakteru wypadku, deklarowanych przyczyn wypadku, bezpośrednich reakcji na wypadek oraz cech demograficznych badanych. Badanie przeprowadzono wśród 209 sprawców wypadków drogowych, w czasie nie krótszym niż miesiąc od wypadku. Wyniki: Jedna trzecia badanych zadeklarowała, że tuż po wypadku nie doświadczała żadnych fizjologicznych reakcji na niego. Czterdzieści sześć procent osób doświadczyło takich stanów jak drżenie całego ciała lub kończyn, a około 30% płakało lub miało łzy w oczach na miejscu zdarzenia. Współczucie dla ofiar, poczucie winy, bezradności i strach były najpowszechniejszymi doznaniami ze wszystkich badanych bezpośrednich reakcji na wypadek. W dniu badania psychologicznego u 11,2% sprawców wypadku można było rozpoznać PTSD zgodnie z kryteriami DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition – Diagnostyczny i statystyczny podręcznik zaburzeń psychicznych, wydanie 4). Osób o wysokim i niskim natężeniu symptomów PTSD nie różniły wiek, wykształcenie ani subiektywne postrzeganie przyczyn wypadku. Z kolei wśród osób z rozpoznanym PTSD istotnie częściej występowały kobiety. Wnioski: Wyniki badania wskazują na konieczność wprowadzenia monitoringu stanu zdrowia psychicznego u kierowców uczestniczących w poważnych wypadkach drogowych jako części strategii poprawy bezpieczeństwa na drogach.
    • Methotrexate – Genotoxic and teratogenic for medical staff of oncology wards?

      Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2015)
      Jednym z najczęściej stosowanych leków cytostatycznych jest metotreksat (MTX) należący do antagonistów kwasu foliowego. Jest to substancja w Unii Europejskiej niezaklasyfikowana jako rakotwórcza, a Międzynarodowa Agencja Badań nad Rakiem (International Agency for Research on Cancer – IARC) oceniła, że nie ma dowodów na jej oddziaływanie rakotwórcze u ludzi i zwierząt. Mimo to MTX znalazł się na listach leków niebezpiecznych stosowanych w chemioterapii, głównie ze względu na właściwości genotoksyczne oraz działanie teratogenne, powodowanie toksyczności rozwojowej i szkodliwy wpływ na rozrodczość. Metotreksat wykryto w powietrzu oddziału szpitalnego podczas przygotowywania leku, na poziomie 0,3 μg/m3, a także na rękawicach ochronnych oraz czyszczonych powierzchniach pokoi przygotowawczych. Stężenie MTX na polietylenowym pokryciu wyciągu wentylacyjnego wynosiło 645 μg/m2. W większości prowadzonych projektów badawczych zidentyfikowano MTX w moczu pracowników opieki medycznej, farmaceutów i personelu pielęgniarskiego, a także pracowników służby zdrowia, którzy byli narażeni w wyniku wtórnego zanieczyszczenia powierzchni roboczych, odzieży czy pojemników. Najwyższe skumulowane stężenie MTX w 112 próbkach moczu wynosiło 1416 μg u pracowników podłączających i przygotowujących wlewy u pacjentów. Badania przeprowadzone w aptekach wykazały obecność MTX w 60% pobranych prób, a jego maksymalne stężenie wynosiło 15 ng/cm2 powierzchni tacy do odliczania tabletek. Dotychczas nie zostały ustalone obowiązujące prawnie wartości najwyższych dopuszczalnych stężeń (NDS) metotreksatu w środowisku pracy. Dopuszczalne poziomy narażenia zawodowego niektórzy producenci MTX ustalili w granicach 0,0003–0,0025 mg/m3. Naglącą potrzebą jest ustalenie wartości normatywnych. Należy podkreślić, że substancja wchłania się przez skórę, co może istotnie zwiększać narażenie, a pomiar jej stężenia w środowisku pracy może nie wystarczać do oszacowania rzeczywistego narażenia.
    • Mobile phone use and risk for intracranial tumors and salivary gland tumors - A meta-analysis.

      Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Gadzicka, Elzbieta; Szymczak, Wiesław; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2017-02-21)
      Results of epidemiological studies on the association between use of mobile phone and brain cancer are ambiguous, as well as the results of 5 meta-analysis studies published to date. Since the last meta-analysis (2009), new case-control studies have been published, which theoretically could affect the conclusions on this relationship. Therefore, we decided to perform a new meta-analysis. We conducted a systematic review of multiple electronic data bases for relevant publications. The inclusion criteria were: original papers, case-control studies, published till the end of March 2014, measures of association (point estimates as odds ratio and confidence interval of the effect measured), data on individual exposure. Twenty four studies (26 846 cases, 50 013 controls) were included into the meta-analysis. A significantly higher risk of an intracranial tumor (all types) was noted for the period of mobile phone use over 10 years (odds ratio (OR) = 1.324, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.028-1.704), and for the ipsilateral location (OR = 1.249, 95% CI: 1.022-1.526). The results support the hypothesis that long-term use of mobile phone increases risk of intracranial tumors, especially in the case of ipsilateral exposure. Further studies are needed to confirm this relationship. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(1)27-43.
    • mRNA, microRNA and lncRNA as novel bladder tumor markers.

      Wieczorek, Edyta; Reszka, Edyta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-02)
      Early detection of bladder cancer (BC) is essential for improvement of the patient's prognosis and general survival rates. Current diagnostic methods are still limited, so new specific and cost-effective biomarkers are emerging as the noninvasive tools in treatment decisions in recurrent BC. Gene expression and epigenetic profile can be analysed using quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR) method in urine, blood and tissue. This review provides an update of recent findings on BC molecular profile as novel markers in diagnosis and prognosis of bladder tumors. We describe mRNA-, microRNA- and lncRNA-based biomarkers involved in the BC detection, diagnosis, prediction of recurrence and monitoring after treatment.
    • Multi-Omics Analysis Reveals a HIF Network and Hub Gene EPAS1 Associated with Lung Adenocarcinoma.

      Wang, Zhaoxi; Wei, Yongyue; Zhang, Ruyang; Su, Li; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Liu, Geoffrey; Brennan, Paul; Field, John K; McKay, James D; Lissowska, Jolanta; et al. (2018-06)
      Recent technological advancements have permitted high-throughput measurement of the human genome, epigenome, metabolome, transcriptome, and proteome at the population level. We hypothesized that subsets of genes identified from omic studies might have closely related biological functions and thus might interact directly at the network level. Therefore, we conducted an integrative analysis of multi-omic datasets of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to search for association patterns beyond the genome and transcriptome. A large, complex, and robust gene network containing well-known lung cancer-related genes, including EGFR and TERT, was identified from combined gene lists for lung adenocarcinoma. Members of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) gene family were at the center of this network. Subsequent sequencing of network hub genes within a subset of samples from the Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung-International Lung Cancer Consortium (TRICL-ILCCO) consortium revealed a SNP (rs12614710) in EPAS1 associated with NSCLC that reached genome-wide significance (OR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.31-1.72; p = 7.75 × 10-9). Using imputed data, we found that this SNP remained significant in the entire TRICL-ILCCO consortium (p = .03). Additional functional studies are warranted to better understand interrelationships among genetic polymorphisms, DNA methylation status, and EPAS1 expression.
    • Musculoskeletal, hearing and skin problems related to playing the instrument

      Jacukowicz, Aleksandra; Wężyk, Agata (2018-07-12)
      Background: Physical demands, exposure to noise and intense contact of skin with musical instruments – inevitable in musicians’ job – influence the development of musculoskeletal, hearing and skin problems. This paper aims at identifying playing-related health problems among Polish musicians and potential differences in this regard between students and professional musicians. Material and Methods: This questionnaire study involved 255 musicians who volunteered to participate – 104 students and 151 professional musicians having music education. The study sample included 61% of women. Mean age of the participants equaled 31 years old, mean playing experience – 23 years old. Results: From 10% to 79% (depending on the affected body part) of the studied musicians experienced musculoskeletal problems. Hearing (41% – tinnitus; 43% – hearing impairment and 52% – hyperacusis) and skin problems (69% – callosities, 58% – abrasions and 26% – allergic reactions) were reported less frequently and were assessed as less severe than musculoskeletal symptoms. The studied professionals assessed their hearing problems (hyperacusis, hearing impairment and tinnitus) as significantly more severe than reported by students. Young musicians, in turn, experienced more severe abrasions than the studied professional musicians. We found no significant differences between students and professionals as regards their musculoskeletal problems. Conclusions: Playing-related health risks translate into relatively high prevalence of musculoskeletal as well as hearing and skin problems among musicians. Hence, it is essential for future studies to search for risk factors for these health problems as well as effective corrective and therapeutic measures.
    • Nanorurki weglowe - charakterystyka substancji, dzialanie biologiczne i dopuszczalne poziomy narazenia zawodowego.

      Swidwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Slawomir; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2017-03-24)
      Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a diverse group of nano-objects in terms of structure, size (length, diameter), shape and characteristics. The growing interest in these structures is due to the increasing number of people working in exposure to CNTs. Occupational exposure to carbon nanotubes may occur in research laboratories, as well as in plants producing CNTs and their nanocomposites. Carbon nanotubes concentration at the emission source may reach 107 particles/cm3. These values, however, are considerably reduced after the application of adequate ventilation. Animal studies suggest that the main route of exposure is inhalation. Carbon nanotubes administered orally are largely excreted in the feces. In animals exposed by inhalation, CNTs caused mainly inflammation, as a result of oxidative stress, leading above all to changes in the lungs. The main effect of animal dermal exposure is oxidative stress causing local inflammation. In animals exposed by ingestion the mild or no toxicity was observed. Carbon nanotubes did not induce mutations in the bacterial tests, but they were genotoxic in a series of tests on cells in vitro, as well as in exposed mice in vivo. Embryotoxicity of nanotubes depends mainly on their modifications and carcinogenicity - primarily on the CNT size and its rigidity. Occupational exposure limits for CNTs proposed by world experts fall within the range of 1-80 μg/m3. The different effects of various kinds of CNT, leads to the conclusion that each type of nanotube should be treated as a separate substance with individual estimation of hygienic normative. Med Pr 2017;68(2):259-276.
    • Nanosilver – Occupational exposure limits

      Swidwinska-Gajewska, Anna; Czerczak, Slawomir; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2015)
      Historically, nanosilver has been known as colloidal silver composed of particles with a size below 100 nm. Silver nanoparticles are used in many technologies, creating a wide range of products. Due to antibacterial properties nanosilver is used, among others, in medical devices (wound dressings), textiles (sport clothes, socks), plastics and building materials (paints). Colloidal silver is considered by many as an ideal agent in the fight against pathogenic microorganisms, unlike antibiotics, without side effects. However, in light of toxicological research, nanosilver is not inert to the body. The inhalation of silver nanoparticles have an adverse effect mainly on the liver and lung of rats. The oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species is responsible for the toxicity of nanoparticles, contributing to cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. The activity of the readily oxidized nanosilver surface underlies the molecular mechanism of toxicity. This leads to the release of silver ions, a known harmful agent. Occupational exposure to silver nanoparticles may occur in the process of its manufacture, formulation and also usage during spraying, in particular. In Poland, as well as in other countries of the world, there is no separate hygiene standards applicable to nanomaterials. The present study attempts to estimate the value of MAC-TWA (maximum admissible concentration – the time-weighted average) for silver – a nano-objects fraction, which amounted to 0.01 mg/m3. The authors are of the opinion that the current value of the MAC-TWA for silver metallic – inhalable fraction (0.05 mg/m3) does not provide sufficient protection against the harmful effects of silver in the form of nano-objects.
    • Nanozloto - dzialanie biologiczne i dopuszczalne poziomy narazenia zawodowego.

      Swidwinska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2017-06-27)
      Nanogold has different properties and biological activity compared to metallic gold. It can be applied in many fields, such as medicine, laboratory diagnostics and electronics. Studies on laboratory animals show that nanogold can be absorbed by inhalation and ingestion. It can penetrate deep into the epidermis and dermis, but there is no evidence that it is absorbed through the skin. Gold nanoobjects accumulate mainly in the liver and spleen, but they can also reach other internal organs. Nanogold can cross the blood-brain and blood-placenta barriers. Toxicokinetics of nanogold depends on the particle size, shape and surface charge. In animals exposure to gold nanoparticles via inhalation induces slight changes in the lungs. Exposure to nanogold by the oral route does not cause adverse health effects in rodents. In animals after injection of gold nanoobjects changes in the liver and lungs were observed. Nanogold induced genotoxic effects in cells, but not in animals. No adverse effects on the fetus or reproduction were found. There are no carcinogenicity studies on gold nanoparticles. The mechanism of toxicity may be related to the interaction of gold nanoobjects with proteins and DNA, and it leads to the induction of oxidative stress and genetic material damage. The impact of nanostructures on human health has not yet been fully understood. The person, who works with nanomaterials should exercise extreme caution and apply existing recommendations on the evaluation of nanoobjects exposure. The risk assessment should be the basis for taking appropriate measures to limit potential exposure to nanometals, including nanogold. Med Pr 2017;68(4):545-556.
    • Neurological symptoms and syndromes in municipal transport drivers

      Sinczuk-Walczak, Halina; Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Szymczak, Wiesław; Gadzicka, Elzbieta; Walczak, Agata; Kowalczyk, Grazyna; Dania, Marta; Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland; University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland; Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland (2015)
      Background: The way the municipal transport drivers perform their job contributes to varied burdens linked with the body posture at work, stress, shift work, vibration, noise and exposure to chemical agents. The aim of the study was to assess the condition of the nervous system (NS) in municipal transport drivers. Material and Methods: The study covered 42 men, aged 43.4 years (standard deviation (SD): 8.3), employed as bus drivers in the municipal transport enterprise. The duration of employment was 11.8 years on average (SD: 8.6). The condition of the nervous system was assessed on the basis of clinical neurological examinations. Results: Chronic lumbosacral syndrome was found in 54.8% of the subjects. A significant relationship between the incidence of lumbosacral syndrome and the duration of employment (p = 0.032) was observed; significantly higher in drivers employed for 11–15 years (90.9%) in comparison to the remaining groups. Nervous system functional disorders were characterized by the increased emotional irritability (47.6%), sleep disorders manifested by excessive sleepiness (33.3%) or insomnia (28.6%) and headaches (3%), mostly tension headaches. Excessive daytime sleepiness was significantly age-dependent (p = 0.038). Conclusions: The evidenced NS disorders indicate the need to undertake preventive measures tailored for the occupational group of bus drivers.