• An ecohydrological approach to the river contamination by PCDDs, PCDFs and dl-PCBs - concentrations, distribution and removal using phytoremediation techniques.

      Urbaniak, M; Kiedrzyńska, E; Wyrwicka, A; Zieliński, M; Mierzejewska, E; Kiedrzyński, M; Kannan, K; Zalewski, M; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-12-17)
      The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in the Pilica River and Sulejów Reservoir were found to be 46% higher during the flood season than during stable flow periods. In addition, PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB mass loads increased by 5- to 12-fold and by 23- to 60-fold for toxic equivalency (TEQ) during flooding. The Sulejów Reservoir was found to play a positive role in reducing PCDD, PCDF and dl-PCB transport within the study period, with reductions ranging from 17 to 83% for total concentrations, and 33 to 79% for TEQ. Wastewater Treatment Plants (WTPs) were not efficient at mass concentration removal, with small displaying the least efficiency. WTPs discharge pollutants into the aquatic environment, they also produce sludge that requires disposal, similar to reservoir sediments. Sludge- or sediment-born PCDDs, PCDFs and dl-PCBs may be removed using phytoremediation. The cultivation of cucumber and zucchini, two efficient phytoremediators of organic pollutants, on polluted substrate resulted in a mean decrease in PCDD + PCDF + dl-PCB TEQ concentrations: 64% for cucumber and 69% for zucchini in sludge-amended soil, and by 52% for cucumber and 51% for zucchini in sediment-amended soil.
    • Effect of Arsenic Exposure on NRF2-KEAP1 Pathway and Epigenetic Modification.

      Janasik, Beata; Reszka, Edyta; Stanislawska, Magdalena; Jablonska, Ewa; Kuras, Renata; Wieczorek, Edyta; Malachowska, Beata; Fendler, Wojciech; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2017-12-15)
      Arsenic (As) is a known toxic element and carcinogen. Transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) controls cellular adaptation to oxidants and electrophiles by inducing antioxidant genes in response to redox stress. To explore associations between As level and NRF2-regulated cytoprotective genes expression, an observational study was conducted in a population of 61 occupationally exposed men with median (Me) age 50 years (interquartile range (IQR) 42-54) and in a control group of 52 men aged 40 (IQR 31-51.5) without occupational exposure. NRF2, KEAP1, GSTP1, HMOX1, NQO1, PRDX1, and TXNRD1 transcript levels were determined by means of quantitative real-time PCR along with the gene expression, methylation of NRF2 and KEAP1, as well as global DNA methylation were assessed. The median urine As tot. level in the exposed and control group was found to be 21.8 μg/g creat. (IQR 15.5-39.8 μg/g creat.) and 3.8 μg/g creat. (IQR 2.5-9.3) (p < 0.001). Global DNA methylation was significantly higher in occupationally exposed workers than in controls (Me 14.1 (IQR 9.5-18.1) vs Me 8.5 (IQR 5.9-12.6) p < 0.0001). NRF2 mRNA level was positively correlated with expression of all investigated NRF2-target genes in both groups (0.37 > R < 0.76, all p values < 0.0001). The multivariate linear regression adjusting for global methylation showed that As(III) level was significantly associated with expression of TXNRD1, GSTP1, HMOX1, and PRDX1. The results of this study indicate that arsenic occupational exposure is positively associated with global DNA methylation. The findings provide evidence for rather inactivation of NRF2-KEAP1 pathway in response to chronic arsenic exposure.
    • Effect of environmental phthalate exposure on pregnancy duration and birth outcomes

      Polanska, Kinga; Ligocka, Danuta; Sobala, Wojciech; Hanke, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2016)
      Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of phthalate exposure on pregnancy duration and birth outcomes based on the Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL). Material and Methods: Phthalate exposure was determined by measuring 11 phthalate metabolites (mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), 3OH-mono-n-butyl phthalate (OH-MnBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono‑(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-hydroxy-iso-nonyl phthalate (MHiNP), mono-oxo-iso-nonyl phthalate (MOiNP), and mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP)) in the urine collected from 165 mothers during the third trimester of pregnancy by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The following measures at birth were considered: gestational age, birth weight, length as well as head and chest circumference. Results: Pregnancy duration was inversely associated with natural log concentrations (μg/g creatinine) of MEP (standardized regression coefficient (β) = –0.2, p = 0.04) after adjustment for a variety of confounders. Significant impact of MOiNP on head circumference (β = –0.1, p = 0.05) was also observed. Conclusions: The study findings add further support to the hypothesis that phthalate exposure may be associated with shorter pregnancy duration and a decreased head circumference, and underscore importance of public health interventions to reduce that exposure.
    • The effect of prenatal exposure on disposition of hexachloronaphthalene in female Wistar rats and fetal compartment.

      Stragierowicz, Joanna; Sitarek, Krystyna; Grobelski, Bartłomiej; Kilanowicz, Anna; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-10-24)
      Due to structural and toxicological similarities to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were included in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in 2015. Hexachloronaphthalene (HxCN) is considered to be one of the most toxic congeners of PCNs. The objective of this study was to determine the maternal and fetal tissue concentrations of hexachloronaphthalene after a single administration.
    • The effect of repeated cadmium oral exposure on the level of sex hormones, estrous cyclicity, and endometrium morphometry in female rats.

      Nasiadek, Marzenna; Danilewicz, Marian; Sitarek, Krystyna; Świątkowska, Ewa; Daragó, Adam; Stragierowicz, Joanna; Kilanowicz, Anna; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-10)
      Cadmium (Cd) is regarded as a potential endocrine disruptor. However, the exact mechanism by which this metal may interfere with the reproductive system has not yet been elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of subacute Cd oral administration at daily doses of 0.09, 1.8, and 4.5 mgCd/kg b.w. and the impact of Cd on sex hormones (estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P)) in the plasma and uterus, as well as on estrous cyclicity and histopathological changes in uterine and ovary in female rats after terminating the exposure and after a prolonged observation period (3 months). Moreover, Cd bioaccumulation in the uterine and brain tissue of rats was analyzed. The study revealed that oral Cd exposure induced changes in the plasma levels of steroid hormones: decrease in E2 and increase in P after the highest dose of Cd. Probably, for the first time, it was evidenced that circulation sex hormone disturbances in Cd-exposed rats caused irregular estrous cycle, persisting for 3 months after exposure termination; no alterations in these hormone levels in uterine tissue were noted. Cd did not induce estradiol-like hyperplasia of endometrium, but resulted in endometrial edema irrespective of the dose, and caused damage of the ovaries after the highest dose. In summary, subacute oral exposure of female rats to Cd may lead to long-term disturbances in reproductive system.
    • The effect of the nitroxide pirolin on oxidative stress induced by doxorubicin and taxanes in the rat brain.

      Tabaczar, S; Czepas, J; Koceva-Chyla, A; Kilanczyk, E; Piasecka-Zelga, Joanna; Gwozdzinski, K; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2017-04)
      The anticancer drugs doxorubicin (DOX), paclitaxel (PTX) and docetaxel (DTX) have been proven to induce oxidative stress (OS)-dependent side-effects in non-targeted tissues. In normal conditions, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents these drugs from penetrating into the brain. However, some studies have demonstrated that small amounts of DOX can penetrate the brain via an oxidatively impaired BBB and cause damage, which suggests that including antioxidants in chemotherapy could possibly protect the brain against the toxicity of anticancer drugs. We investigated whether DOX, DTX and PTX can induce oxidative damage in rat brains in vivo and whether inclusion of the nitroxyl antioxidant Pirolin (PL) to DOX/taxane chemotherapy can protect the brain from the OS toxicity of these drugs. Wistar rats received i.p. a single dose (10 mg/kg b.w.) of DOX, DTX, PTX or PL alone or a combination of a drug + PL. After four days, the rats were anesthetized, the brains were excised, homogenized and used for the measurements of lipid peroxidation (LPO), thiol groups, activities of antioxidant enzymes, DNA damage and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) expression. The results were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Conover-Inman tests or ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer test. Doxorubicin, PTX and DTX induced OS, DNA damage and changes in expression of TNF-α, nNOS and PARP-1 in the rat brain. Pirolin alone increased LPO, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and the expression of PARP-1 but decreased TNF-α expression. PL, in combination with anticancer drugs, partially protected the rat brain against the toxic effects of DOX and taxanes. The best protective effects of PL were obtained with PTX. Pirolin partially attenuated brain damage caused by DOX/taxanes, highlighting its potential application in protecting the brain against DOX-, DTX- and PTX-evoked OS.
    • The effects of hexachloronaphthalene on selected parameters of heme biosynthesis and systemic toxicity in female wistar rats after 90-day oral exposure.

      Klimczak, Michal; Darago, Adam; Bruchajzer, Elzbieta; Domeradzka-Gajda, Katarzyna; Stępnik, Maciej; Kuzajska, Katarzyna; Kilanowicz, Anna; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2018-06)
      Hexachloronaphthalenes (HxCNs) are the most toxic congeners of polychlorinated naphthalenes, a group of compounds lately included into the list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This study presents the effects of 90-day intragastric administration of HxCN to female Wistar rats at doses of 0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg body weight. The study examined selected parameters of the heme synthesis pathway, oxidative stress, hepatic cytochromes level, and basic hematology indicators. A micronucleus test was also performed. The subchronic exposure of rats to HxCN resulted in disruption of heme biosynthesis, hematological disturbances, and hepatotoxicity. The highest dose of HxCN inhibited aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D). Accumulation of higher carboxylated porphyrins in the liver and increased excretion of 5-aminolevulinic acid in the urine was observed after a dose of 0.1 mg/kg body weight. The most sensitive effect of HxCN in rats was very strong induction of hepatic CYP1A1 activity, which was observed after the lowest dose. The highest dose of HxCN induced significant thrombocytopenia, thymic atrophy and hepatotoxicity, expressed as hepatomegaly and hepatic steatosis.
    • Effects of radio- and microwaves emitted by wireless communication devices on the functions of the nervous system selected elements

      Politanski, Piotr; Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Zmyslony, Marek; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2016)
      Nervous system is the most “electric” system in the human body. The research of the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of different frequencies on its functioning have been carried out for years. This paper presents the results of the scientific literature review on the EMF influence on the functioning of the human nervous system with a particular emphasis on the recent studies of the modern wireless communication and data transmission systems. In the majority of the analyzed areas the published research results do not show EMF effects on the nervous system, except for the influence of GSM telephony signal on resting EEG and EEG during patients’ sleep and the influence of radiofrequency EMF on the cardiovascular regulation. In other analyzed areas (EMF impact on sleep, the evoked potentials and cognitive processes), there are no consistent results supporting any influence of electromagnetic fields. Neurophysiological studies of the effect of radio- and microwaves on the brain functions in humans are still considered inconclusive. This is among others due to, different exposure conditions, a large number of variables tested, deficiencies in repeatability of research and statistical uncertainties. However, methodological guidelines are already available giving a chance of unifying research that definitely needs to be continued in order to identify biophysical mechanisms of interaction between EMFs and the nervous system. One of the EMF research aspects, on which more and more attention is paid, are inter-individual differences.
    • Effort-reward balance as a mediator of the relationship between supplementary person-organization fit and perceived stress among middle-level managers.

      Waszkowska, Malgorzata; Jacukowicz, Aleksandra; Drabek, Marcin; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2017-03-30)
      The study has aimed to identify the relations between the supplementary person-organization fit (P-O fit) and the perceived stress among managerial staff, with special regard to the mediating role of the effort-reward balance.
    • Electromagnetic fields exposure assessment among workers at broadcast centers in Poland

      Politański, Piotr; Aniołczyk, Halina; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Zmyślony, Marek; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-08-31)
      Background: In the studies investigating the potential health effects of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), the key problem is the assessment of workers’ exposure. Electromagnetic fields exposure assessment requires determining maximum EMF levels, for the acute effect, and the dose absorbed, for the cumulative effect. A study was undertaken to determine EMF exposure in workers at broadcasting centers (BCs) in Poland. It was the first part of a comprehensive project on health effects of occupational exposure to EMF. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in 4 selected BCs. Spot measurements of electric field strength (E), and the results of E measurements that were made in the past for occupational hygiene assessments, were used for determining workers’ exposure to electric field. The parameters considered were the maximum E value (Emax), the weighted average E value (Eavg) and the E lifetime dose (Elifetime dose). Results: In the group of workers examined, the E values did not exceed 16.7 V/m for Emax (the occupational exposure limit (OEL) for work shift in Poland is 20 V/m), 2.9 V/m for Eavg and 1 500 000 (V/m)2×h for Elifetime dose. Conclusions: In view of the lack of dosimetry data, a retrospective assessment of BC workers’ exposure to very high frequency and ultra-high frequency EMF was conducted, which made it possible to estimate EMF lifetime dose for the workers. Since the EMF exposure levels at BCs did not exceed the admissible values, they can be considered safe to the workers’ health, according to the approach used for developing OELs for EMF exposure
    • Electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of DECT cordless telephones and mobile phones

      Mamrot, Pawel; Marianska, Magda; Aniolczyk, Halina; Politanski, Piotr; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2015)
      Background: Mobile telephones belong to the most frequently used personal devices. In their surroundings they produce the electromagnetic field (EMF), in which exposure range there are not only users but also nearby bystanders. The aim of the investigations and EMF measurements in the vicinity of phones was to identify the electric field levels with regard to various working modes. Material and Methods: Twelve sets of DECT (digital enhanced cordless telecommunications) cordless phones (12 base units and 15 handsets), 21 mobile telephones produced by different manufactures, and 16 smartphones in various applications, (including multimedia) in the conditions of daily use in living rooms were measured. Measurements were taken using the point method in predetermined distances of 0.05–1 m from the devices without the presence of users. Results: In the vicinity of DECT cordless phone handsets, electric field strength ranged from 0.26 to 2.30 V/m in the distance of 0.05 m – 0.18–0.26 V/m (1 m). In surroundings of DECT cordless telephones base units the values of EMF were from 1.78–5.44 V/m (0.05 m) to 0.19– 0.41 V/m (1 m). In the vicinity of mobile phones working in GSM mode with voice transmission, the electric field strength ranged from 2.34–9.14 V/m (0.05 m) to 0.18–0.47 V/m (1 m) while in the vicinity of mobile phones working in WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) mode the electric field strength ranged from 0.22–1.83 V/m (0.05 m) to 0.18–0.20 V/m (1 m). Conclusions: The mean values of the electric field strength for each group of devices, mobile phones and DECT wireless phones sets do not exceed the reference value of 7 V/m, adopted as the limit for general public exposure.
    • [Emission of nanometer size particles during selected processes with construction materials using].

      Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-02-28)
      The aim of the presented work was the assessment of occupational exposure to nanoparticles and ultrafine particles during selected processes of using construction materials. The tests were carried out at the following workplaces: abrasion and pouring of 2 products - nanomortar and nanocrete. Measurements were carried out using the following devices: DiSCmini measurer, GRIMM 1.109 optical counter and DustTrak monitor. The number, surface area, mass concentration and size distribution were analyzed. DiSCmini measurements showed that the mean number concentration of particles during the analyzed processes ranged of 1.4×104-1.0×105 particles/cm<sup>3</sup>, and the highest one was during nanomortar abrasion. The mean particles diameters during the processes ranged 28.9-47.1 nm depending on the process. An increase in the average value of the particles surface area concentration was observed, the largest value was found during nanomortar abrasion - 255.9 μm<sup>2</sup>/cm<sup>3</sup>. The size distributions analysis (GRIMM 1.109) showed that the dimensions of particles released in the processes had a wide range, however the majority of particles were in the range of 60-145 nm. The analysis of the mass concentration (DustTrak) showed that the fraction of particles < 1 μm was minimum 50% of the total analyzed particles during the process. During the processes under study, a large increase in all analyzed parameters describing the emission of ultrafine particles was observed. This allows to conclude that the smallest particles emitted during the using of nanostructures containing construction materials may be a potential health risk factor for people exposed to these materials. Med Pr. 2019;70(1):67-88.
    • [Employees with mental illness - possibilities and barriers in professional activity].

      Cybula-Fujiwara, Anna; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Wiszniewska, Marta; Babiński Memorial Hospital, Łódź, Poland; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2015)
      In Poland patients with psychiatric problems form a large group; in 2010 there were almost 1.5 million people for whom outpatient psychiatric care was provided, whereas approximately 200 thousand ill individuals were treated in 24-h psychiatric wards. Only 17% of the mentally disabled are professionally active. The results of many researches show that despite the detrimental influence of mental disorders on the employment (e.g., lower productivity, absenteeism, presenteism, increased risk of accidents at the workplace), professional activity can play a key role in the7stabilization of the mental state, it can also help in disease recovery. People with mental disorders are a social group that is at the higher risk of exclusion from the job market. The opinion prevailing among employers is that mentally ill individuals have decreased ability to conduct professional activity, and social attitudes towards them tend to be based on marking and stigmatizing. This review tackles the advantages of working during the illness, barriers which people with mental disorders face on the job market when they want to either start or continue work, and professional functioning of people with diagnosed depression (e.g., affective disorders) and schizophrenia (representing psychotic disorders). The analysis of existing data show that to improve the situation of mentally ill people present on the job market close cooperation between the representatives of various medical specializations is necessary, as well as their active participation in the process of social and professional rehabilitation of people affected by mental disorders.
    • Endometriosis - The challenge for occupational life of diagnosed women: A review of quantitative studies.

      Andysz, Aleksandra; Jacukowicz, Aleksandra; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Najder, Anna; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-12-18)
      The aim of the article was to summarize the results offered in the research on occupational functioning of women with endometriosis. We followed PRISMA guidelines. Database search was done in November 2017 using EBSCO. In the review were included the articles clearly referring to the relationships between endometriosis and work or any aspect of work (e.g., work productivity, work ability, absenteeism). Eight papers were included in the final review. Seven studies were cross-sectional, 1 retrospective. The majority of researchers used standardized research measures, such as <i>Work Ability Index</i>, <i>Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire</i> or <i>Health Related Productivity Questionnaire</i>. Only in 2 studies the reference group was considered, one of them consisted of healthy women. The results clearly indicate that endometriosis is a disease that causes major disturbance in occupational functioning of the suffering women. In the future the researchers should search for individual and organizational correlates of the improvement of occupational functioning in this group of patients. The methodology of the existing studies has been evaluated and the methodological cues for future research has been given. Med Pr 2018;69(6):663-671. The aim of the article was to summarize the results offered in the research on occupational functioning of women with endometriosis. We followed PRISMA guidelines. Database search was done in November 2017 using EBSCO. In the review were included the articles clearly referring to the relationships between endometriosis and work or any aspect of work (e.g., work productivity, work ability, absenteeism). Eight papers were included in the final review. Seven studies were cross-sectional, 1 retrospective. The majority of researchers used standardized research measures, such as <i>Work Ability Index</i>, <i>Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire</i> or <i>Health Related Productivity Questionnaire</i>. Only in 2 studies the reference group was considered, one of them consisted of healthy women. The results clearly indicate that endometriosis is a disease that causes major disturbance in occupational functioning of the suffering women. In the future the researchers should search for individual and organizational correlates of the improvement of occupational functioning in this group of patients. The methodology of the existing studies has been evaluated and the methodological cues for future research has been given. Med Pr 2018;69(6):663–671.
    • Endotoxin exposure and changes in short-term pulmonary function among sewage workers

      Cyprowski, Marcin; Sobala, Wojciech; Buczynska, Alina; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland; Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute, Warszawa, Poland (2015)
      Objectives: The inhaled endotoxin is considered as a causative factor in the process of acute bronchial obstruction, which can be measured by a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The aim of this study was to assess endotoxin exposure among sewage treatment plant workers (STPW) and its effect on across-shift changes in respiratory airflow. Material and Methods: A group of 78 STPW from a large sewage treatment plant was studied. Inhalable dust for endotoxin assessment was collected using personal aerosol samplers. Endotoxin was assayed with the kinetic, chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Across-shift spirometric measurements were performed on Mondays, after 2-days absence from work, with the use of portable spirometer. The forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1 parameters were analyzed. Multifactor regression modeling was performed to determine parameters significantly associated with endotoxin exposure. Results: The concentration of inhalable dust and endotoxin ranged from 0.01–1.38 mg/m3 and 0.68–214 endotoxin units per cubic meter of air (EU/m3), respectively. Endotoxins were characterized with the skewed distribution (arithmetic mean (AM) = 38.8 EU/m3, geometric mean (GM) = 15.4 EU/m3, geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 4.21). Through the use of multifactor analysis, which excluded the main confounders (inhalable dust and smoking habit) it was found that, despite low levels of endotoxin, it had significant impact on the observed across-shift decline in FEV1 (p = 0.044). For this parameter, the regression slope was additionally calculated (r = –0.017, p = 0.071). Conclusions: Relatively low levels of endotoxin among sewage treatment plant workers may cause small, but significant across-shift declines in FEV1. The observed relationship was independent of organic dust concentrations and smoking habit. The respiratory protection should be provided for STPW.
    • Environmental exposure to non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals and semen quality: An overview of the current epidemiological evidence

      Zamkowska, Dorota; Karwacka, Anetta; Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-05-11)
      Some of the recent publications have reported a decline in semen quality in the last few decades. This phenomenon is associated with environmental factors, particularly with exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The aim of this publication is to critically review the literature on exposure to the following 6 ubiquitous environmental non-persistent EDCs: bisphenol A, triclosan, parabens, synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphate pesticides and phthalates, and on their influence on semen quality measured as sperm concentration, sperm volume, total sperm count, motility, total motile count, morphology, sperm motion, sperm DNA damage (comet extent, tail length, tail distributed moment, percent of DNA located in the tail (tail%), DNA fragmentation index, high DNA stainability, X:Y ratio and aneuploidy. Several electronic databases were systematically searched until 31 August 2016. Studies were qualified for the review if they: linked environmental exposure to non-persistent EDCs to semen quality outcomes, were published in English after 2006 (and, in the case of phthalates, if they were published after 2009) and were conducted in the case of humans. Out of the 970 references, 45 articles were included in the review. This review adds to the body of evidence that exposure to non-persistent EDCs may affect semen quality parameters and decrease semen quality.
    • Environmental levels of triclosan and male fertility.

      Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Wielgomas, Bartosz; Kałużny, Paweł; Klimowska, Anna; Radwan, Paweł; Hanke, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2017-12-07)
      Triclosan is a synthetic chemical with broad antimicrobial activity that has been used extensively in consumer products, including personal care products, textiles, and plastic kitchenware, although the exposure which is widespread evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between triclosan exposure and male fertility. Triclosan (TCS) urinary concentrations were measured using gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in 315 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic with normal sperm concentration (≥ 15 mln/ml) (WHO 2010) under 45 years of age. Participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. TCS was detected in 84.13% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 2.83 μg/l (2.57 μg/g creatinine). A multiple linear regression analysis showed a positive association between the urinary concentrations of triclosan 50th-75th percentile and ≥ 50 percentile and percentage of sperm with abnormal morphology (p = 0.016 and p = 0.002, respectively). The study provides evidence that exposure to triclosan is associated with poorer semen quality. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings.
    • Environmental non-persistent endocrine-disrupting chemicals exposure and reproductive hormones levels in adult men

      Dziewirska, Emila; Hanke, Wojciech; Jurewicz, Joanna; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-09-18)
      Non-persistent endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous, man-made substances present in the environment that may interfere with the natural human hormones and may exert adverse consequences on human organism. Endocrinedisrupting chemicals have been suspected to be associated with altered reproductive function in the case of males and females. Environmental endocrine-disrupting non-persistent chemicals like parabens, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphate pesticides are found in various products such as metal food cans, plastic bottles, detergents, personal care products or chemicals used for fighting against insects. The widespread distribution of these chemicals causes that humans are permanently exposed through multiple sources. The aim of this review is to summarize data linking non-persistent endocrine-disrupting chemicals exposure, and human, male reproductive hormones levels. The included studies were selected by searched PubMed, Web of Science and MEDLINE, original papers published from 2006 to 2016 and referring to human data were included to the review. The results of reviewed studies were not consistent, however, majority of the studies indicated that non-persistent EDCs may affect male reproductive hormones levels. Most findings suggest that exposure to environmental EDCs is negatively related to the level of testosterone (except for exposure to BPA which is positively associated). In most of the studies negative association was found between exposure to examined EDCs and free androgen index, too. Considering the suggested health effect of exposure to EDCs, more epidemiological data is needed.
    • Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Pregnancy and Child Neurodevelopment.

      Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Ligocka, Danuta; Mikolajewska, Karolina; Mirabella, Fiorino; Chiarotti, Flavia; Calamandrei, Gemma; Hanke, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2017-07-17)
      The developing fetus is especially vulnerable to environmental toxicants, including tobacco constituents. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during pregnancy on child neurodevelopment within the first two years of life. The study population consisted of 461 non-smoking pregnant women (saliva cotinine level <10 ng/mL). Maternal passive smoking was assessed based on the cotinine level in saliva analyzed by the use of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS) and by questionnaire data. The cotinine cut-off value for passive smoking was established at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). Psychomotor development was assessed in children at the age of one- and two-years using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. Approximately 30% of the women were exposed to ETS during pregnancy. The multivariate linear regression model indicated that ETS exposure in the 1st and the 2nd trimesters of pregnancy were associated with decreasing child language functions at the age of one (β = -3.0, p = 0.03, and β = -4.1, p = 0.008, respectively), and two years (β = -3.8, p = 0.05, and β = -6.3, p = 0.005, respectively). A negative association was found for cotinine level ≥1.5 ng/mL in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy and child cognition at the age of 2 (β = -4.6, p = 0.05), as well as cotinine levels ≥1.5 ng/mL in all trimesters of pregnancy and child motor abilities at two years of age (β = -3.9, p = 0.06, β = -5.3, p = 0.02, and β = -4.2, p = 0.05, for the 1st, the 2nd, and the 3rd trimester of pregnancy, respectively; for the 1st trimester the effect was of borderline statistical significance). This study confirmed that ETS exposure during pregnancy can have a negative impact on child psychomotor development within the first two years of life and underscore the importance of public health interventions aiming at reducing this exposure.
    • The ESR1 and GPX1 gene expression level in human malignant and non-malignant breast tissues.

      Król, Magdalena B; Galicki, Michał; Grešner, Peter; Wieczorek, Edyta; Jablonska, Ewa; Reszka, Edyta; Morawiec, Zbigniew; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2018-03-15)
      The aim of this study was to establish whether the gene expression of estrogen receptor alpha (encoded by ESR1) correlates with the expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (encoded by GPX1) in the tumor and adjacent tumor-free breast tissue, and whether this correlation is affected by breast cancer. Such relationships may give further insights into breast cancer pathology with respect to the status of estrogen receptor.