• Badanie czynnościowe osób z zawrotami głowy i zaburzeniami równowagi dla potrzeb medycyny pracy.

      Zamysłowska-Szmytke, Ewa; Szostek-Rogula, Sylwia; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2018-03-09)
      Balance assessment relies on symptoms, clinical examination and functional assessment and their verification in objective tests. Our study was aimed at calculating the assessment compatibility between questionnaires, functional scales and objective vestibular and balance examinations.
    • Bedside examination for vestibular screening in occupational medicine.

      Zamysłowska-Szmytke, Ewa; Szostek-Rogula, Sylwia; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland; Rehabilitation Center “Repty”, Tarnowskie Góry, Poland (2015-03-17)
      Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of bedside examination for screening of vestibular and balance system for occupational medicine purposes. Study group comprised 165 patients referred to Audiology and Phoniatric Clinic due to vestibular and/or balance problems. Caloric canal paresis of 19% was the cut off value to divide patients into 43 caloric-positive vestibular subjects and 122 caloric-negative patients. The latter group comprised 79 subjects revealing abnormalities of videonystagmographic (VNG) oculomotor tests (central group) and 43 subjects with normal VNG. Material and Methods: Vestibular and balance symptoms were collected. Five tests were included to bedside examination: Romberg and Unterberger tests, Head Impulse Test (HIT), Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) and gaze nystagmus assessment. Results: Vestibular and balance symptoms were reported by 82% of vestibular, 73% of central and 40% of VNG-normal patients. Thirteen out of 18 VNG-normal but symptomatic subjects (73%) had abnormal tests in clinical assessment. The sensitivity of bedside test set for vestibular pathology was 88% as compared to caloric test and 68% for central pathology as compared to VNG oculomotor tests. Conclusions: The combination of 5 bedside tests reveal satisfactory sensitivity to detect vestibular abnormalities. Bedside examination abnormalities are highly correlated with vestibular/balance symptoms, regardless the normal results of VNG. Thus, this method should be recommended for occupational medicine purposes.
    • Bezpomiarowa ocena narazenia na dzialanie substancji chemicznych przez kontakt ze skora w srodowisku pracy.

      Jankowska, Agnieszka; Czerczak, Slawomir; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2017-06-27)
      Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the principles of the selected model functioning. This paper presents examples of models to assist the employer in the the assessment of occupational exposure associated with the skin contact with chemicals, developed in European Union (EU) countries, as well as in countries outside the EU. Based on the literature data dermal exposure models EASE (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure), COSHH Essentials (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations), DREAM (Dermal Exposure Assessment Method), Stoffenmanager , ECETOC TRA (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment), MEASE (Metal's EASE), PHED (Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database), DERM (Dermal Exposure Ranking Method) and RISKOFDERM (Risk Assessment of Occupational Dermal Exposure to Chemicals) were briefly described. Moreover the characteristics of RISKOFDERM, guidelines for its use, information on input and output data were further detailed. Problem of full work shift dermal exposure assessment is described. An example of exposure assessment using RISKOFDERM and effectiveness evaluation to date were also presented. When no measurements are available, RISKOFDERM allows dermal exposure assessment and thus can improve the risk assessment quality and effectiveness of dermal risk management. Med Pr 2017;68(4):557-569.
    • Bilateral hypermobility of ulnar nerves at the elbow joint with unilateral left ulnar neuropathy in a computer user – A case study

      Lewanska, Magdalena; Grzegorzewski, Andrzej; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland; Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland (2015)
      Occupational ulnar neuropathy at the elbow joint develops in the course of long term direct pressure on the nerve and a persistently flexed elbow posture, but first of all, it is strongly associated with “holding a tool in a certain position” repetitively. Therefore, computer work only in exceptional cases can be considered as a risk factor for the neuropathy. Ulnar hypermobility at the elbow might be one of the risk factors in the development of occupational ulnar neuropathy; however, this issue still remains disputable. As this condition is mostly of congenital origin, an additional factor, such as a direct acute or chronic professional or non-professional trauma, is needed for clinical manifestations. We describe a patient – a computer user with a right ulnar nerve complete dislocation and left ulnar nerve hypermobility, unaware of her anomaly until symptoms of left ulnar neuropathy occurred in the course of job exposure. The patient was exposed to repetitive long lasting pressure of the left elbow and forearm on the hard support on the cupboard and desk because of a non-ergonomically designed workplace. The additional coexistent congenital abnormal displacement of the ulnar nerve from the postcondylar groove during flexion at the elbow increased the possibility of its mechanical injury. We recognized left ulnar neuropathy at the ulnar groove as an occupational disease. An early and accurate diagnosis of any form of hypermobility of ulnar nerve, informing patients about it, prevention of an ulnar nerve injury as well as compliance with ergonomic rules are essential to avoid development of occupational and non-occupational neuropathy.
    • [Biological agents intentionally used in Poland based on data from the National Register Of Biological Agents].

      Kozajda, Anna; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-08-20)
      Paper presents the intentional use of biological agents for industrial, diagnostic and research purposes in enterprises in Poland.
    • Biological monitoring and the influence of genetic polymorphism of As3MT and GSTs on distribution of urinary arsenic species in occupational exposure workers.

      Janasik, Beata; Reszka, Edyta; Stanislawska, Magdalena; Wieczorek, Edyta; Fendler, Wojciech; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland; Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland; Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland (2015)
      Purpose To examine the differences in urinary arsenic metabolism patterns in men affected by occupational exposure, we performed a study on 149 participants—workers of a copper mill and 52 healthy controls without occupational exposure. To elucidate the role of genetic factors in arsenic (As) metabolism, we studied the associations of six polymorphisms: As3MT Met287Thr (T>C) in exon 9; As3MT A>G in 5′UTR; As3MT C>G in intron 6; As3MT T>G in intron 1; GSTP1 Ile105Val and GSTO2 T>C. Methods Air samples were collected using individual samplers during work shift. Urine samples were analyzed for total arsenic and arsenic chemical forms (AsIII; AsV, MMA, DMA, AsB) using HPLC–ICP-MS. A specific polymerase chain reaction was done for the amplification of exons and flanking regions of As3MT and GSTs. Results The geometric mean arsenic concentrations in the air were 27.6 ± 4.9 μg/m3. A significant correlation (p < 0.05) was observed between arsenic in air and sum of iAs +MMA and iAs. As3MT (rs3740400) GG homozygotes showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher %iAs (21.8 ± 2.0) in urine than GC+CC heterozygotes (16.0 ± 2.1). A strong association between the gene variants and As species in urine was observed for GSTO2 (rs156697) polymorphism. Conclusions The findings of the study point out that the concentration of iAs or the sum of iAs + MMA in urine can be a reliable biological indicator of occupational exposure to arsenic. This study demonstrates that As3MT and/ or GSTs genotype may influence As metabolism. Nevertheless, further studies investigating genetic polymorphism in occupational conditions are required.
    • Biomarkers of exposure in environment-wide association studies - Opportunities to decode the exposome using human biomonitoring data.

      Steckling, Nadine; Gotti, Alberto; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Chapizanis, Dimitris; Costopoulou, Danae; De Vocht, Frank; Garí, Mercè; Grimalt, Joan O; Heath, Ester; Hiscock, Rosemary; et al. (2018-04-04)
      The European Union's 7th Framework Programme (EU's FP7) project HEALS - Health and Environment-wide Associations based on Large Population Surveys - aims a refinement of the methodology to elucidate the human exposome. Human biomonitoring (HBM) provides a valuable tool for understanding the magnitude of human exposure from all pathways and sources. However, availability of specific biomarkers of exposure (BoE) is limited.
    • Biomarkers of selenium status and antioxidant effect in workers occupationally exposed to mercury.

      Kuras, Renata; Reszka, Edyta; Wieczorek, Edyta; Jablonska, Ewa; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Malachowska, Beata; Kozlowska, Lucyna; Stanislawska, Magdalena; Janasik, Beata; Wasowicz, Wojciech; et al. (2018-09)
      The present observation based research was designed to evaluate the influence of occupational human exposure to metallic mercury (Hg°) vapor on the biomarkers of selenium status involved in the antioxidant defense system. For this purpose we determined Hg and selenium (Se) concentrations in body fluids, the markers of antioxidant effect measured as an activity of Se-dependent enzymes (red blood cell and plasma glutathione peroxidase: GPx1-RBC and GPx3-P), concentration of selenoprotein P in the plasma (SeP-P) and total antioxidant activity in the plasma (TAA-P) in 131 male workers from a chloralkali plant exposed to Hg° and 67 non-exposed males (control group). The mRNA expression levels of glutathione peroxidases (GPX1, GPX3), selenoprotein P (SEPP1), thioredoxin reductase 1 (TRXR1), thioredoxin 1 (TRX1), peroxiredoxins (PRDX1, PRDX2) were also examined in the leukocytes of peripheral blood. Hg concentration in the blood (Hg-B) and urine (Hg-U) samples was determined using the thermal decomposition amalgamation/atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA-AAS) method and Se concentrations in plasma (Se-P) and urine (Se-U) using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. Activities of GPx1-RBC, GPx3-P and TAA-P were determined using the kinetic and spectrophotometric method, respectively. Gene expression analysis was performed using the quantitative Real-Time PCR. The results showed significant higher Hg levels among the Hg°-exposed workers in comparison to control group (12-times higher median for Hg-B and almost 74-times higher median for Hg-U concentration in chloralkali workers). Se-P was also significantly higher (Me (median): 82.85 μg/L (IQR (interquartile range) 72.03-90.28 μg/L) for chloralkali workers vs. Me: 72.74 μg/L (IQR 66.25-80.14 μg/L) for control group; p = 0.0001) but interestingly correlated inversely with Hg-U in chloralkali workers suggesting depletion of the Se protection among the workers with the highest Hg-U concentration. The mRNA level for GPX1, PRXD1 were markedly but significantly higher in the workers compared to the control group. Moreover, concentrations of Hg-B and Hg-U among the workers were significantly positively correlated with the levels of selenoprotein P at both the mRNA and selenoprotein levels. In the multivariate model, after adjusting to cofounders (dental amalgam fillings, age, BMI, job seniority time, smoking), we confirmed that Hg-U concentration was inversely correlated with genes expression of TRXR1. This is the first comprehensive assessment of the impact of occupational exposure of workers to Hg° at both the mRNA and selenoprotein levels, with investigation of fish intake obtained by means of a questionnaire. These findings suggest that exposure to Hg° alters gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes and the level of Se-containing selenoproteins.
    • Bisphenol A – Application, sources of exposure and potential risks in infants, children and pregnant women.

      Mikołajewska, Karolina; Stragierowicz, Joanna; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland; Medical University, Łódź, Poland (2015-04-07)
      Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the chemical industry as a monomer in the production of plastics. It belongs to a group of compounds that disturb some of the functions of human body, the endocrine system in particular. Extensive use of BPA in manufacturing products that come in contact with food increases the risk of exposure to this compound, mainly through the digestive tract. Literature data indicate that exposure to bisphenol A even at low doses may result in adverse health effects. The greatest exposure to BPA is estimated among infants, children and pregnant women. The aim of this review is to show potential sources of exposure to bisphenol A and the adverse health effects caused by exposure to this compound in the group of particular risk.
    • Broken heart as work-related accident: Occupational stress as a cause of takotsubo cardiomyopathy in 55-year-old female teacher – Role of automated function imaging in diagnostic workflow

      Mielczarek, Agnieszka; Kasprzak, Jarosław D.; Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Kurpesa, Małgorzata; Uznanska-Loch, Barbara; Wierzbowska-Drabik, Karina; Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland; (2015)
      Takotsubo cardiomiopathy (TTC) (known also as “ampulla cardiomyopathy,” “apical ballooning” or “broken heart syndrome”) is connected with a temporary systolic left ventricular dysfunction without the culprit coronary lesion. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy was first described in 1990 in Japan after octopus trapping pot with a round bottom and narrow neck similar in shape to left ventriculogram in TTC patients. The occurrence of TTC is usually precipitated by a stressful event with a clinical presentation mimicking myocardial infarction: chest pain, ST-T segment elevation or T-wave inversion, a rise in cardiac troponin, and contractility abnormalities in echocardiography. A left ventricular dysfunction is transient and improves within a few weeks. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy typically occurs in postmenopausal women and the postulated mechanism is catecholamine overstimulation. Moreover, the distribution of contractility impairments usually does not correspond with typical region supplied by a single coronary artery. Therefore, the assessment of regional pattern of systolic dysfunction with speckle-tracking echocardiography and automated function imaging (AFI) technique may be important in diagnosis of TTC and may improve our insight into its patophysiology. We described a 55-year-old female teacher with TTC diagnosed after acute psychological stress in workplace. The provoking factor related with occupational stress and pattern of contraction abnormalities documented with AFI technique including basal segments of left ventricle make this case atypical.
    • Cadmium and volumetric mammographic density: a cross-sectional study in Polish women

      Pepłońska, Beata; Janasik, Beata; McCormack, Valerie; Bukowska-Damska, Agnieszka; Kałużny, Paweł; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019)
    • Can alveolar hypoventilation due to kyphoscoliosis be a contraindication to driving?

      Kania, Aleksander; Nastałek, Paweł; Celejewska-Wójcik, Natalia; Sładek, Krzysztof; Kosobudzki, Marcin; Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-10-16)
      Road accidents are among the main fatalities worldwide and drowsy driving is a significant cause of road deaths where drivers are at fault. There are well known diseases which impair sensory and cognitive functions and can cause sleepiness during driving. Such diseases can be an important contraindication to driving because they may have an adverse effect on its safety. Thus, medical examinations for drivers should also be directed at identifying any possible conditions posing risks for driving safety. Occupational medicine specialists should look for symptoms of locomotor and sleep-related breathing disorders as these are medical conditions which could preclude a person from driving. In this case report, the authors describe a professional driver with chest deformity and present a pioneering attempt at assessing his medical fitness to drive. It is also explained why scoliosis can impair driving ability and how it should be diagnosed and treated. Finally, the authors describe how they used driving simulator tests as part of their diagnosis and suggest a relevant treatment regimen.
    • Can Periodical Examinations of Employees Be Useful in Detection of Glycaemia Impairment and Improving Patients' Adherence to Medical Recommendations?

      Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Hanke, Wojciech; Kałużny, Paweł; Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2018-03-30)
      Worldwide epidemiological data indicates insufficient diagnosis of diabetes as an increasing public health problem. In the search for solutions to this disadvantageous situation, occupational medicine health services seem to open up a unique opportunity to recognize some abnormalities in the early stages, especially among the asymptomatic working-age population. 316 workers underwent obligatory prophylactic examinations. In patients with twice assayed FGL ≥ 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) an additional intervention was implemented, including further diagnostic processes and therapy in General Practice (GP), followed by examination by an occupational health specialist within 3 months. The diagnosis of previously unknown diabetes was established among 2.5% of examined workers. All patients referred to the GP due to detected glycaemia impairment visited their doctor and finished the diagnostic process, took up therapy constrained by the occupational health physician to show the effects of intervention within 3 months. Prophylactic medical check-ups allow improved compliance and medical surveillance over glycaemia impairment in patients with prediabetes states, unknown diabetes or uncontrolled clinical course of diabetes. Considering fasting glucose level during mandatory prophylactic examination helps effective prevention of diabetes and its complications and thus provides public health system benefits.
    • The capability of fungi isolated from moldy dwellings to produce toxins

      Jezak, Karolina; Kozajda, Anna; Sowiak, Malgorzata; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Bonczarowska, Marzena; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2016)
      Objectives: The main objective was analysis and assessment of toxinogenic capabilities of fungi isolated from moldy surfaces in residential rooms in an urban agglomeration situated far from flooded areas in moderate climate zone. Material and Methods: The assessment of environmental exposure to mycotoxins was carried out in samples collected from moldy surfaces in form of scrapings and airborne dust from 22 moldy dwellings in winter season. In each sample 2 mycotoxins were analyzed: sterigmatocystin and roquefortine C produced by Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillium chrysogenum, respectively. Mycotoxins were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in: scrapings from moldy surfaces, mixture of all species of fungi cultured from scrapings on microbiological medium (malt extract agar), pure cultures of Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillium chrysogenum cultured from scrapings on microbiological medium; mycotoxins in the indoor air dust were also analyzed. Results: The production of sterigmatocystin by individual strains of Aspergillus versicolor cultured on medium was confirmed for 8 of 13 isolated strains ranging 2.1–235.9 μg/g and production of roquefortine C by Penicillium chrysogenum for 4 of 10 strains ranging 12.9–27.6 μg/g. In 11 of 13 samples of the mixture of fungi cultured from scrapings, in which Aspergillus versicolor was found, sterigmatocystin production was at the level of 3.1–1683.2 μg/g, whereas in 3 of 10 samples in which Penicillium chrysogenum occurred, the production of roquefortine C was 0.9–618.9 μg/g. The analysis did not show in any of the tested air dust and scrapings samples the presence of analyzed mycotoxins in the amount exceeding the determination limit. Conclusions: The capability of synthesis of sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus versicolor and roquefortine C by Penicillium chrysogenum growing in mixtures of fungi from scrapings and pure cultures in laboratory conditions was confirmed. The absence of mycotoxins in scrapings and air dust samples indicates an insignificant inhalatory exposure to mycotoxins among inhabitants in moldy flats of urban agglomeration situated far from flooded territories.
    • [Carcinogenic and mutagenic agents in the workplace, Poland, 2011-2012].

      Palaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Czerczak, Slawomir; Konieczko, Katarzyna; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2015)
      The objective of the study was the analysis of structure of carcinogenic or mutagenic chemical substances and dusts occurring in Polish enterprises, 2011-2012, including the number of exposed employees reported to the "Central register of data on exposure to carcinogenic or mutagenic chemical substances, mixtures, agents or technological processes", Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź. In the paper the aims, range and methodology of data collecting by the Central Register are presented.
    • Cardiotoxic effect due to accidental ingestion of an organic solvent.

      Cieslik-Guerra, Urszula Izabela; Rechcinski, Tomasz; Trzos, Ewa; Wierzbowska-Drabik, Karina; Uznanska-Loch, Barbara; Winnicka, Renata; Krakowiak, Anna; Kasprzak, Jarosław Damian; Fröhlich, Colin; Kurpesa, Małgorzata; et al. (2015-02-28)
      Toxic myocardial injury can be misdiagnosed as a myocardial infarction, resulting in the patient undergoing standard treatment for cardiac rehabilitation. However, such inadequate therapeutic strategies can lead to cardiovascular complications including dilated cardiomyopathy. This study presents a case of a 65-year-old man after accidental ingestion of organic solvents (toluene and xylene), whose condition demonstrated all the criteria for diagnosis of myocardial infarction. The qualitative determinations of the above mentioned volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in whole blood were carried out using a headspace sampling by means of gas chromatography. Cardiac catheterization revealed no specific coronary lesions, only a muscular bridge causing a 30–50% stenosis in the middle of the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery.
    • Cervico-ocular reflex upregulation in dizzy patients with asymmetric neck pathology.

      Zamysłowska-Szmytke, Ewa; Adamczewski, Tomasz; Ziąber, Jacek; Majak, Joanna; Kujawa, Jolanta; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-10-16)
      Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the restriction in neck rotation and increased neck muscle tension could be causally related to vertigo and dizziness. Material and Methods: Seventy-one patients reporting vertigo and/or imbalance were divided into 2 groups: 45 subjects with unilateral restriction (R+) and 26 without restriction (R–) of cervical rotation and muscle tension in the clinical flexion-rotation test. The normal caloric test was the inclusion criterion. The control group comprised 36 healthy volunteers with no history of vertigo. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and the cervico-occular reflex (COR) were measured through the videonystagmography (VNG) sinusoidal pendular kinetic test in the conditions of not inactivated head and immobilized head, respectively. The VNG-head torsion test (VNG-HTT) nystagmus was recorded. Results: Among the reported complaints, neck stiffness, headaches and blurred vision were more frequent in the R+ group than in both the R– group and the control group. VNG revealed an increased COR gain and the presence of VNG-HTT nystagmus in the R+ group only. Similarly, only in the R+ group a positive relationship between COR and VOR was observed. Conclusions: Patients with asymmetric restriction in neck rotation and increased neck muscle tension reveal the tendency to have an increased response of the vestibular system, along with co-existing COR upregulation. Further research is needed to investigate the relationships between the activation of cervical mechanoreceptors and dizziness pathomechanisms.
    • Characteristics of interventional cardiologists and their work practices for the study on radiation-induced lens opacities based on the methodology developed by ELDO-preliminary results.

      Domienik, Joanna; Gryglak, Szymon; Jurewicz, Joanna; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2016-03-16)
      Preliminary results of the Polish epidemiology study on eye lens opacities among interventional cardiologists (ICs), based on the methodology proposed by ELDO (epidemiological studies of radio-induced cataracts in interventional cardiologists and radiologists: methodology implementation), are presented. The aim of the study is to test the hypothesis concerning the excess risk of cataract in the group of ICs. The first results concern the study population characteristics, including the most important confounding factors for cataract, as well as a detailed description of the work practices in interventional cardiology needed in order to reconstruct the cumulative eye lens dose. The data from 69 ICs and 23 controls collected based on the general medical questionnaire and the occupational questionnaire (for ICs only) were analyzed. The mean age of ICs and of the control group was 41 and 44, respectively, while the mean duration of work for exposed physicians was 9 years. The analysis of the data from the occupational questionnaire concerning the procedures performed, the use of various access routes, as well as radiation protection tools (eye lens glasses, ceiling suspended transparent shield, etc.) are also presented. On the basis of this information and additional assumptions about the doses per procedure (as well as reduction factors for various types of radiation measures), the cumulative doses to the eye lens of ICs were evaluated. They ranged up to 1.55 Sv and 0.4 Sv for left and right eye, respectively; however, the dose to only 3% of ICs exceeded the new threshold for development of eye lens opacities (0.5 Gy) proposed by the ICRP.
    • [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

      Pakulska, Daria; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2015)
      The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction.
    • Chemical incidents resulted in hazardous substances releases in the context of human health hazards.

      Palaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Konieczko, Katarzyna (2017-02-21)
      The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999-2009 in terms of health hazards.