• Deriving the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Score in Women from Seven Pregnancy Cohorts from the European ALPHABET Consortium.

      Aubert, Adrien M; Forhan, Anne; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Chen, Ling-Wei; Polanska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Mensink-Bout, Sara M; Duijts, Liesbeth; Suderman, Matthew; et al. (2019-11-08)
      The ALPHABET consortium aims to examine the interplays between maternal diet quality, epigenetics and offspring health in seven pregnancy/birth cohorts from five European countries. We aimed to use the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score to assess diet quality, but different versions have been published. To derive a single DASH score allowing cross-country, cross-cohort and cross-period comparison and limiting data heterogeneity within the ALPHABET consortium, we harmonised food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data collected before and during pregnancy in ≥26,500 women. Although FFQs differed strongly in length and content, we derived a consortium DASH score composed of eight food components by combining the prescriptive original DASH and the DASH described by Fung et al. Statistical issues tied to the nature of the FFQs led us to re-classify two food groups (grains and dairy products). Most DASH food components exhibited pronounced between-cohort variability, including non-full-fat dairy products (median intake ranging from 0.1 to 2.2 servings/day), sugar-sweetened beverages/sweets/added sugars (0.3–1.7 servings/day), fruits (1.1–3.1 servings/day), and vegetables (1.5–3.6 servings/day). We successfully developed a harmonized DASH score adapted to all cohorts being part of the ALPHABET consortium. This methodological work may benefit other research teams in adapting the DASH to their study’s specificities.
    • Determinants of phthalate exposure and risk assessment in children from Poland.

      Garí, Mercè; Koch, Holger M; Pälmke, Claudia; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Wesołowska, Ewelina; Hanke, Wojciech; Nowak, Dennis; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Polańska, Kinga; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-04-16)
      Phthalates are a group of widely used chemicals and humans are exposed to them in their daily life. Some phthalates may affect the hormonal balance in both children and adults. The aim of this study was to assess the phthalate exposure and its determinants among children at age of 7 years from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL). 250 urine samples collected in 2014-2015 were analysed for 21 metabolites of 11 parent phthalates using on-line high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). This represents the most extensive set of phthalate metabolites ever determined for Poland. Ten metabolites were quantifiable in 100% of the samples, another eight in >90%. The highest median concentrations were found for the primary monoester metabolites of di-iso-butyl (MiBP, 72.4 μg/l), di-n-butyl (MnBP, 56.3 μg/l) and diethyl (MEP, 42.0 μg/l) phthalate, followed by the sum of di-2-ethylhexyl (ΣDEHP, 89.3 μg/l) and di-iso-nonyl (ΣDiNP, 21.9 μg/l) phthalate metabolites. Metabolite concentrations were higher in children at 7 years than in the same children at age 2 or in their mothers during pregnancy. Generally, phthalate exposures in this study were much higher than exposures reported in other European populations. Multivariate regression models showed that body mass index, place of residence, breastfeeding duration, socio-economic status and parental education were associated with the metabolite levels in the 7-year old children. Daily intake and hazard index calculations revealed that a small percentage of children (around 3-10%) exceeded the tolerable daily intakes established by international institutions such as EFSA and U.S. EPA indicating that these children might be at risk of anti-androgenic effects from the individual and cumulative exposure to phthalates. Thus, further monitoring of this population, by educational programs and follow-up interventions, is required.
    • Development and validation of the Psychosocial Risks Questionnaire for Musicians (PRQM)

      Jacukowicz, Aleksandra; Wezyk, Agata; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2017-06)
      Despite the constantly growing exposure to psychosocial hazards as well as their health and occupational consequences, research on psychosocial risks among musicians is exceptionally scarce. Moreover, previous studies on psychosocial risks and occupational stress among professional musicians have used a wide variety of measurement methods. The questionnaire we have developed assesses both the occurrence and stressfulness of particular work demands. Thus, it includes the “potential harm” caused by particular work aspects, described in the World Health Organization definition of psychosocial risks. Our questionnaire allows for measuring the general index of the occurrence and stressfulness of psychosocial risks in musicians’ work places, but also the occurrence and stressfulness of eight distinct categories of psychosocial risks: Job Content, Work Environment, Work-Home Interference, Relationships, Lack of Stability, Development Possibilities, Home-Work Interference, and Tools. The Psychosocial Risks Questionnaire for Musicians (PRQM) has satisfactory reliability (Cronbach’s alpha for the whole scale is 0.89 and from 0.74 to 0.86 for particular subscales). The PRQM correlates significantly with self-assessed work demands and stress symptoms (positive relationships) as well as with self-assessed physical and mental condition, control at work and coping ability (negative relationships).
    • Developmental toxicity of N-methylaniline following prenatal oral administration in rats

      Sitarek, Krystyna; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Stetkiewicz, Jan; Lutz, Piotr; Krol, Magdalena; Domeradzka-Gajda, Katarzyna; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2016)
      Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess prenatal toxicity of N-methylaniline (NMA) administered by gavage to pregnant female rats. Material and Methods: Pregnant female rats were administered N-methylaniline in corn oil by gavage at daily doses of 0.8 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.), 4 mg/kg b.w., 20 mg/kg b.w. and 100 mg/kg b.w. from implantation (the 5th day post mating) to the day prior to the scheduled caesarean section (the 20th day of pregnancy). General behavior, body weight, food and water consumption, hematological, biochemical analyses and pathomorphological changes of the dams were recorded. Results: All the females survived until the end of the study. The test substance was toxic to pregnant females, even at the lowest of the used doses, i.e., 0.8 mg/kg b.w./day. Lower weight gain during pregnancy and significantly higher NMA-dose-dependent absolute weight of the organs were noted in the exposed females. The females from the groups exposed at doses of 20 mg/kg b.w./day and 100 mg/kg b.w./day developed anemia and showed higher concentrations of free thyroxine (FT3) and free triiodothyronine (FT4) thyroid hormones. Total protein concentration exhibited an increase in all the exposed groups of females. In the prenatal toxicity study, administration of N-methylaniline throughout the embryonic and fetal periods produced embryotoxic effects at doses ranging 4–100 mg/kg b.w./day. Conclusions: Considering the data obtained in this study, it is reasonable to assume that N-methylaniline administered orally to pregnant rats is toxic for mothers even at a low dose of 0.8 mg/kg b.w./day. However, this dose was not associated with any significant effects to their offspring. This prenatal exposure level may be considered as no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for the progeny and a dose of 4 mg/kg b.w./day as the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) for the progeny.
    • Dextromethorphan recreational use and poisoning – the social and psychological background

      Koziarska-Rościszewska, Małgorzata; Piątek, Aleksandra; Kobza-Sindlewska, Katarzyna; Krakowiak, Michał; Winnicka, Renata; Krakowiak, Anna; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018)
    • Diagnostic guidlines for occupational epicondylitis

      Krawczyk-Szulc, Patrycja; Wagrowska-Koski, Ewa; Puzder, Anna; Markowski, Przemyslaw; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Regional Center of Occupational Medicine Prophylactic and Therapeutic Center in Lodz, Łódź, Poland; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland; Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland; (2015)
      Making final decisions on the occupational etiology of musculoskeletal diseases is often difficult and problematic at every stage of the diagnostic procedure. Taking into account the need to facilitate decision-making about the causal relationship between the diagnosed disease entity and the working conditions guidelines for the recognition of work-related musculoskeletal diseases have been developed. This paper presents the guidelines for the diagnosis of occupational etiology of humeral epicondylitis, one of the most common occupational disease of the musculoskeletal system in Poland. The developed guidelines have been based on the literature data concerning occupational risk factors of humeral epicondylitis, workload classification, including repetitive movements, awkward postures, and force. Some criteria applied in ergonomic evaluation methods were also included. The presented diagnostic guidelines define approximate benchmarks for stating (after excluding non-occupational etiology) that the identified humeral epicondylitis, is related to the way of working. Crucial work factors that should be analyzed include an operating time of movements overloading tendons connecting to the epicondyle, repetition and force used to perform occupational activities. The developed guidelines are aimed to facilitate occupational physicians diagnostic and certification procedures in case of humeral epicondylitis and determination whether there is a likelihood of its occupational etiology.
    • The diet structure and body mass index among Polish preschool children in relation to their place of residence.

      Potocka, Adrianna; Jacukowicz, Aleksandra; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018)
      Proper nutritional status in early childhood makes it possible for children to achieve their genetically-determined growth potential and intelligence. A child's nutritional status is due to economic, cultural, psychosocial and geographic factors. The present study aims to check whether the nutritional status of preschoolers differs depending on their place of residence.
    • Dietary habits and myocardial infarction in occupationally active men.

      Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Szyjkowska, Agata; Viebig, Piotr; Wranicz, Jerzy Krzysztof; Kurpesa, Małgorzata; Trzos, Ewa; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-11-15)
      Only a few studies have been undertaken to analyze the dietary habits of people with cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary behaviors of working people who were hospitalized due to experiencing the first acute cardiovascular incident. Material and Methods: In the study, the Functional Activity Questionnaire was used. The study was conducted in 2 groups. The first group included all the men hospitalized during 1 year (January–December 2009) in 2 clinics of cardiology, who were professionally active until the first myocardial infarction (MI). It comprised 243 men aged 26–70 years. The reference group consisted of 403 men, blue- and white-collar workers, aged 35–65 years. Results: The body mass index of the MI patients was significantly higher (p = 0.006). The frequency of consumption of particular products in the MI group and in the reference group differed significantly for 11 of 21 products. The MI patients significantly less frequently reported the daily consumption of fruit, raw vegetables, cheese, vegetable oils and fish. In this group, the consumption of salty (p = 0.0226) or fatty (p < 0.0001) foods was significantly higher. It was shown that, after adjusting for age, education and the type of work, the daily consumption of fish, salads and cooked vegetables, as well as fruit and vegetable oils, significantly reduced the risk of myocardial infarction. An increased MI risk was, in turn, associated with obesity and preference for fatty foods. Conclusions: The authors found that diet significantly modified the MI risk in the examined workers. This indicates that an important aspect of prevention activities among working people should involve education about proper dietary habits
    • Dietary Inflammatory Index and Non-Communicable Disease Risk: A Narrative Review.

      Phillips, Catherine M; Chen, Ling-Wei; Heude, Barbara; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Harvey, Nicholas C; Duijts, Liesbeth; Mensink-Bout, Sara M; Polanska, Kinga; Mancano, Giulia; Suderman, Matthew; et al. (2019-08-12)
      There are over 1,000,000 publications on diet and health and over 480,000 references on inflammation in the National Library of Medicine database. In addition, there have now been over 30,000 peer-reviewed articles published on the relationship between diet, inflammation, and health outcomes. Based on this voluminous literature, it is now recognized that low-grade, chronic systemic inflammation is associated with most non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, cancers, respiratory and musculoskeletal disorders, as well as impaired neurodevelopment and adverse mental health outcomes. Dietary components modulate inflammatory status. In recent years, the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), a literature-derived dietary index, was developed to characterize the inflammatory potential of habitual diet. Subsequently, a large and rapidly growing body of research investigating associations between dietary inflammatory potential, determined by the DII, and risk of a wide range of NCDs has emerged. In this narrative review, we examine the current state of the science regarding relationships between the DII and cancer, cardiometabolic, respiratory and musculoskeletal diseases, neurodevelopment, and adverse mental health outcomes. We synthesize the findings from recent studies, discuss potential underlying mechanisms, and look to the future regarding novel applications of the adult and children's DII (C-DII) scores and new avenues of investigation in this field of nutritional research.
    • Dietary Patterns and Their Relationship With Semen Quality.

      Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-05)
      Diet is a complex exposure variable, which calls for multiple approaches to examine the relationship between diet and disease risk. To address these issues, several authors have recently proposed studying overall dietary patterns by considering how foods and nutrients are consumed in combinations. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between dietary patterns, semen quality parameters, and the level of reproductive hormones. The study population consisted of 336 men who attended the infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes and who had normal semen concentration of 20 to 300 mln/ml or slight oligozoospermia (semen concentration of 15-20 mln/ml). Participants were interviewed, and a semen sample was provided by them. Diet was assessed via food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Men were classified into three groups according to scores of each dietary pattern: Western, Mixed, or Prudent. A positive association was observed between sperm concentration and Prudent dietary pattern, and level of testosterone and Prudent dietary pattern ( p = .05, p = .03, respectively). Additionally, Prudent dietary pattern was identified to decrease the DNA fragmentation index ( p = .05). The results were adjusted for sexual abstinence, age, smoking, past diseases, and alcohol consumption. Higher consumption of a Prudent dietary pattern was associated with higher sperm concentration and higher level of testosterone. Sperm chromatin structure was inversely related to higher consumption of a Prudent dietary pattern. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and extend these results to other populations.
    • Differences in nutritional status of preschool children in the context of the maternal social characteristics.

      Potocka, Adrianna; Jacukowicz, Aleksandra; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2017-07-14)
      It is generally accepted that maternal factors are important in maintaining the adequate nutritional status of young children. This study was aimed at verifying whether mother's socio-demographic (age and relationship status) and socio-economic features (education and professional status) differentiate the child's nutritional status.
    • The distribution and excretion of 1-Methylnaphthalene in rats exposed to 1-Methylnaphthalene by inhalation.

      Świercz, Radosław; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-12-20)
      1-Methylnaphthalene (1-MN) is a constituent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the chemicals that have become ubiquitous in the environment as result of natural and industrial process. This paper reports a study on the distribution and excretion of 1-MN in rats after single and repeated inhalation exposure to 1-MN vapor. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 1-MN vapor at nominal concentrations of 50 mg/m3 or 200 mg/m3 in the dynamic inhalation chambers (TSE Systems Head Nose Only Exposure) for 6 h (single exposure) or 5 days (6 h/day, repeated exposure). Blood, urine and tissue samples were collected during and after the exposure. Blood, urine and tissue concentrations of 1-MN were estimated by gas chromatography using the headspace technique. The elimination of 1-MN from blood followed an open 2-compartment model. The concentration in rat tissues was dependent on the magnitude and time of exposure. After repeated exposure, the concentration 1-MN in tissue decreased in comparison to single exposure. The elimination of 1-MN with urine after single and repeated exposure to 1-MN occurred mainly in the samples collected during the first day of collection. 1-Methylnaphthalene was rapidly eliminated from the blood and tissues of animals exposed by inhalation to 1-MN. In repeated exposure, there was probably a significant increase of 1-MN metabolism in rats exposed to low and high 1-MN doses. Under conditions of repeated 1-MN exposure, no significant systemic 1-MN accumulation could be observed. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(6):763-770.
    • Do hearing threshold levels in workers of the furniture industry reflect their exposure to noise?

      Pawlaczyk-Luszczynska, Malgorzata; Dudarewicz, Adam; Czaja, Norman; Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland; Przychodnia „Mój Lekarz” / Out-Patient Clinic “Mój Lekarz”, Brodnica, Poland (2016)
      Background: The aim of the study was to analyze the hearing status of employees of a furniture factory with respect to their exposure to noise and the presence of additional risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Material and Methods: Noise measurements, questionnaire survey and assessment of hearing, using pure tone audiometry, were carried out in 50 male workers, aged 20–57 years, directly employed in the manufacture of furniture. The actual workers’ hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were compared with the predictions calculated according to PN-ISO 1999:2000 based on age, gender and noise exposure. Results: Workers under study were exposed to noise at daily noise exposure levels of 82.7–94.8 dB (mean: 90.9 dB) for a period of 3–14 years. In all subjects, mean HTL at 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz and 4000 Hz did not exceed 25 dB. Nevertheless, high frequency notches were found in 11% of audiograms. The actual workers’ HTLs at 3000–6000 Hz were similar to those predicted using PN-ISO 1999:2000. There were statistical significant differences between HTLs in subgroups of people with higher (> 78 mm Hg) and lower (≤ 78 mm Hg) diastolic blood pressure, smokers and non-smokers, and those working with organic solvents. Hearing loss was more evident in subjects affected by the additional risk factors specified above. Conclusions: The results confirm the need to consider, in addition to noise, also some other NIHL risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, elevated blood pressure, and co-exposure to organic solvents when estimating the risk of NIHL and developing the hearing conservation programs for workers.
    • Does the air condition system in busses spread allergic fungi into driver space?

      Sowiak, Malgorzata; Kozajda, Anna; Jezak, Karolina; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2017-12-05)
      The aim of this study was to establish whether the air-conditioning system in buses constitutes an additional source of indoor air contamination with fungi, and whether or not the fungi concentration depends on the period from the last disinfection of the system, combined with replacement of the cabin dust particle filter. The air samples to fungi analysis using impact method were taken in 30 buses (20 with an air-conditioning system, ACS; 10 with a ventilation system, VS) in two series: 1 and 22 weeks after cabin filter replacement and disinfection of the air-conditioning system. During one test in each bus were taken two samples: before the air-conditioning or ventilation system switched on and 6 min after operating of these systems. The atmospheric air was the external background (EB). After 1 week of use of the system, the fungi concentrations before starting of the ACS and VS system were 527.8 and 1053.0 cfu/m3, respectively, and after 22 weeks the concentrations were 351.9 and 1069.6 cfu/m3, respectively. While in the sample after 6 min of ACS and VS system operating, the fungi concentration after 1 week of use was 127.6 and 233.7 cfu/m3, respectively, and after 22 weeks it was 113.3 and 324.9 cfu/m3, respectively. Results do not provide strong evidence that air-conditioning system is an additional source of indoor air contamination with fungi. A longer operation of the system promoted increase of fungi concentration in air-conditioned buses only.
    • Duration of breastfeeding and psychomotor development in 1-year-old children - Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study.

      Stelmach, Iwona; Kwarta, Paulina; Jerzyńska, Joanna; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Krakowiak, Jan; Karbownik, Michał; Podlecka, Daniela; Hanke, Wojciech; Polańska, Kinga; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-04-03)
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between breastfeeding duration and child neurodevelopment based on the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. The current analysis included 501 mother-child pairs. The analysis evaluating the association between the length of breastfeeding and child neurodevelopment considered the following variables: maternal age and body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy, parental level of education, marital status, socioeconomic status, child gender, birthweight, type of delivery, preterm delivery, pre- and postnatal exposure to tobacco constituents and child day care attendance. Psychomotor development was assessed in 1-year-olds on the <i>Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development</i>. The length of breastfeeding correlated positively with maternal age at delivery (ρ = 0.13), maternal and paternal level of education (ρ = 0.2 and ρ = 0.14 respectively), birthweight (ρ = 0.1) and marital status (ρ = 0.16) (p < 0.05). A negative correlation between the length of breastfeeding and maternal smoking status during the first year after delivery (ρ = -0.19) and weight gain during pregnancy (r = -0.1) was observed (p < 0.05). The association between the duration of breastfeeding and child development was not statistically significant in the model with the inclusion of confounding variables. A significant association between language development and maternal level of education (p = 0.004), gender of the child (p = 0.0007) and maternal weight gain during pregnancy (p = 0.01) was found. A negative association between cognitive development and maternal salivary cotinine during pregnancy (p = 0.03) and a negative association between motor development and maternal smoking status during the first year after delivery (p = 0.007) were also found. This study found no significant association between the duration of breastfeeding and child development after adjustment for confounders. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(2):175-84.
    • An ecohydrological approach to the river contamination by PCDDs, PCDFs and dl-PCBs - concentrations, distribution and removal using phytoremediation techniques.

      Urbaniak, M; Kiedrzyńska, E; Wyrwicka, A; Zieliński, M; Mierzejewska, E; Kiedrzyński, M; Kannan, K; Zalewski, M; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-12-17)
      The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in the Pilica River and Sulejów Reservoir were found to be 46% higher during the flood season than during stable flow periods. In addition, PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB mass loads increased by 5- to 12-fold and by 23- to 60-fold for toxic equivalency (TEQ) during flooding. The Sulejów Reservoir was found to play a positive role in reducing PCDD, PCDF and dl-PCB transport within the study period, with reductions ranging from 17 to 83% for total concentrations, and 33 to 79% for TEQ. Wastewater Treatment Plants (WTPs) were not efficient at mass concentration removal, with small displaying the least efficiency. WTPs discharge pollutants into the aquatic environment, they also produce sludge that requires disposal, similar to reservoir sediments. Sludge- or sediment-born PCDDs, PCDFs and dl-PCBs may be removed using phytoremediation. The cultivation of cucumber and zucchini, two efficient phytoremediators of organic pollutants, on polluted substrate resulted in a mean decrease in PCDD + PCDF + dl-PCB TEQ concentrations: 64% for cucumber and 69% for zucchini in sludge-amended soil, and by 52% for cucumber and 51% for zucchini in sediment-amended soil.
    • Effect of Arsenic Exposure on NRF2-KEAP1 Pathway and Epigenetic Modification.

      Janasik, Beata; Reszka, Edyta; Stanislawska, Magdalena; Jablonska, Ewa; Kuras, Renata; Wieczorek, Edyta; Malachowska, Beata; Fendler, Wojciech; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2017-12-15)
      Arsenic (As) is a known toxic element and carcinogen. Transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) controls cellular adaptation to oxidants and electrophiles by inducing antioxidant genes in response to redox stress. To explore associations between As level and NRF2-regulated cytoprotective genes expression, an observational study was conducted in a population of 61 occupationally exposed men with median (Me) age 50 years (interquartile range (IQR) 42-54) and in a control group of 52 men aged 40 (IQR 31-51.5) without occupational exposure. NRF2, KEAP1, GSTP1, HMOX1, NQO1, PRDX1, and TXNRD1 transcript levels were determined by means of quantitative real-time PCR along with the gene expression, methylation of NRF2 and KEAP1, as well as global DNA methylation were assessed. The median urine As tot. level in the exposed and control group was found to be 21.8 μg/g creat. (IQR 15.5-39.8 μg/g creat.) and 3.8 μg/g creat. (IQR 2.5-9.3) (p < 0.001). Global DNA methylation was significantly higher in occupationally exposed workers than in controls (Me 14.1 (IQR 9.5-18.1) vs Me 8.5 (IQR 5.9-12.6) p < 0.0001). NRF2 mRNA level was positively correlated with expression of all investigated NRF2-target genes in both groups (0.37 > R < 0.76, all p values < 0.0001). The multivariate linear regression adjusting for global methylation showed that As(III) level was significantly associated with expression of TXNRD1, GSTP1, HMOX1, and PRDX1. The results of this study indicate that arsenic occupational exposure is positively associated with global DNA methylation. The findings provide evidence for rather inactivation of NRF2-KEAP1 pathway in response to chronic arsenic exposure.
    • Effect of environmental phthalate exposure on pregnancy duration and birth outcomes

      Polanska, Kinga; Ligocka, Danuta; Sobala, Wojciech; Hanke, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2016)
      Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of phthalate exposure on pregnancy duration and birth outcomes based on the Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL). Material and Methods: Phthalate exposure was determined by measuring 11 phthalate metabolites (mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), 3OH-mono-n-butyl phthalate (OH-MnBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono‑(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-hydroxy-iso-nonyl phthalate (MHiNP), mono-oxo-iso-nonyl phthalate (MOiNP), and mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP)) in the urine collected from 165 mothers during the third trimester of pregnancy by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The following measures at birth were considered: gestational age, birth weight, length as well as head and chest circumference. Results: Pregnancy duration was inversely associated with natural log concentrations (μg/g creatinine) of MEP (standardized regression coefficient (β) = –0.2, p = 0.04) after adjustment for a variety of confounders. Significant impact of MOiNP on head circumference (β = –0.1, p = 0.05) was also observed. Conclusions: The study findings add further support to the hypothesis that phthalate exposure may be associated with shorter pregnancy duration and a decreased head circumference, and underscore importance of public health interventions to reduce that exposure.
    • The effect of prenatal exposure on disposition of hexachloronaphthalene in female Wistar rats and fetal compartment.

      Stragierowicz, Joanna; Sitarek, Krystyna; Grobelski, Bartłomiej; Kilanowicz, Anna; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-10-24)
      Due to structural and toxicological similarities to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were included in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in 2015. Hexachloronaphthalene (HxCN) is considered to be one of the most toxic congeners of PCNs. The objective of this study was to determine the maternal and fetal tissue concentrations of hexachloronaphthalene after a single administration.
    • The effect of repeated cadmium oral exposure on the level of sex hormones, estrous cyclicity, and endometrium morphometry in female rats.

      Nasiadek, Marzenna; Danilewicz, Marian; Sitarek, Krystyna; Świątkowska, Ewa; Daragó, Adam; Stragierowicz, Joanna; Kilanowicz, Anna; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-10)
      Cadmium (Cd) is regarded as a potential endocrine disruptor. However, the exact mechanism by which this metal may interfere with the reproductive system has not yet been elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of subacute Cd oral administration at daily doses of 0.09, 1.8, and 4.5 mgCd/kg b.w. and the impact of Cd on sex hormones (estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P)) in the plasma and uterus, as well as on estrous cyclicity and histopathological changes in uterine and ovary in female rats after terminating the exposure and after a prolonged observation period (3 months). Moreover, Cd bioaccumulation in the uterine and brain tissue of rats was analyzed. The study revealed that oral Cd exposure induced changes in the plasma levels of steroid hormones: decrease in E2 and increase in P after the highest dose of Cd. Probably, for the first time, it was evidenced that circulation sex hormone disturbances in Cd-exposed rats caused irregular estrous cycle, persisting for 3 months after exposure termination; no alterations in these hormone levels in uterine tissue were noted. Cd did not induce estradiol-like hyperplasia of endometrium, but resulted in endometrial edema irrespective of the dose, and caused damage of the ovaries after the highest dose. In summary, subacute oral exposure of female rats to Cd may lead to long-term disturbances in reproductive system.