Browsing NIOM - Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine by Subjects
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Analiza lotnych składników wybranych olejków eterycznych o działaniu relaksacyjnym.Stress is a result of disturbed homeostasis and can contribute to the development of many diseases. One of the methods of combating stress is aromatherapy, which uses essential oils with a calming and relaxing effect. The aim of the work was to perform a qualitative analysis of selected essential oils with a relaxing effect. The research concerned 6 preparations available on the Polish market, which are attributed with anti-stress activity. The qualitative analysis was carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, which allows the determination of both main and trace substances in the tested oils. The components of individual samples were compared with data from the literature. In the samples tested 9-36 substances were identified. The following substances had the largest share in the composition of the studied samples: limonene (0.5-91%), linalool acetate (16.8-39.2%), citronellal (0.1-28.7%), linalool (0.8-46.5%), valerianol (17.6%), geraniol (16.4%), and citronellol (14%). According to literature data, the main components of the studied essential oils have low acute toxicity. They can be safely used as intended and in the quantities recommended by the manufacturer. However, one should remember the potential synergistic effect (as a result of exposure to the abovementioned substances from various sources, such as: food, cosmetics, cleaning agents, etc.), as well as sensitizing effects of some compounds contained in oils. Despite the different chemical structure of active substances contained in the tested oils, it is suggested that the mechanism of the relaxing effect is identical and is associated with the inhibition of glutamatergic neurotransmission, similar to the action of benzodiazepines. Med Pr. 2019;70(2):229-47.
[Comparison of chemical composition of selected essential oils used in respiratory diseases].Essential oils are fragrances extracted from plants. They have a smooth consistency and pleasant smell. Essential oils have been applied in aromatherapy, cosmetics, food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of the study was to analyze the composition of selected essential oils used in respiratory diseases.
Testing of the composition of e-cigarette liquids – Manufacturer-declared vs. true contents in a selected series of productsBackground: Electronic cigarettes are currently in common use. However, in Poland there is no specific legislation governing the sale of these products. At the same time, no information has been made public about the hazards e-cigarettes pose to the users and bystanders − passive smokers. The aim of the study was to determine the qualitative composition of the analyzed liquid, which is an essential element of regulating the distribution of such cigarettes. Material and Methods: Under this study the method for determining the composition of e-cigarette liquids was developed. This method employs gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Levels of nicotine and flavoring components were determined in 50 e-liquid samples. The results were compared with the information provided by the manufacturer on the packaging. Results: The applied method of qualitative determination helped to identify the main ingredients, such as nicotine and propylene glycol (PG). Propylene glycol was found to be present in all liquids, because it was used as the solvent for nicotine and flavors. There was a good agreement between the declared and the determined content of nicotine in the analyzed samples. The agreement was considerably poorer for the remaining e-liquid ingredients, mainly flavors. Conclusions: There was no agreement between the flavor substances specified by the manufacturer and aroma identified in the e-cigarette liquid, which may pose a risk to users of e-cigarettes, particularly those susceptible to allergies. Several unsaturated aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes found to be present in the liquids, unstable at elevated temperatures, may be more harmful to the smoker than the original compounds. Therefore, it is essential to implement in Poland the legal provisions regarding e-cigarettes.