• The 12p13.33/ RAD52 Locus and Genetic Susceptibility to Squamous Cell Cancers of Upper Aerodigestive Tract.

      Manon Delahaye-Sourdeix; Javier Oliver; Maria N. Timofeeva; Valérie Gaborieau; Mattias Johansson; Amélie Chabrier; Magdalena B. Wozniak; Darren R. Brenner; Maxime P. Vallee 1; Devasena Anantharaman; Pagona Lagiou; Ivana Holcatova; Lorenzo Richiardi; Kristina Kjaerheim; Antonio Agudo; Xavier Castellsague; Tatiana V. Macfarlane; Luigi Barzan; Cristina Canova; Nalin S. Thakker; David I. Conway; Ariana Znaor; Claire M. Healy; Wolfgang Ahrens; David Zaridze; Neonilia Szeszenia-Dabrowska; Jolanta Lissowska; Eleonora Fabianova; Ioan Nicolae Mates; Vladimir Bencko; Lenka Foretova; Vladimir Janout; Maria Paula Curado; Sergio Koifman; Ana Menezes; Victor Wünsch-Filho; José Eluf- Neto; Paolo Boffetta; Leticia Fernandez Garrote; Diego Serraino; Marcin Lener; Ewa Jaworowska; Jan Lubinski; Stefania Boccia; Thangarajan Rajkumar; Tanuja A. Samant; Manoj B. Mahimkar; Keitaro Matsuo; Silvia Franceschi; Graham Byrnes; Paul Brennan; James D. McKay; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2015-03-20)
      Genetic variants located within the 12p13.33/RAD52 locus have been associated with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). Here, within 5,947 UADT cancers and 7,789 controls from 9 different studies, we found rs10849605, a common intronic variant in RAD52 ,tobealsoas-sociated with upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) squamous cell carcinoma cases (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04–1.15, p = 6x10−4). We additionally identified rs10849605 as aRAD52 cis-eQTL inUADT(p = 1x10−3) and LUSC (p = 9x10−4) tumours, with the UADT/LUSC risk allele correlated with increased RAD52 expression levels. The 12p13.33 locus, encompassing rs10849605/RAD52, was identified as a significant somatic focal copy number amplification in UADT(n = 374, q-value = 0.075) and LUSC (n = 464, q-value = 0.007) tumors and correlated with higher RAD52 tumor expression levels (p = 6x10−48 and p = 3x10−29 in UADT and LUSC, respectively). In combination, these results implicate increased RAD52 expression in both genetic susceptibility and tumorigenesis of UADT and LUSC tumors.
    • Absorbed doses for patients undergoing panoramic radiography, cephalometric radiography and CBCT.

      Wrzesien, Małgorzata; Olszewski, Jerzy; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2017-07-17)
      Cone beam computed tomography, in comparison with panoramic or cephalometric imaging technique, provides higher radiation doses to the patients. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):705-713.
    • Air Pollution and Human Sperm Sex Ratio.

      Radwan, Michał; Dziewirska, Emila; Radwan, Paweł; Jakubowski, Lucjusz; Hanke, Wojciech; Jurewicz, Joanna; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2018-01-01)
      The present study was designed to address the hypothesis that exposure to specific air pollutants may impact human sperm Y:X chromosome ratio. The study population consisted of 195 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes and who had normal semen concentration of 15-300 mln/ml (WHO, 2010). Participants represented a subset of men in a multicenter parent study conducted in Poland to evaluate environmental factors and male fertility. Participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. The Y:X ratio was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Air quality data were obtained from the AirBase database. In multivariate analysis the significant reduction was observed in the proportion of Y/X chromosome bearing sperm and exposure to particulate matter >10 μm in aerodynamic diameter PM10( p = .009) and particulate matter <10 μm in aerodynamic diameter PM2.5( p = .023). The observed effects of a lower Y:X sperm chromosome ratio among men exposed to air pollution support the evidence that the trend of declining sex ratio in several societies over past decades has been due to exposure to air pollution; however due to limited data on this issue, the obtained results should be confirmed in longitudinal studies.
    • Air pollution from natural and anthropic sources and male fertility.

      Jurewicz, Joanna; Dziewirska, Emila; Radwan, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-12-23)
      Exposure to air pollution has been clearly associated with a range of adverse health effects, including reproductive toxicity. However, a limited amount of research has been conducted to examine the association between air pollution and male reproductive outcomes, specially semen quality. We performed a systematic review (up to March 2017) to assess the impact of environmental and occupational exposure to air pollution on semen quality. Epidemiological studies focusing on air pollution exposures and male reproduction were identified by a search of the PUBMED, MEDLINE, EBSCO and TOXNET literature bases. Twenty-two studies were included which assess the impact of air pollutants (PM
    • Altered circadian genes expression in breast cancer tissue according to the clinical characteristics

      Lesicka, Monika; Jabłońska, Ewa; Wieczorek, Edyta; Seroczyńska, Barbara; Siekierzycka, Anna; Skokowski, Jarosław; Kalinowski, Leszek; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Reszka, Edyta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018)
      Breast cancer has a multifactorial etiology. One of the supposed and novel mechanisms is an alteration of circadian gene expression. Circadian genes play a crucial role in many physiological processes. These processes, such as genomic stability, DNA repair mechanism and apoptosis, are frequently disrupted in breast tumors. To assess the significance of circadian gene expression in breast cancer, we carried out an analysis of CLOCK, BMAL1, NPAS2, PER1, PER2, PER3 and CRY1, CRY2, TIMELESS, CSNK1E expression by the use of the quantitative Real-Time PCR technique in tumor tissue and non-tumor adjacent normal tissue sampled from 107 women with a newly diagnosed disease. The obtained data were compared to the clinical and histopathological features. PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY2 were found to be significantly down-expressed, while CLOCK, TIMELESS were over-expressed in the studied tumor samples compared to the non-tumor samples. Only gene expression of CRY1 was significantly down-regulated with progression according to the TNM classification. We found significantly decreased expression of CRY2, PER1, PER2 genes in the ER/PR negative breast tumors compared to the ER/PR positive tumors. Additionally, expression of CRY2, NPAS2 genes had a decreased level in the poorly differentiated tumors in comparison with the well and moderately differentiated ones. Our results indicate that circadian gene expression is altered in breast cancer tissue, which confirms previous observations from various animal and in vitro studies.
    • Analiza zadan sluzby medycyny pracy realizowanych w Polsce w latach 1997-2014. Czy w pelni wykorzystujemy potencjal badan profilaktycznych?

      Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Wojda, Mariola; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Hanke, Wojciech; Rydzynski, Konrad; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2017-02-28)
      The analysis of the number and kind of services provided by OHS units revealed high but not fully exploited potential for efficient prophylaxis of both directly occupational work-related and indirectly work-exacerbated diseases. Med Pr 2017;68(1):105-119.
    • Analiza zmian w obrazie radiologicznym pluc i zaburzen czynnosci wentylacyjnej pluc u pracownikow zawodowo narazonych na azbest chryzotylowy w przeszlosci.

      Cwynar, Elzbieta; Swiątkowska, Beata; Tomczyk, Jarosław; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2017-03-24)
      The results of prophylactic medical examinations of the health status of workers formerly employed in the plants using chrysotile indicate the importance andthe need for a long-term clinical follow-up and the promotion of anti-smoking prevention in this group of former employees. Med Pr 2017;68(2):247-258.
    • Apelin and Atrial Fibrillation: The Role in the Arrhythmia Recurrence Prognosis.

      Salska, Agata; Dziuba, Michał; Salski, Witold; Chizynski, Krzysztof; Zielinska, Marzenna; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2018)
      Apelin is a novel peptide of wide expression and multiple biological functions including the crucial role in cardiovascular homeostasis. The apelin role in the pathophysiology of heart rhythm disorders is considered, although the reports are scarce so far. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential utility of apelin as a marker of arrhythmia recurrence after direct-current cardioversion (DC). The prospective, observational study included 60 patients (aged 41-86; 30% female) with nonvalvular, persistent atrial fibrillation from the group of 204 consecutive patients scheduled for DC during the 12-month period (from May 2010 to May 2011) in the Cardiology Clinic Medical University of Lodz, Poland. The study group was divided into SCD (successful DC), 45 (75%) patients, and NDC (nonsuccessful DC), 15 (25%) patients. Within the SCD group, the subgroups were distinguished depending on the time sinus rhythm maintenance after DC: up to 7 days (SDC-7), 11 patients; 7 to 30 days (SDC-30), 12 patients; over 90 days (SDC-90), 22 patients. Patients were evaluated during the hospitalization and within the 3-month follow-up period. The apelin level was determined within the plasma samples collected at the admission, using the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Kit for apelin-36. It was found that the median value of initial apelin in the subset of patients from groups NDC + SDC-7 + SDC-30 is significantly higher than from group SDC-90 (p = 0.0463); there was no relationship between NDC and SCD overall. Neither of the compared subgroup pairs revealed statistically significant correlation between the proBNP concentration and the DC effectiveness in our population. In conclusion, in our study, proBNP was not a marker of arrhythmia recurrence whereas higher apelin concentration at the admission indicated patients in whom DC was not effective or they had an arrhythmia recurrence within a month-period observation.
    • APPLICATION OF EYE-TRACKING IN THE TESTING OF DRIVERS: A REVIEW OF RESEARCH

      Kapitaniak, Bronisław; Walczak, Marta; Kosobudzki, Marcin; Jozwiak, Zbigniew; Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2015)
      Recording and analyzing eye movements provide important elements for understanding the nature of the task of driving a vehicle. This article reviews the literature on eye movement strategies employed by drivers of vehicles (vehicle control, evaluation of the situation by analyzing essential visual elements, navigation). Special focus was placed on the phenomenon of conspicuity, the probability of perceiving an object in the visual field and the factors that determine it. The article reports the methods of oculographic examination, with special emphasis on the non-invasive technique using corneal reflections, and the criteria for optimal selection of the test apparatus for drivers in experimental conditions (on a driving simulator) and in real conditions. Particular attention was also paid to the helmet – or glass-type devices provided with 1 or 2 high definition (HD) camcorders recording the field of vision and the direction of gaze, and the non-contact devices comprising 2 or 3 cameras and an infrared source to record eye and head movements, pupil diameter, eye convergence distance, duration and frequency of eyelid blinking. A review of the studies conducted using driver eye-tracking procedure was presented. The results, in addition to their cognitive value, can be used with success to optimize the strategy of drivers training.
    • [Application of recombinant latex allergens in diagnostics of occupational latex allergy].

      Nowakowska-Swirta, Ewa; Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2015)
      Over many years, allergy to natural rubber latex has been a major problem among health care workers (HCW). The diagnosis of occupational allergy requires methods of high diagnostic accuracy in view of certification implications (e.g., a sick worker quits a job). With the development of molecular methods, the frequency of application of recombinant allergens it the diagnostics of allergic diseases continues to increase. This paper reviews the applicability of laboratory tests which use recombinant allergens in the diagnostics of occupational allergy. The diagnosis of latex allergy is based on the presence of clinical symptoms linked with exposure to latex allergens, positive skin prick tests and detection of specific IgE antibodies to latex in serun. Moreover, in some cases specific challenge tests are conducted. The analysis of literature indicates that applying the panel of recombinant latex allergens in diagnostic tests, cross-reactivity can very likely be excluded and/or sensitization can be confirmed without the need for specific challenge tests, which in case of latex allergens carries a potential risk of aeneralized reactions.
    • Asbestos related diseases among workers of asbestos processing plants in relation to type of production and asbestos use.

      Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Swiatkowska, Beata; Sobala, Wojciech; Szubert, Zuzanna; Wilczynska, Urszula; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2015-03-09)
      Background: Asbestos dust is one of the most dangerous pneumoconiotic and carcinogenic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of asbestosis and pleural mesothelioma, depending on asbestos consumption and the type of manufactured products, among former asbestos workers in Poland. Material and Methods: The study subjects included employees of 18 large state-owned asbestos processing enterprises operating in the Polish market in 1945–1998. The study is based on data obtained from asbestos company records and the Central Register of Occupational Diseases data on the cases of asbestosis and mesothelioma for the period from 1970 till 2012 as well as data from Amiantus Programme. The analysis was performed for 5 sectors comprising plants classified according to the products manufactured and applied production technology. Results: In the study period, 2160 cases of asbestosis and 138 cases of mesothelioma were reported. The plants processed a total of about 2 million tonnes of asbestos, including about 7.5% of crocidolite. Total asbestos consumption was a strong predictor of the rate of asbestosis incidence (R2 = 0.68, p = 0.055). The highest risk occurrence of asbestosis was observed in the production of textiles and sealing products. Mesothelioma occurred only in plants where crocidolite had been ever processed. Conclusions: Total asbestos consumption was a strong predictor of the rate of asbestosis incidence. The observation confirms the relationship between exposure to crocidolite and the occurrence of mesothelioma, regardless of the manufactured products, and suggests the absence of such a link for the total volume of asbestos consumption.
    • Assessment of exposure to fungi in the heavily contaminated work environment (a solid waste sorting plant) based on the ergosterol analysis.

      Kozajda, Anna Iwona; Jezak, Karolina; Sowiak, Malgorzata; Gutarowska, Beata; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland; Lodz University of Technology, Łódź, Poland (2015)
      The quantitative assessment of moldiness by means of ergosterol measurement seems to be a reliable indicator for environments heavily contaminated with organic dust, where viable and non-viable fungi are present in high proportions. Based on that result, more restrictive (as compared to a similar assessment carried out by means of the culturable method) hygienic recommendations, especially those related to the use of preventive measures protecting the employees' respiratory tract, should have been undertaken.
    • Assessment of Mercury Intake from Fish Meals Based on Intervention Research in the Polish Subpopulation.

      Kuras, Renata; Janasik, Beata; Stanislawska, Magdalena; Kozlowska, Lucyna; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2017-01-27)
      The paper's objective was to estimate weekly Hg intake from fish meals based on intervention research. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in blood and hair samples collected from men (n = 67) from an intervention study as well as muscular tissues of fresh and after heat-treating fish were determined using the thermal decomposition amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry method (TDA-AAS) using direct mercury analyzer (DMA-80). The mean of the estimated weekly intake (EWI) was estimated at 0.62 μg/kg bw/week in the range 0.36-0.96 μg/kg body weight (bw) /week through the consumption of 4 edible marine fish species every day (for 10 days) by the participants from the intervention research in Lodz, Poland. The Hg intake in the volunteers in our intervention study accounted for 38.6% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) (1.6 μg/kg bw, weekly) value. The average Hg concentration in the analyzed fish ranged from 0.018 ± 0.006 mg/kg wet weight (Gadus chalcogrammus) to 0.105 ± 0.015 mg/kg wet weight (Macruronus magellanicus). The results for the average consumers were within PTWI of methylmercury (MeHg). Moreover, the average concentration of Hg in the selected fish after heat treatment did not exceed the maximum permitted concentrations for MeHg (MPCs = 0.5 mg/kg wet weight) in food set by the European Commission Regulation (EC/1881/2006). Hence, the risk of adverse effects of MeHg for the participants is substantially low.
    • Assessment of occupational exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields

      Aniołczyk, Halina; Mariańska, Magda; Mamrot, Paweł; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2015)
      Background: European Union Directive 2013/35/UE provides for the implementation of EU regulations into national legislation. Our aim is to assess actual health hazards from radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) (range: 100 kHz – 300 GHz) and indicate workplaces with the highest risk to employee health. Material and Methods: Data from measurements of RF EMF performed by the Laboratory of Electromagnetic Hazards in Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Łódź, Poland) were analyzed. The analysis covered the results of electric field intensity (E) for over 450 selected items. The ranges of protection zones and the extent to which maximum admissible intensity (MAI) values were also analyzed. The determinations and measurements of EMF in the work environment met the requirements of Polish Standard, while Polish regulations on the MAI values were used as the criterion for the assessment of the exposure. Results: The highest values of E field intensity at workplaces were measured for: electrosurgery, to 400 V/m, and short-wave diathermy units, to 220 V/m, dielectric welders to 240 V/m, within the FM radio antenna systems, to 180 V/m. The widest protection zones were noted for prototype research instruments, short-wave diathermy units, and dielectric welders. The most excessive (up to 12-fold MAI) values were recorded for dielectric welders, short-wave diathermy units (up to 11-fold) and microwave diathermy units (up to 8-fold). Conclusions: Our results have confirmed the high RF EMF values for physiotherapists, operators of dielectric welders, and mast maintenance workers in radio communication facilities (especially radio and TV broadcasting stations).
    • Association of Rotating Night Shift Work with BMI and Abdominal Obesity among Nurses and Midwives.

      Peplonska, Beata; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Sobala, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2015-07-21)
      The results of the study support the previously reported relations between night shift work and development of obesity.
    • Auditory temporal processing tests – Normative data for Polish-speaking adults

      Majak, Joanna; Zamysłowska-Szmytke, Ewa; Rajkowska, Elżbieta; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2015)
      Wstęp: Wiele osób pracujących w narażeniu na substancje neurotoksyczne wymaga badań w kierunku ośrodkowych zaburzeń słyszenia. Mimo że używane w tym celu testy ośrodkowego przetwarzania słuchowego są szeroko stosowane w innych krajach, nie zostały dotąd wystandaryzowane dla populacji polskiej. Celem pracy było określenie zakresu wartości referencyjnych dla 3 testów przetwarzania czasowego: testu wzorcu długości (duration pattern test – DPT), testu wzorcu częstotliwości (frequency pattern test – FPT) i testu wykrywania przerw w szumie (gaps in nosie – GIN). Materiał i metody: Badaniami objęto 76 osób z prawidłowym słuchem (38 kobiet, 38 mężczyzn) w wieku 18–54 lata (średnia ± odchylenie standardowe: 39,4±9,1). Żaden z uczestników badania nie cierpiał w przeszłości na chorobę przewlekłą, a wynik badania otolaryngologicznego u każdego z uczestników był w normie. Wyniki: Obliczono, że przedział wartości prawidłowych dla DPT wynosi 55,3–100%, a dla FPT – 56,7–100% poprawnych odpowiedzi. Przybliżony średni próg detekcji dla obu uszu w teście GIN został ustalony na poziomie 6 ms. Nie stwierdzono istotnych zależności między wynikami DPT, FPT i GIN a wiekiem lub płcią. Stwierdzono symetrię DPT, FPT i GIN dla obu uszu. Wnioski: Przedziały wartości referencyjnych dla DPT i FPT w populacji polskiej są niższe niż wcześniej publikowane zakresy referencyjne dla innych narodów, natomiast wyniki GIN są zgodne z publikowanymi danymi literaturowymi. Konieczne są dalsze badania w celu wyjaśnienia rozbieżności między wartościami normatywnymi w Polsce a w innych krajach oraz dostosowanie testów do potrzeb medycyny pracy.
    • Availability and the use of work-life balance benefits guaranteed by the Polish Labour Code among workers employed on the basis of employment contracts in small and medium enterprises

      Andysz, Aleksandra; Jacukowicz, Aleksandra; Stanczak, Aleksander; Drabek, Marcin; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2016)
      Objectives: Polish Labour Code provides employees with a range of solutions (benefits) supporting them in achieving balance between work and private life. This paper was aimed at indicating availability and the use of legal benefits supporting work-life balance (WLB) among Polish workers of small and medium enterprises. Material and Methods: The study sample included 219 respondents, aged 22–64, working in small and medium enterprises and employed on the basis of employment contracts for at least a year. The respondents completed a questionnaire on availability and the use of benefits guaranteed by the Polish Labour Code, referring to their current workplaces. Results: Most frequently the studied employees took sick leave because of one’s own illness and leave on demand. In our sample, 45% of the women took maternity leave and 26% of the men took paternity leave. The respondents took educational and parental leave the least frequently. More than half of the respondents (58%) did not return to the same position after leave devoted to childcare, even though they had such a possibility. Conclusions: In fact, most of work-life balance benefits guaranteed by law were available to the employees of small and medium enterprises, regardless of their gender. Availability and the use of the majority of benefits were similar among the women and men. Availability of benefits depended on the specificity of industry and a profession, thus, future research on work-life balance policy should control for variables related to the character of work.
    • Badanie czynnościowe osób z zawrotami głowy i zaburzeniami równowagi dla potrzeb medycyny pracy.

      Zamysłowska-Szmytke, Ewa; Szostek-Rogula, Sylwia; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2018-03-09)
      The results of functional tests (BBS, DGI, TUG, DVA) revealed statistically significant correlations with objective balance tests but low predictive values did not allow to use these tests in vestibular damage screening. Only half of the patients with functional disturbances revealed abnormal caloric or posturography tests. The qualification to work based on objective tests ignore functional state of the worker, which may influence the ability to work. Med Pr 2018;69(2):179-189.
    • Bedside examination for vestibular screening in occupational medicine.

      Zamysłowska-Szmytke, Ewa; Szostek-Rogula, Sylwia; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland; Rehabilitation Center “Repty”, Tarnowskie Góry, Poland (2015-03-17)
      Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of bedside examination for screening of vestibular and balance system for occupational medicine purposes. Study group comprised 165 patients referred to Audiology and Phoniatric Clinic due to vestibular and/or balance problems. Caloric canal paresis of 19% was the cut off value to divide patients into 43 caloric-positive vestibular subjects and 122 caloric-negative patients. The latter group comprised 79 subjects revealing abnormalities of videonystagmographic (VNG) oculomotor tests (central group) and 43 subjects with normal VNG. Material and Methods: Vestibular and balance symptoms were collected. Five tests were included to bedside examination: Romberg and Unterberger tests, Head Impulse Test (HIT), Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) and gaze nystagmus assessment. Results: Vestibular and balance symptoms were reported by 82% of vestibular, 73% of central and 40% of VNG-normal patients. Thirteen out of 18 VNG-normal but symptomatic subjects (73%) had abnormal tests in clinical assessment. The sensitivity of bedside test set for vestibular pathology was 88% as compared to caloric test and 68% for central pathology as compared to VNG oculomotor tests. Conclusions: The combination of 5 bedside tests reveal satisfactory sensitivity to detect vestibular abnormalities. Bedside examination abnormalities are highly correlated with vestibular/balance symptoms, regardless the normal results of VNG. Thus, this method should be recommended for occupational medicine purposes.
    • Bezpomiarowa ocena narazenia na dzialanie substancji chemicznych przez kontakt ze skora w srodowisku pracy.

      Jankowska, Agnieszka; Czerczak, Slawomir; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2017-06-27)
      Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the principles of the selected model functioning. This paper presents examples of models to assist the employer in the the assessment of occupational exposure associated with the skin contact with chemicals, developed in European Union (EU) countries, as well as in countries outside the EU. Based on the literature data dermal exposure models EASE (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure), COSHH Essentials (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations), DREAM (Dermal Exposure Assessment Method), Stoffenmanager , ECETOC TRA (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment), MEASE (Metal's EASE), PHED (Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database), DERM (Dermal Exposure Ranking Method) and RISKOFDERM (Risk Assessment of Occupational Dermal Exposure to Chemicals) were briefly described. Moreover the characteristics of RISKOFDERM, guidelines for its use, information on input and output data were further detailed. Problem of full work shift dermal exposure assessment is described. An example of exposure assessment using RISKOFDERM and effectiveness evaluation to date were also presented. When no measurements are available, RISKOFDERM allows dermal exposure assessment and thus can improve the risk assessment quality and effectiveness of dermal risk management. Med Pr 2017;68(4):557-569.