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Radiation-Induced Lens Opacities among Interventional Cardiologists: Retrospective Assessment of Cumulative Eye Lens Doses.This study describes the retrospective lens dose calculation methods developed and applied within the European epidemiological study on radiation-induced lens opacities among interventional cardiologists. While one approach focuses on self-reported data regarding working practice in combination with available procedure-specific eye lens dose values, the second approach focuses on the conversion of the individual whole-body dose to eye lens dose. In contrast with usual dose reconstruction methods within an epidemiological study, a protocol is applied resulting in an individual distribution of possible cumulative lens doses for each recruited cardiologist, rather than a single dose estimate. In this way, the uncertainty in the dose estimate (from measurement uncertainty and variability among cardiologists) is represented for each individual. Eye lens dose and whole-body dose measurements have been performed in clinical practice to validate both methods, and it was concluded that both produce acceptable results in the framework of a dose-risk evaluation study. Optimal results were obtained for the dose to the left eye using procedure-specific lens dose data in combination with information collected on working practice. This method has been applied to 421 interventional cardiologists resulting in a median cumulative eye lens dose of 15.1 cSv for the left eye and 11.4 cSv for the right eye. From the individual cumulative eye lens dose distributions obtained for each cardiologist, maxima up to 9-10 Sv were observed, although with low probability. Since whole-body dose values above the lead apron are available for only a small fraction of the cohort and in many cases not for the entire working career, the second method has only been used to benchmark the results from the first approach. This study succeeded in improving the retrospective calculation of cumulative eye lens doses in the framework of radiation-induced risk assessment of lens opacities, but it remains dependent on self-reported information, which is not always reliable for early years. However, the calculation tools developed can also be used to make an assessment of the eye lens dose in current practice.