• The 12p13.33/ RAD52 Locus and Genetic Susceptibility to Squamous Cell Cancers of Upper Aerodigestive Tract.

      Manon Delahaye-Sourdeix; Javier Oliver; Maria N. Timofeeva; Valérie Gaborieau; Mattias Johansson; Amélie Chabrier; Magdalena B. Wozniak; Darren R. Brenner; Maxime P. Vallee 1; Devasena Anantharaman; et al. (2015-03-20)
      Genetic variants located within the 12p13.33/RAD52 locus have been associated with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). Here, within 5,947 UADT cancers and 7,789 controls from 9 different studies, we found rs10849605, a common intronic variant in RAD52 ,tobealsoas-sociated with upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) squamous cell carcinoma cases (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04–1.15, p = 6x10−4). We additionally identified rs10849605 as aRAD52 cis-eQTL inUADT(p = 1x10−3) and LUSC (p = 9x10−4) tumours, with the UADT/LUSC risk allele correlated with increased RAD52 expression levels. The 12p13.33 locus, encompassing rs10849605/RAD52, was identified as a significant somatic focal copy number amplification in UADT(n = 374, q-value = 0.075) and LUSC (n = 464, q-value = 0.007) tumors and correlated with higher RAD52 tumor expression levels (p = 6x10−48 and p = 3x10−29 in UADT and LUSC, respectively). In combination, these results implicate increased RAD52 expression in both genetic susceptibility and tumorigenesis of UADT and LUSC tumors.
    • Absorbed doses for patients undergoing panoramic radiography, cephalometric radiography and CBCT.

      Wrzesien, Małgorzata; Olszewski, Jerzy; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2017-07-17)
      Contemporary dental radiology offers a wide spectrum of imaging methods but it also contributes to an increase in the participation of dental radiological diagnosis in the patient's exposure to ionizing radiation. The aim of this study is to determine the absorbed doses of the brain, spinal column, thyroid and eye lens for patients during panoramic radiography, cephalometric radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).
    • Air Pollution and Human Sperm Sex Ratio.

      Radwan, Michał; Dziewirska, Emila; Radwan, Paweł; Jakubowski, Lucjusz; Hanke, Wojciech; Jurewicz, Joanna; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2018-01-01)
      The present study was designed to address the hypothesis that exposure to specific air pollutants may impact human sperm Y:X chromosome ratio. The study population consisted of 195 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes and who had normal semen concentration of 15-300 mln/ml (WHO, 2010). Participants represented a subset of men in a multicenter parent study conducted in Poland to evaluate environmental factors and male fertility. Participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. The Y:X ratio was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Air quality data were obtained from the AirBase database. In multivariate analysis the significant reduction was observed in the proportion of Y/X chromosome bearing sperm and exposure to particulate matter >10 μm in aerodynamic diameter PM10( p = .009) and particulate matter <10 μm in aerodynamic diameter PM2.5( p = .023). The observed effects of a lower Y:X sperm chromosome ratio among men exposed to air pollution support the evidence that the trend of declining sex ratio in several societies over past decades has been due to exposure to air pollution; however due to limited data on this issue, the obtained results should be confirmed in longitudinal studies.
    • Air pollution from natural and anthropic sources and male fertility.

      Jurewicz, Joanna; Dziewirska, Emila; Radwan, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-12-23)
      Exposure to air pollution has been clearly associated with a range of adverse health effects, including reproductive toxicity. However, a limited amount of research has been conducted to examine the association between air pollution and male reproductive outcomes, specially semen quality. We performed a systematic review (up to March 2017) to assess the impact of environmental and occupational exposure to air pollution on semen quality. Epidemiological studies focusing on air pollution exposures and male reproduction were identified by a search of the PUBMED, MEDLINE, EBSCO and TOXNET literature bases. Twenty-two studies were included which assess the impact of air pollutants (PM
    • Allergen-specific IgE to recombinant latex allergens in occupational allergy diagnostics.

      Nowakowska-Świrta, Ewa; Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-09-01)
      Objectives Specific challenge tests (SICs) are considered reference tests for allergic occupational diseases diagnosis. However, in numerous cases, SICs cannot be carried out in the diagnosis of allergy to latex due to the risk of generalized reactions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of sIgE determination to recombinant latex allergens in diagnostics of occupational respiratory allergy. Materials and Methods The study group comprised 44 healthcare workers (HCW) suspected of suffering from occupational respiratory allergy to latex (they underwent a physical examination, skin‐prick tests (SPTs) to common and latex allergens, spirometry and SIC) and 17 controls not occupationally exposed to latex, with a positive sIgE against latex. Each serum was tested for allergen‐specific IgE to aeroallergens, latex, eight recombinant latex allergens and CCD‐markers. Results Specific IgE against Hev b5, 6.01, and 6.02 were significantly more frequently detected in HCWs and their mean serum levels were higher compared with the control group. In 26 HCWs with occupational asthma (OA), sensitization to Hev b5, Hev b6.01, Hev b6.02 was significantly more frequent than in 18 HCWs with work‐exacerbated asthma (WEA); they had positive results SPT to latex significantly more frequently in comparison with subjects with WEA. Conclusions Test for recombinant latex allergens is much more accurate in recognition of latex allergy than test for latex extract, which seems to produce false‐positive results in patients with pollen allergy. The measurements of sIgE against recombinant latex allergens Hev b 6.01, 6.02, 5, and 8 are useful in differentiating OA from WEA.
    • Altered circadian genes expression in breast cancer tissue according to the clinical characteristics

      Lesicka, Monika; Jabłońska, Ewa; Wieczorek, Edyta; Seroczyńska, Barbara; Siekierzycka, Anna; Skokowski, Jarosław; Kalinowski, Leszek; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Reszka, Edyta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018)
      Breast cancer has a multifactorial etiology. One of the supposed and novel mechanisms is an alteration of circadian gene expression. Circadian genes play a crucial role in many physiological processes. These processes, such as genomic stability, DNA repair mechanism and apoptosis, are frequently disrupted in breast tumors. To assess the significance of circadian gene expression in breast cancer, we carried out an analysis of CLOCK, BMAL1, NPAS2, PER1, PER2, PER3 and CRY1, CRY2, TIMELESS, CSNK1E expression by the use of the quantitative Real-Time PCR technique in tumor tissue and non-tumor adjacent normal tissue sampled from 107 women with a newly diagnosed disease. The obtained data were compared to the clinical and histopathological features. PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY2 were found to be significantly down-expressed, while CLOCK, TIMELESS were over-expressed in the studied tumor samples compared to the non-tumor samples. Only gene expression of CRY1 was significantly down-regulated with progression according to the TNM classification. We found significantly decreased expression of CRY2, PER1, PER2 genes in the ER/PR negative breast tumors compared to the ER/PR positive tumors. Additionally, expression of CRY2, NPAS2 genes had a decreased level in the poorly differentiated tumors in comparison with the well and moderately differentiated ones. Our results indicate that circadian gene expression is altered in breast cancer tissue, which confirms previous observations from various animal and in vitro studies.
    • Analiza lotnych składników wybranych olejków eterycznych o działaniu relaksacyjnym.

      Kucharska, Małgorzata; Szymańska, Jadwiga A; Wesołowski, Wiktor; Frydrych, Barbara; Bruchajzer, Elżbieta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-04-19)
      Stress is a result of disturbed homeostasis and can contribute to the development of many diseases. One of the methods of combating stress is aromatherapy, which uses essential oils with a calming and relaxing effect. The aim of the work was to perform a qualitative analysis of selected essential oils with a relaxing effect. The research concerned 6 preparations available on the Polish market, which are attributed with anti-stress activity. The qualitative analysis was carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, which allows the determination of both main and trace substances in the tested oils. The components of individual samples were compared with data from the literature. In the samples tested 9-36 substances were identified. The following substances had the largest share in the composition of the studied samples: limonene (0.5-91%), linalool acetate (16.8-39.2%), citronellal (0.1-28.7%), linalool (0.8-46.5%), valerianol (17.6%), geraniol (16.4%), and citronellol (14%). According to literature data, the main components of the studied essential oils have low acute toxicity. They can be safely used as intended and in the quantities recommended by the manufacturer. However, one should remember the potential synergistic effect (as a result of exposure to the abovementioned substances from various sources, such as: food, cosmetics, cleaning agents, etc.), as well as sensitizing effects of some compounds contained in oils. Despite the different chemical structure of active substances contained in the tested oils, it is suggested that the mechanism of the relaxing effect is identical and is associated with the inhibition of glutamatergic neurotransmission, similar to the action of benzodiazepines. Med Pr. 2019;70(2):229-47.
    • Analiza zadan sluzby medycyny pracy realizowanych w Polsce w latach 1997-2014. Czy w pelni wykorzystujemy potencjal badan profilaktycznych?

      Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Wojda, Mariola; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Hanke, Wojciech; Rydzynski, Konrad; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2017-02-28)
      Mandatory medical reports can be used to evaluate the scope of activity of occupational health services (OHS), including the number and kind of services.
    • Analiza zmian w obrazie radiologicznym pluc i zaburzen czynnosci wentylacyjnej pluc u pracownikow zawodowo narazonych na azbest chryzotylowy w przeszlosci.

      Cwynar, Elzbieta; Swiątkowska, Beata; Tomczyk, Jarosław; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2017-03-24)
      The adverse health effects of occupational exposure to asbestos dust may occur several years after first exposure. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between lesions in the respiratory system and the factors contributing to occupational exposure to asbestos described in the first medical examination as well as to analyze the factors responsible for the progression of these changes in further medical tests.
    • Analysis of bus drivers reaction to simulated traffic collision situations - eye-tracking studies.

      Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Kosobudzki, Marcin; Dania, Marta; Szymczak, Wiesław; Jóźwiak, Zbigniew; Szyjkowska, Agata; Viebig, Piotr; Pas-Wyroślak, Alicja; et al. (2019-04-03)
      The aim of the study was to establish whether the driver's visual strategy may influence a driver's behavior to avoid a crash in a high-risk situation. Any published papers on drivers' visual strategies just before a crash were not found. Tests were performed using a high-tech driving bus simulator. Participants comprised 45 men drivers, aged 43.5±7.9 years old, seniority as a bus driver of 13.3±8.6 years. The tests were preceded by medical examinations: general, neurological and ophthalmological. Each participant drove the same city route for approximately 40 min (entire route - ER). In the final phase, a collision situation was simulated (a phantom car blocked the participant's right of way). Driver's visual strategy was analyzed using the FaceLab device with 2 cameras during ER and just before collision. The field-of-view covered by camera 1 was divided into 8 regions, by camera 2 into 10 regions. The distribution of gazes in regions was a criterion of visual strategy. Thirty-five drivers completed the simulated driving test, 14 escaped the collision, 21 crashed. These groups differed only in resting systolic blood pressure before the test. The analysis of covariance, after adjusting to this factor, indicated that during the ER visual strategy recorded by camera 1 did not differ between groups, in camera 2 the drivers in the crash group fixed their gaze more frequently (p = 0.049) in region 3 (close part of the road in front of the windshield). Just before the collision drivers who escaped the collision fixed their gaze significantly more often in region 6 (left side of the road) in camera 1 and in region 6 (in front of the windshield,) and region 10 (right side) in camera 2. The visual strategy has an impact on the road safety. The analysis of visual strategies may be a useful tool for the training of drivers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(2):161-74.
    • Antibodies Against Chlamydia trachomatis and Ovarian Cancer Risk in Two Independent Populations.

      Trabert, Britton; Waterboer, Tim; Idahl, Annika; Brenner, Nicole; Brinton, Louise A; Butt, Julia; Coburn, Sally B; Hartge, Patricia; Hufnagel, Katrin; Inturrisi, Federica; et al. (2019-02-01)
      Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) has been associated with ovarian cancer risk. To clarify the role of Chlamydia trachomatis and other infectious agents in the development of ovarian cancer, we evaluated the association of serologic markers with incident ovarian cancer using a staged approach in two independent populations. Studies included: 1) a case-control study in Poland (244 ovarian cancers/556 control subjects) and 2) a prospective nested case-control study in the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial (160 ovarian cancers/159 control subjects). Associations of serologic marker levels with ovarian cancer risk at diagnostic as well as higher thresholds, identified in Poland and independently evaluated in PLCO, were estimated using multivariable adjusted logistic regression. In the Polish study, antibodies (based on laboratory cut-point) against the chlamydia plasmid-encoded Pgp3 protein (serological gold standard) were associated with increased ovarian cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20 to 2.22); when a positive result was redefined at higher levels, ovarian cancer risk was increased (cut-point 2: OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.38 to 2.89; cut-point 3 [max OR]: OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.29 to 3.73). In the prospective PLCO study, Pgp3 antibodies were associated with elevated risk at the laboratory cut-point (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 0.78 to 2.63) and more stringent cut-points (cut-point 2: OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.07 to 4.71); cut-point 3: OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 0.63 to 10.08). In both studies, antibodies against other infectious agents measured were not associated with risk. In two independent populations, antibodies against prior/current C. trachomatis (Pgp3) were associated with a doubling in ovarian cancer risk, whereas markers of other infectious agents were unrelated. These findings lend support for an association between PID and ovarian cancer.
    • Apelin and Atrial Fibrillation: The Role in the Arrhythmia Recurrence Prognosis.

      Salska, Agata; Dziuba, Michał; Salski, Witold; Chizynski, Krzysztof; Zielinska, Marzenna; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2018)
      Apelin is a novel peptide of wide expression and multiple biological functions including the crucial role in cardiovascular homeostasis. The apelin role in the pathophysiology of heart rhythm disorders is considered, although the reports are scarce so far. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential utility of apelin as a marker of arrhythmia recurrence after direct-current cardioversion (DC). The prospective, observational study included 60 patients (aged 41-86; 30% female) with nonvalvular, persistent atrial fibrillation from the group of 204 consecutive patients scheduled for DC during the 12-month period (from May 2010 to May 2011) in the Cardiology Clinic Medical University of Lodz, Poland. The study group was divided into SCD (successful DC), 45 (75%) patients, and NDC (nonsuccessful DC), 15 (25%) patients. Within the SCD group, the subgroups were distinguished depending on the time sinus rhythm maintenance after DC: up to 7 days (SDC-7), 11 patients; 7 to 30 days (SDC-30), 12 patients; over 90 days (SDC-90), 22 patients. Patients were evaluated during the hospitalization and within the 3-month follow-up period. The apelin level was determined within the plasma samples collected at the admission, using the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Kit for apelin-36. It was found that the median value of initial apelin in the subset of patients from groups NDC + SDC-7 + SDC-30 is significantly higher than from group SDC-90 (p = 0.0463); there was no relationship between NDC and SCD overall. Neither of the compared subgroup pairs revealed statistically significant correlation between the proBNP concentration and the DC effectiveness in our population. In conclusion, in our study, proBNP was not a marker of arrhythmia recurrence whereas higher apelin concentration at the admission indicated patients in whom DC was not effective or they had an arrhythmia recurrence within a month-period observation.
    • APPLICATION OF EYE-TRACKING IN THE TESTING OF DRIVERS: A REVIEW OF RESEARCH

      Kapitaniak, Bronisław; Walczak, Marta; Kosobudzki, Marcin; Jozwiak, Zbigniew; Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2015)
      Recording and analyzing eye movements provide important elements for understanding the nature of the task of driving a vehicle. This article reviews the literature on eye movement strategies employed by drivers of vehicles (vehicle control, evaluation of the situation by analyzing essential visual elements, navigation). Special focus was placed on the phenomenon of conspicuity, the probability of perceiving an object in the visual field and the factors that determine it. The article reports the methods of oculographic examination, with special emphasis on the non-invasive technique using corneal reflections, and the criteria for optimal selection of the test apparatus for drivers in experimental conditions (on a driving simulator) and in real conditions. Particular attention was also paid to the helmet – or glass-type devices provided with 1 or 2 high definition (HD) camcorders recording the field of vision and the direction of gaze, and the non-contact devices comprising 2 or 3 cameras and an infrared source to record eye and head movements, pupil diameter, eye convergence distance, duration and frequency of eyelid blinking. A review of the studies conducted using driver eye-tracking procedure was presented. The results, in addition to their cognitive value, can be used with success to optimize the strategy of drivers training.
    • [Application of recombinant latex allergens in diagnostics of occupational latex allergy].

      Nowakowska-Swirta, Ewa; Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2015)
      Over many years, allergy to natural rubber latex has been a major problem among health care workers (HCW). The diagnosis of occupational allergy requires methods of high diagnostic accuracy in view of certification implications (e.g., a sick worker quits a job). With the development of molecular methods, the frequency of application of recombinant allergens it the diagnostics of allergic diseases continues to increase. This paper reviews the applicability of laboratory tests which use recombinant allergens in the diagnostics of occupational allergy. The diagnosis of latex allergy is based on the presence of clinical symptoms linked with exposure to latex allergens, positive skin prick tests and detection of specific IgE antibodies to latex in serun. Moreover, in some cases specific challenge tests are conducted. The analysis of literature indicates that applying the panel of recombinant latex allergens in diagnostic tests, cross-reactivity can very likely be excluded and/or sensitization can be confirmed without the need for specific challenge tests, which in case of latex allergens carries a potential risk of aeneralized reactions.
    • Are platinum nanoparticles safe to human health?

      Czubacka, Ewelina; Czerczak, Sławomir; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-07-16)
      Platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) have been widely used not only in industry, but above all in medicine and diagnostics. However, there are disturbing reports related to the toxic effects of nanoplatinum, which is the main reason why the authors of this study have decided to review and analyze literature data related to its toxicity and impact on human health. While PtNPs may be absorbed by the respiratory and digestive tract, and can penetrate through the epidermis, there is no evidence concerning their absorption through the skin. Platinum nanoparticles accumulate mainly in the liver and spleen although they also reach other internal organs, such as lungs, kidneys or heart. Toxicokinetics of platinum nanoparticles depends strongly on the particle size. Only few studies regarding platinum nanoparticles toxicity have been conducted. Animals intratracheally exposed to platinum nanoparticles have demonstrated an increased level of proinflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage which confirms inflammatory response in the lungs. Oral administration of PtNPs can cause inflammatory response and induce oxidative stress. Nanoplatinum has been found to induce hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity via the intravenous route. It can cause DNA damage and cellular apoptosis without significant cytotoxicity. There are no research studies on its carcinogenicity. Fetal or maternal toxicity has not been observed, but an increased mortality and a decreased growth of the offspring have been demonstrated. Platinum nanoparticles may permeate the skin barrier but there is no evidence for their absorption. Due to the insufficient number of tests that have been carried out to date, it is not possible to clearly determine the occupational exposure limit value; however, caution is recommended to employees exposed to their effects.
    • Asbestos related diseases among workers of asbestos processing plants in relation to type of production and asbestos use.

      Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Swiatkowska, Beata; Sobala, Wojciech; Szubert, Zuzanna; Wilczynska, Urszula; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2015-03-09)
      Background: Asbestos dust is one of the most dangerous pneumoconiotic and carcinogenic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of asbestosis and pleural mesothelioma, depending on asbestos consumption and the type of manufactured products, among former asbestos workers in Poland. Material and Methods: The study subjects included employees of 18 large state-owned asbestos processing enterprises operating in the Polish market in 1945–1998. The study is based on data obtained from asbestos company records and the Central Register of Occupational Diseases data on the cases of asbestosis and mesothelioma for the period from 1970 till 2012 as well as data from Amiantus Programme. The analysis was performed for 5 sectors comprising plants classified according to the products manufactured and applied production technology. Results: In the study period, 2160 cases of asbestosis and 138 cases of mesothelioma were reported. The plants processed a total of about 2 million tonnes of asbestos, including about 7.5% of crocidolite. Total asbestos consumption was a strong predictor of the rate of asbestosis incidence (R2 = 0.68, p = 0.055). The highest risk occurrence of asbestosis was observed in the production of textiles and sealing products. Mesothelioma occurred only in plants where crocidolite had been ever processed. Conclusions: Total asbestos consumption was a strong predictor of the rate of asbestosis incidence. The observation confirms the relationship between exposure to crocidolite and the occurrence of mesothelioma, regardless of the manufactured products, and suggests the absence of such a link for the total volume of asbestos consumption.
    • Assessment of exposure to fungi in the heavily contaminated work environment (a solid waste sorting plant) based on the ergosterol analysis.

      Kozajda, Anna; Jezak, Karolina; Sowiak, Malgorzata; Gutarowska, Beata; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland; Lodz University of Technology, Łódź, Poland (2015)
      This paper reports on the results of the study aimed at application of ergosterol as an quantitative indicator of fungal bioaerosol present in the indoor air in occupational environment heavily contaminated with organic dust as well as its comparison with the culturable method.
    • Assessment of Mercury Intake from Fish Meals Based on Intervention Research in the Polish Subpopulation.

      Kuras, Renata; Janasik, Beata; Stanislawska, Magdalena; Kozlowska, Lucyna; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2017-01-27)
      The paper's objective was to estimate weekly Hg intake from fish meals based on intervention research. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in blood and hair samples collected from men (n = 67) from an intervention study as well as muscular tissues of fresh and after heat-treating fish were determined using the thermal decomposition amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry method (TDA-AAS) using direct mercury analyzer (DMA-80). The mean of the estimated weekly intake (EWI) was estimated at 0.62 μg/kg bw/week in the range 0.36-0.96 μg/kg body weight (bw) /week through the consumption of 4 edible marine fish species every day (for 10 days) by the participants from the intervention research in Lodz, Poland. The Hg intake in the volunteers in our intervention study accounted for 38.6% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) (1.6 μg/kg bw, weekly) value. The average Hg concentration in the analyzed fish ranged from 0.018 ± 0.006 mg/kg wet weight (Gadus chalcogrammus) to 0.105 ± 0.015 mg/kg wet weight (Macruronus magellanicus). The results for the average consumers were within PTWI of methylmercury (MeHg). Moreover, the average concentration of Hg in the selected fish after heat treatment did not exceed the maximum permitted concentrations for MeHg (MPCs = 0.5 mg/kg wet weight) in food set by the European Commission Regulation (EC/1881/2006). Hence, the risk of adverse effects of MeHg for the participants is substantially low.
    • Assessment of occupational exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields

      Aniołczyk, Halina; Mariańska, Magda; Mamrot, Paweł; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2015)
      Wstęp: Dyrektywa 2013/35/UE nałożyła obowiązek implementacji przepisów UE do prawa krajowego. Celem pracy jest ocena aktualnego stanu zagrożeń wynikających ze stosowania urządzeń wytwarzających PEM RF w zakresie od 100 kHz do 300 GHz oraz wskazanie urządzeń i miejsc pracy o najwyższym ryzyku narażenia zdrowia pracowników. Materiał i metody: Materiał stanowiły dane pochodzące z badań i pomiarów PEM RF realizowanych w Pracowni Zagrożeń Elektromagnetycznych Instytutu Medycyny Pracy im. prof. J. Nofera w Łodzi. Szczegółowej analizie poddano wyniki pomiarów natężenia pola elektrycznego (E) dla ponad 450 wybranych urządzeń, reprezentatywnych dla działów gospodarki, w których najczęściej są stosowane. Analizowano również zasięg występowania stref ochronnych i krotność przekroczenia najwyższego dopuszczalnego natężenia (NDN). Pomiary i badania PEM w środowisku pracy były zgodne z Polską Normą, a kryterium oceny ekspozycji stanowiły polskie przepisy o NDN. Wyniki: Najwyższe zmierzone wartości natężenia pola (E) na stanowiskach pracownika stwierdzono dla aparatów elektrochirurgicznych do 400 V/m, diatermii krótkofalowych (KF) do 220 V/m, zgrzewarek dielektrycznych do 240 V/m i wnętrza radiowych systemów antenowych UKF do 180 V/m. Największy zasięg stref ochronnych stwierdzono dla prototypowych urządzeń stosowanych w nauce, diatermii KF i zgrzewarek dielektrycznych. Najwyższą krotność przekroczenia NDN stwierdzono przy: zgrzewarkach dielektrycznych do 12, diatermiach KF do 11, diatermiach MF do 8. Wnioski: Potwierdzono wysokie wartości natężenia PEM RF w środowisku pracy dla takich grup zawodowych jak fizjoterapeuci, operatorzy zgrzewarek dielektrycznych i pracownicy technicznych grup masztowych w obiektach radiokomunikacji (w tym stacji radiowych i telewizyjnych).
    • [Assessment of temporary hearing changes related to work as a bartender].

      Wolniakowska, Anna; Zaborowski, Kamil; Dudarewicz, Adam; Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska, Malgorzata; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-02-28)
      Noise in entertainment industry often reaches high sound pressure levels. Nevertheless, the risk of hearing loss in this sector is insufficiently recognized. The aim of this study was the assessment of the relationship between noise exposure and temporary threshold shifts (TTS) for people working as bartenders at a variety of entertainment venues. The study comprised a total of 18 bartenders (mean age was 25±7 years old) employed at a music club (N = 8), pub (N = 5) and discotheque (N = 5). Personal dosimeters were used for determining noise levels and frequency characteristics. Hearing was evaluated by pre- (before work) and post-exposure (up to 15 min after the end of work) pure tone audiometry. Hearing tests were carried out for bartenders during 2 or 3 sessions while working on weekends. The mean personal noise exposure level normalized to a nominal 8-hour working day was 95 dBA, above 4 times higher than the accepted legal limit. The TTS values (10 dB HL or more) were significant at 4 kHz for both ears for 77% of bartenders. People working as bartenders represent a professional group with an increased risk of hearing loss. Raising awareness of this fact and implementing hearing protection programs in this group of workers is urgently needed, in line with the European Commission Directive (EU Directive 2003/10/EC). Med Pr. 2019;70(1):17-25.