• Biomarkers of selenium status and antioxidant effect in workers occupationally exposed to mercury.

      Kuras, Renata; Reszka, Edyta; Wieczorek, Edyta; Jablonska, Ewa; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Malachowska, Beata; Kozlowska, Lucyna; Stanislawska, Magdalena; Janasik, Beata; Wasowicz, Wojciech; et al. (2018-09)
      The present observation based research was designed to evaluate the influence of occupational human exposure to metallic mercury (Hg°) vapor on the biomarkers of selenium status involved in the antioxidant defense system. For this purpose we determined Hg and selenium (Se) concentrations in body fluids, the markers of antioxidant effect measured as an activity of Se-dependent enzymes (red blood cell and plasma glutathione peroxidase: GPx1-RBC and GPx3-P), concentration of selenoprotein P in the plasma (SeP-P) and total antioxidant activity in the plasma (TAA-P) in 131 male workers from a chloralkali plant exposed to Hg° and 67 non-exposed males (control group). The mRNA expression levels of glutathione peroxidases (GPX1, GPX3), selenoprotein P (SEPP1), thioredoxin reductase 1 (TRXR1), thioredoxin 1 (TRX1), peroxiredoxins (PRDX1, PRDX2) were also examined in the leukocytes of peripheral blood. Hg concentration in the blood (Hg-B) and urine (Hg-U) samples was determined using the thermal decomposition amalgamation/atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA-AAS) method and Se concentrations in plasma (Se-P) and urine (Se-U) using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. Activities of GPx1-RBC, GPx3-P and TAA-P were determined using the kinetic and spectrophotometric method, respectively. Gene expression analysis was performed using the quantitative Real-Time PCR. The results showed significant higher Hg levels among the Hg°-exposed workers in comparison to control group (12-times higher median for Hg-B and almost 74-times higher median for Hg-U concentration in chloralkali workers). Se-P was also significantly higher (Me (median): 82.85 μg/L (IQR (interquartile range) 72.03-90.28 μg/L) for chloralkali workers vs. Me: 72.74 μg/L (IQR 66.25-80.14 μg/L) for control group; p = 0.0001) but interestingly correlated inversely with Hg-U in chloralkali workers suggesting depletion of the Se protection among the workers with the highest Hg-U concentration. The mRNA level for GPX1, PRXD1 were markedly but significantly higher in the workers compared to the control group. Moreover, concentrations of Hg-B and Hg-U among the workers were significantly positively correlated with the levels of selenoprotein P at both the mRNA and selenoprotein levels. In the multivariate model, after adjusting to cofounders (dental amalgam fillings, age, BMI, job seniority time, smoking), we confirmed that Hg-U concentration was inversely correlated with genes expression of TRXR1. This is the first comprehensive assessment of the impact of occupational exposure of workers to Hg° at both the mRNA and selenoprotein levels, with investigation of fish intake obtained by means of a questionnaire. These findings suggest that exposure to Hg° alters gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes and the level of Se-containing selenoproteins.
    • Circadian Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Breast Cancer Susceptibility.

      Lesicka, Monika; Jabłońska, Ewa; Wieczorek, Edyta; Pepłońska, Beata; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; Seroczyńska, Barbara; Kalinowski, Leszek; Skokowski, Jarosław; Reszka, Edyta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-11-14)
      Breast cancer (BC) is a major problem for civilization, manifested by continuously increasing morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. Core circadian genes may play an important role in cancer development and progression. To evaluate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in circadian genes in BC risk, 16 functional SNPs were genotyped in 321 BC patients and 364 healthy women using the TaqMan fluorescence-labelled probes or High-Resolution Melt Curve technique in the Real-Time PCR system. The selected SNPs were analyzed for the risk of BC, progression, and the influence on gene expression in BC tissue pairs to demonstrate the functionality of genetic variants. The study showed a relationship between an increased BC risk under the dominant genetic model of CRY2 rs10838524, PER2 rs934945, and recessive genetic model of PER1 rs2735611. A protective effect of BMAL1 rs2279287 was observed among carriers with at least one variant allele. Moreover, we found an increased risk of estrogen-/progesterone-positive tumors under the dominant genetic model of PER2 rs934945 and estrogen negative tumors under the variant genotype of CRY2 rs10838524, PER1 rs2735611. We demonstrated significantly altered gene expression of BMAL1, CRY2, PER1, PER2, PER3 according to particular genotypes in the BC tissue pairs. Our findings support the hypothesized role of circadian genes in breast carcinogenesis and indicate probable biomarkers for breast cancer susceptibility.
    • Effect of Arsenic Exposure on NRF2-KEAP1 Pathway and Epigenetic Modification.

      Janasik, Beata; Reszka, Edyta; Stanislawska, Magdalena; Jablonska, Ewa; Kuras, Renata; Wieczorek, Edyta; Malachowska, Beata; Fendler, Wojciech; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2017-12-15)
      Arsenic (As) is a known toxic element and carcinogen. Transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) controls cellular adaptation to oxidants and electrophiles by inducing antioxidant genes in response to redox stress. To explore associations between As level and NRF2-regulated cytoprotective genes expression, an observational study was conducted in a population of 61 occupationally exposed men with median (Me) age 50 years (interquartile range (IQR) 42-54) and in a control group of 52 men aged 40 (IQR 31-51.5) without occupational exposure. NRF2, KEAP1, GSTP1, HMOX1, NQO1, PRDX1, and TXNRD1 transcript levels were determined by means of quantitative real-time PCR along with the gene expression, methylation of NRF2 and KEAP1, as well as global DNA methylation were assessed. The median urine As tot. level in the exposed and control group was found to be 21.8 μg/g creat. (IQR 15.5-39.8 μg/g creat.) and 3.8 μg/g creat. (IQR 2.5-9.3) (p < 0.001). Global DNA methylation was significantly higher in occupationally exposed workers than in controls (Me 14.1 (IQR 9.5-18.1) vs Me 8.5 (IQR 5.9-12.6) p < 0.0001). NRF2 mRNA level was positively correlated with expression of all investigated NRF2-target genes in both groups (0.37 > R < 0.76, all p values < 0.0001). The multivariate linear regression adjusting for global methylation showed that As(III) level was significantly associated with expression of TXNRD1, GSTP1, HMOX1, and PRDX1. The results of this study indicate that arsenic occupational exposure is positively associated with global DNA methylation. The findings provide evidence for rather inactivation of NRF2-KEAP1 pathway in response to chronic arsenic exposure.
    • The ESR1 and GPX1 gene expression level in human malignant and non-malignant breast tissues.

      Król, Magdalena B; Galicki, Michał; Grešner, Peter; Wieczorek, Edyta; Jablonska, Ewa; Reszka, Edyta; Morawiec, Zbigniew; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2018-03-15)
      The aim of this study was to establish whether the gene expression of estrogen receptor alpha (encoded by ESR1) correlates with the expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (encoded by GPX1) in the tumor and adjacent tumor-free breast tissue, and whether this correlation is affected by breast cancer. Such relationships may give further insights into breast cancer pathology with respect to the status of estrogen receptor.
    • Revision of reciprocal action of mercury and selenium.

      Kuraś, Renata; Janasik, Beata; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Stanisławska, Magdalena; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-10-23)
      Diverse forms of mercury (Hg) have various effects on animals and humans because of a variety of routes of administration. Inorganic mercury (iHg) binds to thiol groups of proteins and enzymes in one's body or is methylated by microorganisms. Organic form of Hg, contrary to the iHg, is more stable but may be demethylated to Hg2+ in the tissue of intestinal flora. Selenium (Se) also occurs in a variety of chemical forms in one's body but both of these elements behave very differently from one another. Mercury binding to selenide or Se-containing ligands is a primary molecular mechanism that reduces toxicity of Hg. Complexes formed in such a way are irreversible, and thus, biologically inactive. Se deficiency in a human body may impair normal synthesis of selenoproteins and its expression because expression of mRNA may be potentially regulated by the Se status. This paper provides a comprehensive review concerning Hg-Se reciprocal action as a potential mechanism of protective action of Se against Hg toxicity as well as a potential detoxification mechanism. Although interactions between Hg-Se have been presented in numerous studies concerning animals and humans, we have focused mainly on animal models so as to understand molecular mechanisms responsible for antagonism better. The review also investigates what conclusions have been drawn by researchers with respect to the chemical species of Se and Hg (and their relationship) in biological systems as well as genetic variations and expression and/or activity of selenoproteins related to the thioredoxin (thioredoxin Trx/TrxR) system and glutathione metabolism. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(5):575-592.