• Biomarkers of selenium status and antioxidant effect in workers occupationally exposed to mercury.

      Kuras, Renata; Reszka, Edyta; Wieczorek, Edyta; Jablonska, Ewa; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Malachowska, Beata; Kozlowska, Lucyna; Stanislawska, Magdalena; Janasik, Beata; Wasowicz, Wojciech; et al. (2018-09)
      The present observation based research was designed to evaluate the influence of occupational human exposure to metallic mercury (Hg°) vapor on the biomarkers of selenium status involved in the antioxidant defense system. For this purpose we determined Hg and selenium (Se) concentrations in body fluids, the markers of antioxidant effect measured as an activity of Se-dependent enzymes (red blood cell and plasma glutathione peroxidase: GPx1-RBC and GPx3-P), concentration of selenoprotein P in the plasma (SeP-P) and total antioxidant activity in the plasma (TAA-P) in 131 male workers from a chloralkali plant exposed to Hg° and 67 non-exposed males (control group). The mRNA expression levels of glutathione peroxidases (GPX1, GPX3), selenoprotein P (SEPP1), thioredoxin reductase 1 (TRXR1), thioredoxin 1 (TRX1), peroxiredoxins (PRDX1, PRDX2) were also examined in the leukocytes of peripheral blood. Hg concentration in the blood (Hg-B) and urine (Hg-U) samples was determined using the thermal decomposition amalgamation/atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA-AAS) method and Se concentrations in plasma (Se-P) and urine (Se-U) using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. Activities of GPx1-RBC, GPx3-P and TAA-P were determined using the kinetic and spectrophotometric method, respectively. Gene expression analysis was performed using the quantitative Real-Time PCR. The results showed significant higher Hg levels among the Hg°-exposed workers in comparison to control group (12-times higher median for Hg-B and almost 74-times higher median for Hg-U concentration in chloralkali workers). Se-P was also significantly higher (Me (median): 82.85 μg/L (IQR (interquartile range) 72.03-90.28 μg/L) for chloralkali workers vs. Me: 72.74 μg/L (IQR 66.25-80.14 μg/L) for control group; p = 0.0001) but interestingly correlated inversely with Hg-U in chloralkali workers suggesting depletion of the Se protection among the workers with the highest Hg-U concentration. The mRNA level for GPX1, PRXD1 were markedly but significantly higher in the workers compared to the control group. Moreover, concentrations of Hg-B and Hg-U among the workers were significantly positively correlated with the levels of selenoprotein P at both the mRNA and selenoprotein levels. In the multivariate model, after adjusting to cofounders (dental amalgam fillings, age, BMI, job seniority time, smoking), we confirmed that Hg-U concentration was inversely correlated with genes expression of TRXR1. This is the first comprehensive assessment of the impact of occupational exposure of workers to Hg° at both the mRNA and selenoprotein levels, with investigation of fish intake obtained by means of a questionnaire. These findings suggest that exposure to Hg° alters gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes and the level of Se-containing selenoproteins.
    • Mammographic density and ageing: A collaborative pooled analysis of cross-sectional data from 22 countries worldwide.

      Burton, Anya; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Vachon, Celine; Miao, Hui; Lajous, Martín; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Rice, Megan; Pereira, Ana; Garmendia, Maria Luisa; et al. (2017-06)
      Mammographic density (MD) is one of the strongest breast cancer risk factors. Its age-related characteristics have been studied in women in western countries, but whether these associations apply to women worldwide is not known.
    • Maternal Stress During Pregnancy and Allergic Diseases in Children During the First Year of Life.

      Smejda, Katarzyna; Polanska, Kinga; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Krol, Anna; Hanke, Wojciech; Jerzynska, Joanna; Stelmach, Wlodzimierz; Majak, Paweł; Stelmach, Iwona; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2018-01)
      Many recent studies indicate that prenatal maternal distress increases the risk of allergic diseases in children. The mechanisms that favor it are still unclear.
    • Rotating night shift work and physical activity of nurses and midwives in the cross-sectional study in Łódź, Poland.

      Peplonska, Beata; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Sobala, Wojciech; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2014-12)
      Shift work have been thought to restrict participation in leisure time activities, but the knowledge about physical activity in rotating night shift nurses has been limited so far. We investigated the associations between the rotating night shift work and physical activity using data from a cross-sectional study among nurses and midwives. This study included 354 nurses and midwives (aged 40-60) currently working rotating night shifts and 371 ones working days only. The information on the work characteristics and potential covariates was collected via a personal interview. Weight and height were measured and BMI was calculated. Physical activity was assessed according to the international questionnaire on physical activity - IPAQ, and four domains: leisure time, occupational, transport related and household were analyzed. Women who reported none leisure time activity were defined as recreationally "inactive". The associations were examined with multiple linear or logistic regression models adjusted for age, season of the year, number of full term births, marital status and BMI. Total and occupational physical activity was significantly higher among nurses working rotating night shifts. However, leisure time activity was significantly affected among rotating night shift nurses and midwives, compared to women working during the days only, with increased odds ratio for recreational "inactivity" (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.11-2.20). Rotating night shift work among nurses and midwives is associated with higher occupational physical activity but lower leisure time activity. Initiatives supporting exercising among night shift workers are recommended.
    • Rotating night shift work, sleep quality, selected lifestyle factors and prolactin concentration in nurses and midwives.

      Bukowska, Agnieszka; Sobala, Wojciech; Peplonska, Beata; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2015-04)
      The pattern of secretion of many hormones, including prolactin, is dependent on the circadian rhythm. Night shift work involves exposure to artificial light at night and sleep deficiency, which in turn can affect prolactin synthesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible association between night shift work characteristics, sleep quality, lifestyle factors and prolactin concentration, using data from a cross-sectional study of nurses and midwives. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 327 nurses and midwives currently working on rotating night shifts, and 330 nurses and midwives working during the day (aged 40-60 years) (388 premenopausal and 269 postmenopausal). Information about night shift work characteristics, lifestyle, reproductive factors, sleep pattern and other covariates was collected through a face-to-face interview, and from a one-week work and sleep diary completed by the subjects. Weight and height were measured. Prolactin concentration was measured in the morning blood sample using the electrochemiluminesence immunoassay method. Associations were analyzed using linear regression models adjusted for important confounders. Analyses were carried out separately in pre- and postmenopausal women. None of the night shift work or sleep characteristics was significantly associated with prolactin concentration. Prolactin concentration was significantly (p < 0.05) inversely associated with smoking and time of blood sample collection. These results were consistent among both pre- and postmenopausal women. Nulliparity was significantly positively associated with prolactin among premenopausal women, but inversely among postmenopausal. Age was related to prolactin among postmenopausal women only. Our study indicates that rotating night shift work is not associated with prolactin concentration. Smoking, parity, time of blood collection and age among postmenopausal women were significant determinants of prolactin.
    • Smoking Patterns and Smoking Cessation Willingness-A Study among Beneficiaries of Government Welfare Assistance in Poland.

      Milcarz, Katarzyna; Makowiec-Dabrowska, Teresa; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Kaleta, Dorota; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (2017-01-27)
      This study examines the prevalence and tobacco use patterns among adult social assistance beneficiaries and their interest in quitting. The results are based on data collected in a cross-sectional survey conducted among adults in the Piotrkowski district. A sample of 3636 social assistance beneficiaries produced a total of 1817 respondents who completed face-to-face questionnaires. Overall, 37.1% of the respondents, including 52.8% men and 29.6% women, were current smokers. Over one third of the smokers reported their willingness to quit. In the study population, several characteristics were significantly associated with the current daily smoking: male gender, low educational attainment, unemployment or temporary employment, lack of awareness of smoking-associated health risks, use of e-cigarettes, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The intention to quit smoking among the daily smokers was positively correlated with their awareness of smoking-associated health risks, lack of previous quit attempts, and low exposure to ETS. Smoking prevalence among social assistance recipients tends to be higher than in the general population, but more than half of the smokers are willing to quit. There is an urgency to develop policies tailored to the needs of these disadvantaged population groups.
    • Trafnosc diagnostyczna oznaczen alergenowo swoistych przeciwcial IgE w zawodowej alergii drog oddechowych na czynniki o duzej masie czasteczkowej.

      Zgorzelska-Kowalik, Joanna; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Nowakowska-Swirta, Ewa; Wiszniewska, Marta; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2017-02-28)
      The performance of specific inhalation challenge test (SICT) - reference method in diagnostics of occupational allergy - has some limitations due to health status of a particular patient. Therefore, it is extremely important to identify usefulness of other tests, and the evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of commercially available serum specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) kits to the most common high molecular weight agents has been launched.