• Auditory temporal processing tests – Normative data for Polish-speaking adults

      Majak, Joanna; Zamysłowska-Szmytke, Ewa; Rajkowska, Elżbieta; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (2015)
      Background: Several subjects exposed to neurotoxins in the workplace need to be assessed for central auditory deficit. Although central auditory processing tests are widely used in other countries, they have not been standardized for the Polish population. The aim of the study has been to evaluate the range of reference values for 3 temporal processing tests: the duration pattern test (DPT), the frequency pattern test (FPT) and the gaps in noise test (GIN). Material and Methods: The study included 76 normal hearing individuals (38 women, 38 men) at the age of 18 to 54 years old (mean ± standard deviation: 39.4±9.1). All study participants had no history of any chronic disease and underwent a standard ENT examination. Results: The reference range for the DPT was established at 55.3% or more of correct answers, while for the FPT it stood at 56.7% or more of correct answers. The mean threshold for both ears in the GIN test was defined as 6 ms. In this study there were no significant associations between the DPT, FPT and GIN results and age or gender. Symmetry between the ears in the case of the DPT, FPT and GIN was found. Conclusions: Reference ranges obtained in this study for the DPT and FPT in the Polish population are lower than reference ranges previously published for other nations while the GIN test results correspond to those published in the related literature. Further investigations are needed to explain the discrepancies between normative values in Poland and other countries and adapt tests for occupational medicine purposes. Med Pr 2015;66(2):145–152
    • Cervico-ocular reflex upregulation in dizzy patients with asymmetric neck pathology.

      Zamysłowska-Szmytke, Ewa; Adamczewski, Tomasz; Ziąber, Jacek; Majak, Joanna; Kujawa, Jolanta; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (2019-10-16)
      Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the restriction in neck rotation and increased neck muscle tension could be causally related to vertigo and dizziness. Material and Methods: Seventy-one patients reporting vertigo and/or imbalance were divided into 2 groups: 45 subjects with unilateral restriction (R+) and 26 without restriction (R–) of cervical rotation and muscle tension in the clinical flexion-rotation test. The normal caloric test was the inclusion criterion. The control group comprised 36 healthy volunteers with no history of vertigo. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and the cervico-occular reflex (COR) were measured through the videonystagmography (VNG) sinusoidal pendular kinetic test in the conditions of not inactivated head and immobilized head, respectively. The VNG-head torsion test (VNG-HTT) nystagmus was recorded. Results: Among the reported complaints, neck stiffness, headaches and blurred vision were more frequent in the R+ group than in both the R– group and the control group. VNG revealed an increased COR gain and the presence of VNG-HTT nystagmus in the R+ group only. Similarly, only in the R+ group a positive relationship between COR and VOR was observed. Conclusions: Patients with asymmetric restriction in neck rotation and increased neck muscle tension reveal the tendency to have an increased response of the vestibular system, along with co-existing COR upregulation. Further research is needed to investigate the relationships between the activation of cervical mechanoreceptors and dizziness pathomechanisms.