Cytogenetic analysis of Pakistani individuals occupationally exposed to pesticides in a pesticide production industry.
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AbstractAlthough several cytogenetic biomonitoring studies on workers exposed to pesticides have been reported, there is only limited information on this topic from developing countries where pesticides have been widely used over the years. People in developing countries are at higher risk from exposure, due to poor working conditions and a lack of awareness of the potential hazards during manufacturing and application of the pesticides. The present study has assessed the genotoxic effects of pesticides on workers involved in the pesticide manufacturing industry. Subjects in the exposed group (29) were drawn from workers at a pesticide production plant in district Multan (Pakistan). The control group (unexposed) composed of 35 individuals from the same area but was not involved in pesticide production. Liver enzymes, serum cholinesterase (SChE), micronucleus assay and some haematological parameters were used as biomarkers in this study. A statistically significant (P < 0.001) increase in levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase was detected in exposed workers with respect to the control group. There was a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in the level of SChE in the exposed group. Exposed individuals exhibited cytogenetic damage with increased frequencies (P < 0.001) of binucleated cells with micronuclei and total number of micronuclei in binucleated lymphocytes in comparison with subjects of the control group. A decrease (P < 0.001) in cytokinesis block proliferation index similarly demonstrates a genotoxic effect due to pesticide exposure. The results indicate that the pesticide industry workers have experienced significant genotoxic exposure. This study highlights the risk to workers in the pesticide manufacturing industries of developing countries such as Pakistan and the need for implementation of suitable safety measures to prevent/limit exposure to harmful toxins.
CitationMutagenesis 2006, 21 (2):143-148
DescriptionBiomarkers of exposure & early effects: field studiesBiomarker:Liver enzymes, serum cholinesterase (SChE), micronucleus assay and some haematological parametersExposure/effect represented:pesticides(organophosphates and pyrethroids)Study design:case- control studyStudy size:29 exposed and 35 unexposedAnalytical technique:haematological assay, spectrophotometric method, MN measurementTissue/biological material/sample size:10 ml blood samplesRelationship with exposure or effect of interest (including dose-response):Factors modulating biomarkers:smoking statusImpact on outcome (including dose-response):Hb (g/dl) in exposed 13.79+/-0.81, in control 14.33+/-0.56 (P<0.01)HCT (%) in exposed 41.93 +/- 1.44 in control 42.54 +/- 1.48 (P<0.05)RBC (million/ml) in exposed 4.94 +/- 0.54, in control 5.35 +/- 0.25 (P,0.001)MCH (pg) in exposed 28.24 +/- 3.45 26.86 +/-, in control 1.73(P>0.05)MCV (mm3) in exposed 85.76 +/- 8.67, in control 79.73 +/- 4.97 (P<0.05)MCHC (g/dl) in exposed 32.91 +/- 2.09, in control 33.74 +/- 1.92 (P>0.05)SchE in exposed 8174.6 +/- 2437.4, in control 11715.8+/- 1608.76(P<0.001)ALT in exposed 55.4+/-9.86, in control 36.97+/-7.63 (P<0.001)AST in exposed 61.11+/-17.25, in control 42.27+/-11.09. KEYWORDS CLASSIFICATION: analysis;Adult;biomarkers of exposure & effect: field studies;blood;Biological Markers;Biotechnology;chemistry;Cholinesterases;Cytogenetics;enzymology;Humans;Industry;Liver;Lymphocytes;metabolism;methods;Male;Micronucleus Tests;Occupational Exposure;pharmacology;Pakistan;Pesticides;Risk;Smoking;Toxicology;field studies.