• Gene set enrichment analysis and expression pattern exploration implicate an involvement of neurodevelopmental processes in bipolar disorder.

      Mühleisen, Thomas W; Reinbold, Céline S; Forstner, Andreas J; Abramova, Lilia I; Alda, Martin; Babadjanova, Gulja; Bauer, Michael; Brennan, Paul; Chuchalin, Alexander; Cruceanu, Cristiana; et al. (2018)
      Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common and highly heritable disorder of mood. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several independent susceptibility loci. In order to extract more biological information from GWAS data, multi-locus approaches represent powerful tools since they utilize knowledge about biological processes to integrate functional sets of genes at strongly to moderately associated loci.
    • Genetic Contributions to The Association Between Adult Height and Head and Neck Cancer: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

      Pastorino, Roberta; Puggina, Anna; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Lagiou, Pagona; Holcátová, Ivana; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; et al. (2018-03-14)
      With the aim to dissect the effect of adult height on head and neck cancer (HNC), we use the Mendelian randomization (MR) approach to test the association between genetic instruments for height and the risk of HNC. 599 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified as genetic instruments for height, accounting for 16% of the phenotypic variation. Genetic data concerning HNC cases and controls were obtained from a genome-wide association study. Summary statistics for genetic association were used in complementary MR approaches: the weighted genetic risk score (GRS) and the inverse-variance weighted (IVW). MR-Egger regression was used for sensitivity analysis and pleiotropy evaluation. From the GRS analysis, one standard deviation (SD) higher height (6.9 cm; due to genetic predisposition across 599 SNPs) raised the risk for HNC (Odds ratio (OR), 1.14; 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI), 0.99–1.32). The association analyses with potential confounders revealed that the GRS was associated with tobacco smoking (OR = 0.80, 95% CI (0.69–0.93)). MR-Egger regression did not provide evidence of overall directional pleiotropy. Our study indicates that height is potentially associated with HNC risk. However, the reported risk could be underestimated since, at the genetic level, height emerged to be inversely associated with smoking.
    • Genetic interaction analysis among oncogenesis-related genes revealed novel genes and networks in lung cancer development.

      Li, Yafang; Xiao, Xiangjun; Bossé, Yohan; Gorlova, Olga; Gorlov, Ivan; Han, Younghun; Byun, Jinyoung; Leighl, Natasha; Johansen, Jakob S; Barnett, Matt; et al. (2019-03-05)
      The development of cancer is driven by the accumulation of many oncogenesis-related genetic alterations and tumorigenesis is triggered by complex networks of involved genes rather than independent actions. To explore the epistasis existing among oncogenesis-related genes in lung cancer development, we conducted pairwise genetic interaction analyses among 35,031 SNPs from 2027 oncogenesis-related genes. The genotypes from three independent genome-wide association studies including a total of 24,037 lung cancer patients and 20,401 healthy controls with Caucasian ancestry were analyzed in the study. Using a two-stage study design including discovery and replication studies, and stringent Bonferroni correction for multiple statistical analysis, we identified significant genetic interactions between SNPs in
    • Genome-wide association analyses identify new susceptibility loci for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer.

      Lesseur, Corina; Diergaarde, Brenda; Olshan, Andrew F; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Ness, Andrew R; Liu, Geoffrey; Lacko, Martin; Eluf-Neto, José; Franceschi, Silvia; Lagiou, Pagona; et al. (2016-12)
      We conducted a genome-wide association study of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer in 6,034 cases and 6,585 controls from Europe, North America and South America. We detected eight significantly associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), seven of which are new for these cancer sites. Oral and pharyngeal cancers combined were associated with loci at 6p21.32 (rs3828805, HLA-DQB1), 10q26.13 (rs201982221, LHPP) and 11p15.4 (rs1453414, OR52N2-TRIM5). Oral cancer was associated with two new regions, 2p23.3 (rs6547741, GPN1) and 9q34.12 (rs928674, LAMC3), and with known cancer-related loci-9p21.3 (rs8181047, CDKN2B-AS1) and 5p15.33 (rs10462706, CLPTM1L). Oropharyngeal cancer associations were limited to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, and classical HLA allele imputation showed a protective association with the class II haplotype HLA-DRB1*1301-HLA-DQA1*0103-HLA-DQB1*0603 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.59, P = 2.7 × 10(-9)). Stratified analyses on a subgroup of oropharyngeal cases with information available on human papillomavirus (HPV) status indicated that this association was considerably stronger in HPV-positive (OR = 0.23, P = 1.6 × 10(-6)) than in HPV-negative (OR = 0.75, P = 0.16) cancers.
    • Genome-wide association analyses identify new susceptibility loci for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer.

      Lesseur, Corina; Diergaarde, Brenda; Olshan, Andrew F; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Ness, Andrew R; Liu, Geoffrey; Lacko, Martin; Eluf-Neto, José; Franceschi, Silvia; Lagiou, Pagona; et al. (2016-12)
      We conducted a genome-wide association study of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer in 6,034 cases and 6,585 controls from Europe, North America and South America. We detected eight significantly associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), seven of which are new for these cancer sites. Oral and pharyngeal cancers combined were associated with loci at 6p21.32 (rs3828805, HLA-DQB1), 10q26.13 (rs201982221, LHPP) and 11p15.4 (rs1453414, OR52N2-TRIM5). Oral cancer was associated with two new regions, 2p23.3 (rs6547741, GPN1) and 9q34.12 (rs928674, LAMC3), and with known cancer-related loci-9p21.3 (rs8181047, CDKN2B-AS1) and 5p15.33 (rs10462706, CLPTM1L). Oropharyngeal cancer associations were limited to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, and classical HLA allele imputation showed a protective association with the class II haplotype HLA-DRB1*1301-HLA-DQA1*0103-HLA-DQB1*0603 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.59, P = 2.7 × 10(-9)). Stratified analyses on a subgroup of oropharyngeal cases with information available on human papillomavirus (HPV) status indicated that this association was considerably stronger in HPV-positive (OR = 0.23, P = 1.6 × 10(-6)) than in HPV-negative (OR = 0.75, P = 0.16) cancers.
    • Genome-wide association study identifies multiple risk loci for renal cell carcinoma.

      Scelo, Ghislaine; Purdue, Mark P; Brown, Kevin M; Johansson, Mattias; Wang, Zhaoming; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Ye, Yuanqing; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Choi, Jiyeon; Foll, Matthieu; et al. (2017-06-09)
      Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified six risk loci for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We conducted a meta-analysis of two new scans of 5,198 cases and 7,331 controls together with four existing scans, totalling 10,784 cases and 20,406 controls of European ancestry. Twenty-four loci were tested in an additional 3,182 cases and 6,301 controls. We confirm the six known RCC risk loci and identify seven new loci at 1p32.3 (rs4381241, P=3.1 × 10(-10)), 3p22.1 (rs67311347, P=2.5 × 10(-8)), 3q26.2 (rs10936602, P=8.8 × 10(-9)), 8p21.3 (rs2241261, P=5.8 × 10(-9)), 10q24.33-q25.1 (rs11813268, P=3.9 × 10(-8)), 11q22.3 (rs74911261, P=2.1 × 10(-10)) and 14q24.2 (rs4903064, P=2.2 × 10(-24)). Expression quantitative trait analyses suggest plausible candidate genes at these regions that may contribute to RCC susceptibility.
    • Genome-wide interaction study of smoking behavior and non-small cell lung cancer risk in Caucasian population

      Li, Yafang; Xiao, Xiangjun; Han, Younghun; Gorlova, Olga; Qian, David; Leighl, Natasha; Johansen, Jakob S; Barnett, Matt; Chen, Chu; Goodman, Gary; et al. (2018-03)
      Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. Both environmental and genetic risk factors contribute to lung carcinogenesis. We conducted a genome-wide interaction analysis between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and smoking status (never- versus ever-smokers) in a European-descent population. We adopted a two-step analysis strategy in the discovery stage: we first conducted a case-only interaction analysis to assess the relationship between SNPs and smoking behavior using 13336 non-small cell lung cancer cases. Candidate SNPs with P-value <0.001 were further analyzed using a standard case-control interaction analysis including 13970 controls. The significant SNPs with P-value <3.5 × 10-5 (correcting for multiple tests) from the case-control analysis in the discovery stage were further validated using an independent replication dataset comprising 5377 controls and 3054 non-small cell lung cancer cases. We further stratified the analysis by histological subtypes. Two novel SNPs, rs6441286 and rs17723637, were identified for overall lung cancer risk. The interaction odds ratio and meta-analysis P-value for these two SNPs were 1.24 with 6.96 × 10-7 and 1.37 with 3.49 × 10-7, respectively. In addition, interaction of smoking with rs4751674 was identified in squamous cell lung carcinoma with an odds ratio of 0.58 and P-value of 8.12 × 10-7. This study is by far the largest genome-wide SNP-smoking interaction analysis reported for lung cancer. The three identified novel SNPs provide potential candidate biomarkers for lung cancer risk screening and intervention. The results from our study reinforce that gene-smoking interactions play important roles in the etiology of lung cancer and account for part of the missing heritability of this disease.
    • Gestational weight gain charts for different body mass index groups for women in Europe, North America, and Oceania.

      Santos, Susana; Eekhout, Iris; Voerman, Ellis; Gaillard, Romy; Barros, Henrique; Charles, Marie-Aline; Chatzi, Leda; Chevrier, Cécile; Chrousos, George P; Corpeleijn, Eva; et al. (2018-11-05)
      Gestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2 and 3 obese women and to compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies. We used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America, and Oceania. Of these women, 9065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3597 (1.6%), and 1095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2, and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape. We observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40 weeks was 14.2 kg (11.4-17.4) for underweight women, 14.5 kg (11.5-17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9 kg (10.1-17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2 kg (7.0-15.7), 8.7 kg (4.3-13.4) and 6.3 kg (1.9-11.1) for grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications. Gestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.
    • Good practice in occupational health services – Certification of stroke as an accident at work. Need for secondary prevention in people returning to work after acute cerebrovascular events

      Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2015)
      The classification of an acute vascular episode, both heart infarct and stroke, as an accident at work poses difficulties not only for post accidental teams, but also to occupational health professionals, experts and judges at labor and social insurance courts. This article presents the case of a 41-year-old office worker, whose job involved client services. While attending a very aggressive customer she developed solid stress that resulted in symptoms of the central nervous system (headache, speech disturbances). During her hospitalisation at the neurological unit ischemic stroke with transient mixed type aphasia was diagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the head revealed subacute ischemia. After an analysis of the accident circumstances, the employer’s post accidental team decided that ischemic stroke had been an accident at work, because it was a sudden incident due to an external cause inducing work-related traumatic stroke. As a primary cause tough stress and emotional strain due to the situation developed while attending the customer were acknowledged. During control medical check up after 5 months the patient was found to be fit for work, so she could return to work. However, it should be noted that such a check up examination of subjects returning to work after stroke must be holistic, including the evaluation of job predispositions and health education aimed at secondary prevention of heart and vascular diseases with special reference to their risk factors.
    • Good practice in occupational health services – The influence of hazardous conditions and nuisance coexisting in the work environment and at home on the course and outcome of pregnancy

      Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Wezyk, Agata; Muszynski, Paweł; Polanska, Kinga; Makowiec-Dabrowska, Teresa; Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Hanke, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2015)
      The key activity in good practice of occupational medicine is to control, on a regular basis, the workers’ health and how it is affected by the work environment and – consequently – to provide the employers and employees with advice regarding the organization, ergonomics, physiology and psychology of work. Occupational medicine practitioners should remember that certain duties are performed both at work and at home. This issue is particularly important in preventive healthcare of pregnant working women. Taking the above into consideration, we reviewed the literature with respect to nuisance and occupational risk factors, which might be associated with professional and household duties. The research indicates the need to reduce activities that require frequent bending or lifting, put a women at risk of falling or cause excess occupational stress for pregnant women. We would like to draw the doctors’ attention to the possibility of exceeding a 4-hour limit of work at video display terminals and negative effects of low physical exercise and sitting for a long time both at work and at home. Since long working hours (over 40 h/week) affect the course of pregnancy negatively, total working time at work (including any additional jobs) and at home must be taken into account in the occupational risk assessment. To sum up, we emphasize that preventive healthcare of pregnant working women should mainly include education programmes. Women need to know how to perform their work safely and pay attention to the scope and frequency of household tasks (duties).
    • [Health criteria and scope of workers' periodic health check-ups for selected types of work and exposure factors - Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine guidelines].

      Rybacki, Marcin; Wiszniewska, Marta; Wdówik, Paweł; Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Pas-Wyroślak, Alicja; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-02-28)
      Workers' medical prophylactic examinations referred to in the Labor Code are one of the tasks of the occupational medicine services. They are regulated by law which has been in force for more than 20 years in unchanged form. During this period, new harmful, burdensome or dangerous to health factors appeared in the workplaces, for which no preventive health check-up standard was defined. In the meantime, the health criteria for drivers and persons applying for driving licenses have also been significantly liberalized. The above changes, the authors' own experience, comments and problems reported by physicians who provide workers' prophylactic health care and employers as well as analysis of literature related to workers' health care in other countries have created the need to harmonize and update guidelines on health requirements for selected types of work. In addition the scope and frequency of prophylactic examinations for exposures, which are not included in applicable legal acts, has been developed. Med Pr. 2019;70(1):125-37. Badania profilaktyczne pracowników, o których mowa w Kodeksie pracy, to jedno z zadań służby medycyny pracy. Są one regulowane przepisami prawa obowiązującymi w niezmienionej formie już od ponad 20 lat. W tym okresie na wielu stanowiskach pracy pojawiły się nowe czynniki szkodliwe, uciążliwe lub niebezpieczne dla zdrowia, dla których nie określono standardu badania profilaktycznego. Znacznie zliberalizowano także kryteria zdrowotne dla kierowców i osób ubiegających się o uprawnienia do prowadzenia pojazdów silnikowych. Powyższe zmiany, doświadczenia własne autorów, uwagi i problemy zgłaszane przez lekarzy sprawujących opiekę profilaktyczną i pracodawców oraz analiza piśmiennictwa związanego z ochroną zdrowia pracujących w innych krajach stworzyły konieczność ujednolicenia i uaktualnienia wytycznych dotyczących wymagań zdrowotnych dla wybranych rodzajów prac. Ponadto opracowano zakres i częstotliwość badań profilaktycznych dla narażeń, które nie są ujęte w obowiązujących aktach prawnych. Med. Pr. 2019;70(1):125–137.
    • [Health effects of exposure to static magnetic field - a review of literature].

      Zmyślony, Marek; Politański, Piotr; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-02-28)
      The authors discuss the effects of static magnetic field (SMF) exposure based on reviewed literature reports. The systematic review covered both research carried out directly with people as well as studies with animals. A review was carried out in terms of various potential effects: carcinogenic effects, reproductive and metabolic disorders or the influence of SMF on the nervous and circulatory system. The possible biophysical and biological effects of the SMF were also described. Med Pr. 2019;70(1):107-20. Autorzy pracy omawiają skutki narażenia na stałe pole magnetyczne (SPM) na podstawie doniesień z piśmiennictwa. Systematycznym przeglądem zostały objęte badania zarówno z udziałem ludzi, jak i prowadzone na zwierzętach. Dokonano analizy różnych potencjalnych skutków działania SPM, np. kancerogennego, a także jego wpływu na zaburzenia rozrodu, oddziaływania na układ nerwowy, układ krążenia czy na zaburzenia metaboliczne. Opisano również możliwe efekty biofizyczne i biologiczne oddziaływania SPM. Med. Pr. 2019;70(1):107–120.
    • Health effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF EMF).

      Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-09-01)
    • Health literacy jako element polskiego systemu opieki profilaktycznej nad pracownikami.

      Dobras M.; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2016)
      Nowadays it is believed that a comprehensive approach towards one’s health requires the development and subsequent mastering of health literacy. Although this term has no Polish equivalent, it applies to the ability of individuals to access, analyze and understand information necessary to make informed health decisions. In this publication it is suggested that ‘biegłość zdrowotna’ can be used as a corresponding Polish term. This publication is based on the review of the available literature (in Polish and in English) on health literacy. To illustrate the hypothetical level of health literacy among Polish employers and employees reports of the Chief Labour Inspectorate and individual items from the Second European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER-2) were used. The analysis proves that health literacy is a multidimensional concept which has been studied and investigated so far only in relation to chosen nosological units, but practically it does not appear in relation to occupational health. There are reasons to believe that in Poland the low level of health literacy among both employers and employees, lies at the forefront of a passive approach towards the safeguarding of workers health. The concept of health literacy needs further dissemination in Poland, whereas the main area of future research should be the design of the Polish tool for assessing health literacy. The national system of occupational health seems to offer a possible ground for implementing such a concept, especially bearing in mind that within the current system there are several entities and services, which have the legal mandate to undertake informative and advisory duties – exactly those, which help build and master health literacy skills. Współcześnie uznaje się, że kompleksowe podejście do dbałości o zdrowie wymaga nieustannego kształtowania i doskonalenia health literacy. Pojęcie to, choć nie ma jeszcze dosłownego polskiego odpowiednika, odnosi się do szeroko pojętej świadomości zdrowotnej jednostek, czyli ich zdolności do wyszukiwania, przetwarzania i rozumienia informacji niezbędnych do podejmowania właściwych decyzji zdrowotnych, także w sferze aktywności zawodowej. W niniejszej pracy zaproponowano wprowadzenie terminu ‘biegłość zdrowotna’ jako polskiego odpowiednika ‘health literacy’. Materiały źródłowe do przygotowania publikacji uzyskano w wyniku przeglądu polsko- i anglojęzycznego piśmiennictwa dotyczącego health literacy. Do zobrazowania prawdopodobnego poziomu health literacy wśród polskich pracodawców i pracowników wykorzystano raporty Głównego Inspektoratu Pracy oraz wybrane wyniki drugiego „Europejskiego badania przedsiębiorstw na temat nowych i pojawiających się zagrożeń” (Second European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks – ESENER-2). Przeprowadzona analiza wskazuje, że health literacy jest zagadnieniem wielopłaszczyznowym i dotychczas zbadanym w odniesieniu do kilku jednostek chorobowych, natomiast praktycznie niepojawiającym się w systemach profilaktycznej opieki zdrowotnej nad pracownikami. Istnieją przesłanki, żeby sądzić, że u podstaw pasywnego (najczęściej pozostającego w zgodzie jedynie z minimalnymi wymaganiami prawnymi) podejścia do kwestii umacniania zdrowia polskich pracowników leży m.in. niski poziom biegłości zdrowotnej zarówno wśród pracodawców, jak i pracowników. Koncepcja health literacy wymaga w Polsce upowszechnienia, natomiast przedmiotem dalszych badań i rozważań dotyczących wykorzystania tej koncepcji w poszczególnych dziedzinach ochrony zdrowia powinno być przede wszystkim zbudowanie odpowiedniego na polskim gruncie narzędzia badawczego do oceny poziomu biegłości zdrowotnej. Istnieje również potencjał do zastosowania tej koncepcji w ochronie zdrowia pracujących, tym bardziej że funkcjonują w Polsce służby i podmioty właściwe do podejmowana działań o charakterze informacyjno-doradczym, a więc takich, które pozwalają budować i doskonalić health literacy.
    • Health promotion and prevention in occupational health systems in Europe.

      Sakowski, Piotr; Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-06-14)
      Objectives: In the contemporary Western culture, working population health issues, stressed in various publications, have been perceived as a crucial part of public health. To deal with occupational health issues properly, occupational health services (OHS), aiming at the protection of the workers’ health, are organized in many countries. The survey was to find the differences in occupational health systems that the European Economic Area countries use in order to execute prophylactic activities focused on diseases of affluence and how the OHS are used for health promotion actions. Material and Methods: The survey was conducted with the use of an on-line expert questionnaire. No deep statistical analysis was performed as for the designed aims of the study simple statistics were sufficient. Results: All the reviewed countries have organized OHS. The funding mechanisms are based mainly on the financial involvement of employers. In the majority of countries, the main goal of the OHS is certification of the ability to work. Workplace surveillance aiming at the occupational risk assessment and health promotion activities that focus on work-related and/or occupational diseases are the most popular services provided within national systems. Conclusions: Occupational health professionals are well placed to perform actions directed at health promotion and prophylactics of a wide range of diseases – not only occupational/work-related, but also non-communicable, particularly life-style-related diseases of affluence. The engagement of the occupational medical services (OMS) in prevention of the non-work-related health issues would be valuable. However, it would be inevitable for employers to finance a wider range of services to a greater extent.
    • Health promotion for the aging workforce in Poland.

      Magnavita, Nicola; Sakowski, Piotr; Capitanelli, Ilaria; La Milia, Daniele Ignazio; Moscato, Umberto; Poscia, Andrea; Ricciardi, Walter; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-12-20)
      The aging of the workforce is an issue that calls for concrete measures to promote the health of older workers. This study reports on the results of the European "ProHealth65+" research project interventions conducted in Poland in relation to workplace health promotion for older workers (WHPOW) and the institutions involved in these programs. A three-stage search of peer-reviewed and grey literature on the WHPOW in Poland. A total of 59 WHPOW programs were retrieved in Poland in the observation period (2000-2015). Most of these aimed at improving the Qualification and Training or at the Work Climate and attitudes toward older workers. The promotion, organization, and funding of these activities were carried out mainly by supra-national and governmental bodies, enterprises and employers, and educational and trainee institutions. Although there is great commitment to the medical surveillance of workers on the part of the Polish occupational health service, our search detected a relatively low number of the WHPOW initiatives. Greater efforts should be made to introduce strategies for addressing aging of the workforce. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(6):753-761.
    • [Health promotion in medium-sized and large companies in Poland in 2017 - activities, implementation, effects and difficulties].

      Puchalski, Krzysztof; Korzeniowska, Elżbieta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-06-14)
      Background: The paper presents the state of workplace health promotion in Poland as of December 2017. Material and Methods: Standardized computer-assisted personal interviews (CAPI) were conducted on a representative sample of 1000 companies employing over 50 people. Results: Few companies (37%) actually know the health needs of their employees, whereas 25% admit that they care about health more than it is required by law, and declare their increased involvement in that area. At the same time, 55% of companies sponsor sports tickets, and 52% cover the costs of medical care. Every second company supports physical activity in other ways and improves the working environment. Every third offers medical prophylaxis, takes care of stress reduction and healthy eating habits, or solves the problems of alcohol consumption. The main reasons for such activities are the company’s image (79%), good social atmosphere (72%) and employee’s work performance (69%), while the prevention of health problems is rarely indicated (43%). The effects of workplace health promotion measures include improved productivity (50%), a better health condition (49%) and an increased identification with the company (47%). As for the obstacles, these is a shortage of financial resources (53%), the lack of favorable fiscal and legal solutions (48%), low interest among employees (45%), the lack of skilled people to manage health promotion (42%) and low awareness of its benefits (37%). Companies that are consciously involved in health promotion and monitor the actual health needs implement more activities, evaluate them more often, recognize their positive effects, and are able to better motivate their employees. Conclusions: There is a need to develop systemic solutions that foster health promotion in companies, to disseminate knowledge about the benefits associated with it, and to train the staff responsible for employee health management.
    • Health risk in road transport workers. Part I. Occupational exposure to chemicals, biomarkers of effect.

      Gromadzińska, Jolanta; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-06-14)
      Motor vehicle emissions constitute a mixture of different chemicals: volatile organic solvents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, isocyanates, etc. Drivers working in car cabins are exposed to chemicals deriving from incomplete combustion of fuels, exhaust emissions from working engines and fuel evaporation. Concentrations of these substances are rather low and do not exceed the applicable hygiene standards, but some of them pose, or are suspected to pose, carcinogenic risk. The interaction of chemical substances with human cells and tissues can lead to a number of modifications of metabolic pathways at a cellular level. The first biological mechanism of metabolic modulation is an inflammatory state and oxidative stress generation. The aim of this review is to analyze biomarkers of effect and to assess the hazard of occupational exposure of drivers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(3):267–80
    • Health risk in transport workers. Part II. Dietary compounds as modulators of occupational exposure to chemicals.

      Kozłowska, Lucyna; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-07-15)
      Professional drivers are exposed to a number of factors that have a negative influence on their health status. These include vibrations, noise, the lack of fresh air in the car cabin, shift work (frequently at night), monotony resulting from permanent repetition of certain actions, static loads due to immobilization in a sitting position, stress resulting from the need to ensure safety in heavy traffic, as well as air pollution (dust, volatile organic substances, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, dioxins, furans and others). Factors associated with the specificity of the profession of a driver, including exposure to chemical substances, result in an increased risk of the development of many diseases, i.e., obesity, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, extensive genitourinary pathology experienced by taxi drivers, lung cancer and other forms of cancer. In the case of drivers, especially those covering long distances, there are also actual difficulties related to ensuring a proper diet. Although attempts at interventional research that would change the principles of nutrition, as well as ensure physical activity and weight reduction, have been made, their results have not been satisfactory. The paper focuses on the discussion on the role of a diet and dietary phytochemicals in the prevention of adverse health effects of such chemicals as a mix of chemicals in the polluted air, benzo(a)pyrene, benzene and metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel), which are the main sources of exposure in the case of transport workers
    • Health risk to medical personnel of surgical smoke produced during laparoscopic surgery.

      Dobrogowski, Miłosz; Wesolowski, Wiktor; Kucharska, Małgorzata; Paduszynska, Katarzyna; Dworzynska, Agnieszka; Szymczak, Wiesław; Sapota, Andrzej; Pomorski, Lech; Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland; University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland; Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland (2015)
      During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the removal of the gall bladder, pyrolysis occurs in the peritoneal cavity. Chemical substances which are formed during this process escape into the operating room through trocars in the form of surgical smoke. The aim of this study was to identify and quantitatively measure a number of selected chemical substances found in surgical smoke and to assess the risk they carry to medical personnel.