• Rapid analysis of XRCC1 polymorphisms using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

      Schneider, Joachim; Classen, Vera; Philipp, Monika; Helmig, Simone (2009-03-13)
      DNA repair plays a critical role in protecting the genome from carcinogens or ionizing radiation. Three coding polymorphisms at codons 194, 280, and 399 in X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) DNA repair gene have been identified that may affect DNA repair and alter cancer susceptibility. In order to study their role in molecular-epidemiology studies we developed a single-step procedure for genotyping these polymorphisms using real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) and subsequent melting curve analysis. Genotypes of 622 unrelated Caucasians without prior history of cancer were determined by real-time PCR and compared to genotypes obtained by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR. In the population studied, the allele frequency of the XRCC1 26304 site (C-->T) of codon 194 in exon 6 was 0.065, the allele frequency of the XRCC1 27466 site (G-->A) of codon 280 in exon 9 was 0.048 and of the XRCC1 28152 site (G-->A) of codon 399 in exon 10 was 0.35. There was no disagreement between the two methods. These findings confirm the real-time fluorescence PCR method as a rapid and reliable assay for the analysis of large numbers of samples.
    • The reaction of flavanols with nitrous acid protects against N-nitrosamine formation and leads to the formation of nitroso derivatives which inhibit cancer cell growth.

      Lee, Stephanie Y. H.; Munerol, Bibiana; Pollard, Susan; Youdim, Kuresh A.; Pannala, Ananth S.; Kuhnle, Gunter G. C.; Debnam, Edward S.; Rice-Evans, Catherine; Spencer, Jeremy P. E. (2006-01-15)
      Studies have suggested that diets rich in polyphenols such as flavonoids may lead to a reduced risk of gastrointestinal cancers. We demonstrate the ability of monomeric and dimeric flavanols to scavenge reactive nitrogen species derived from nitrous acid. Both epicatechin and dimer B2 (epicatechin dimer) inhibited nitrous acid-induced formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and the formation of the carcinogenic N-nitrosamine, N-nitrosodimethylamine. The reaction of monomeric and dimeric epicatechin with nitrous acid led to the formation of mono- and di-nitroso flavanols, whereas the reaction with hesperetin resulted primarily in the formation of nitrated products. Although, epicatechin was transferred across the jejunum of the small intestine yielding metabolites, its nitroso form was not absorbed. Dimer B2 but not epicatechin monomer inhibited the proliferation of, and triggered apoptosis in, Caco-2 cells. The latter was accompanied by caspase-3 activation and reductions in Akt phosphorylation, suggesting activation of apoptosis via inhibition of prosurvival signaling. Furthermore, the dinitroso derivative of dimer B2, and to a lesser extent the dinitroso-epicatechin, also induced significant toxic effects in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory effects on cellular proliferation were paralleled by early inhibition of ERK 1/2 phosphorylation and later reductions in cyclin D1 levels, indicating modulation of cell cycle regulation in Caco-2 cells. These effects highlight multiple routes in which dietary derived flavanols may exert beneficial effects in the gastrointestinal tract.
    • Red palm oil suppresses the formation of azoxymethane (AOM) induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in Fisher 344 male rats.

      Boateng, J.; Verghese, M.; Chawan, C.B.; Shackelford, L.; Walker, L.T.; Khatiwada, J.; Williams, D.S. (2006-10)
      Red palm oil (RPO) contains significant levels of carotenoids and Vitamin E. In this experiment we compared the inhibitory effects of RPO (7% and 14% levels) and soybean oil (7% and 14%) on azoxymethane (AOM) induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Thirty-two male Fisher 344 rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Two groups received AIN-93 G control (C) diet containing 7% and 14% soybean oil (SBO), respectively. Groups 3 and 4 received a treatment diet consisting of 7% and 14% RPO, respectively. The rats received subcutaneous injections of AOM at 16 mg/kg body weight at 7 and 8 weeks of age. At 17 weeks of age rats were killed by CO(2) asphyxiation. Numbers of ACF (mean+/-SE) in the proximal and distal colon were: 39.9 +/- 0.9, 53.8 +/- 2.8, 26.0 +/- 3.0, 27.5 +/- 1.5 and 118.2 +/- 1.7, 125.6 +/- 3.2, 41 +/- 7, 52.3 +/- 1.8 in rats fed 7% SBO, 14% SBO, 7% RPO and 14% RPO, respectively. The results of this study showed that RPO reduced the incidence of AOM induced ACF and may therefore have a beneficial effect in reducing the incidence of colon cancer.
    • Relationship between genotoxicity biomarkers in somatic and germ cells: findings from a biomonitoring study.

      Migliore, L.; Colognato, R.; Naccarati, A.; Bergamaschi, E. (2006-03)
      A biomonitoring study to evaluate chromosome and DNA damage respectively in somatic and germ cells of a group of male workers exposed to styrene by using biomarkers of genotoxicity was carried out. Styrene-exposed workers from three different areas of Tuscany and healthy subjects, of comparable mean age, sex and lifestyle characteristics, as a control group not exposed to chemicals, have been enrolled. In addition to previous reports [L. Migliore, A. Naccarati, A. Zanello, R. Scarpato, L. Bramanti and M. Mariani (2002) Hum. Reprod., 17, 2912-2918; L. Migliore, A. Naccarati, F. Coppedè et al. (2006) Pharmacogenet. Genomics, 16, 87-99] we present now data on a cross-sectional investigation involving a homogeneous group of subjects for which data on both somatic and germ cells have been obtained from individuals (42 exposed and 25 controls). Somatic cell genotoxicity was assessed by analysing the frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells (MNBN) in blood lymphocytes. The micronucleus assay was coupled with centromeric fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Primary DNA damage in germ cells was evaluated by alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) and the percentage of the tail DNA (%TD) was used as parameter of Comet evaluation. Moreover, to investigate the frequencies of aneuploidy and diploidy in sperm, we performed multicolour FISH, using DNA probes specific for the centromeric regions of sex chromosomes and chromosome 2, in decondensed sperm nuclei of samples with normal semen parameters in a subgroup of individuals. Mandelic and phenylglyoxylic acids (MAPGA) in end of shift samples were determined as biomarkers of internal dose. MAPGA excretion was consistent with an exposure to styrene above the threshold limit value-time weighted average concentration of 20 p.p.m. Styrene workers showed significantly higher frequency of MNBN as compared to controls (13.8 +/- 5.2 versus 6.2 +/- 5.1; P < 0.001), due to higher proportions of both micronuclei (MN) arising from chromosomal breakage (C-MN) and harbouring whole chromosomes (C+MN). DNA damage in sperm cells was also higher among styrene-exposed, the %TD being 11.02 +/- 2.99 versus 7.42 +/- 2.30 in controls (P < 0.001). The incidence of aneuploidy and diploidy for the tested chromosomes in sperm did not show a statistically significant difference between workers and controls. However, a positive correlation was found between genotoxic damage detected in somatic and in germ cells, even after removing the effect of age (r = 0.475; P < 0.001). Although cytogenetic biomarkers detected both in somatic and germ cells were interrelated, no relationships were apparent with exposure parameters. Styrene exposure may increase the likelihood of both chromosome and DNA damage in somatic and germ cells, thus supporting the hypothesis of an interference on reproductive capacity among exposed workers. This is the first time that a field study shows a correlation between two biomarkers of genotoxicity evaluated at the same time in somatic and germ cells.
    • Revised assessment of cancer risk to dichloromethane II. Application of probabilistic methods to cancer risk determinations.

      David, Raymond M.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Gentry, P. Robinan; Covington, Tammie R.; Morgott, David A.; Marino, Dale J. (2006-06)
      An updated PBPK model of methylene chloride (DCM, dichloromethane) carcinogenicity in mice was recently published using Bayesian statistical methods (Marino et al., 2006). In this work, this model was applied to humans, as recommended by Sweeney et al.(2004). Physiological parameters for input into the MCMC analysis were selected from multiple sources reflecting, in each case, the source that was considered to represent the most current scientific evidence for each parameter. Metabolic data for individual subjects from five human studies were combined into a single data set and population values derived using MCSim. These population values were used for calibration of the human model. The PBPK model using the calibrated metabolic parameters was used to perform a cancer risk assessment for DCM, using the same tumor incidence and exposure concentration data relied upon in the current IRIS entry. Unit risks, i.e., the risk of cancer from exposure to 1 microg/m3 over a lifetime, for DCM were estimated using the calibrated human model. The results indicate skewed distributions for liver and lung tumor risks, alone or in combination, with a mean unit risk (per microg/m3) of 1.05 x 10(-9), considering both liver and lung tumors. Adding the distribution of genetic polymorphisms for metabolism to the ultimate carcinogen, the unit risks range from 0 (which is expected given that approximately 20% of the US population is estimated to be nonconjugators) up to a unit risk of 2.70 x 10(-9) at the 95th percentile. The median, or 50th percentile, is 9.33 x 10(-10), which is approximately a factor of 500 lower than the current EPA unit risk of 4.7 x 10(-7) using a previous PBPK model. These values represent the best estimates to date for DCM cancer risk because all available human data sets were used, and a probabilistic methodology was followed.
    • Revised assessment of cancer risk to dichloromethane: part I Bayesian PBPK and dose-response modeling in mice.

      Marino, Dale J.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Gentry, P. Robinan; Covington, Tammie R.; Hack, C. Eric; David, Raymond M.; Morgott, David A. (2006-06)
      The current USEPA cancer risk assessment for dichloromethane (DCM) is based on deterministic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling involving comparative metabolism of DCM by the GST pathway in the lung and liver of humans and mice. Recent advances in PBPK modeling include probabilistic methods and, in particular, Bayesian inference to quantitatively address variability and uncertainty separately. Although Bayesian analysis of human PBPK models has been published, no such efforts have been reported specifically addressing the mouse, apart from results included in the OSHA final rule on DCM. Certain aspects of the OSHA model, however, are not consistent with current approaches or with the USEPA's current DCM cancer risk assessment. Therefore, Bayesian analysis of the mouse PBPK model and dose-response modeling was undertaken to support development of an improved cancer risk assessment for DCM. A hierarchical population model was developed and prior parameter distributions were selected to reflect parameter values that were considered the most appropriate and best available. Bayesian modeling was conducted using MCSim, a publicly available software program for Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis. Mean posterior values from the calibrated model were used to develop internal dose metrics, i.e., mg DCM metabolized by the GST pathway/L tissue/day in the lung and liver using exposure concentrations and results from the NTP mouse bioassay, consistent with the approach used by the USEPA for its current DCM cancer risk assessment. Internal dose metrics were 3- to 4-fold higher than those that support the current USEPA IRIS assessment. A decrease of similar magnitude was also noted in dose-response modeling results. These results show that the Bayesian PBPK model in the mouse provides an improved basis for a cancer risk assessment of DCM.
    • Revisiting the population toxicokinetics of tetrachloroethylene.

      Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Bois, Frédéric Y. (2006-06)
    • Risk factors for lung cancer in Iowa women: implications for prevention.

      Neuberger, John S.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Field, R. William (2006)
      BACKGROUND: Multiple risk factors possibly associated with lung cancer were examined as part of a large-scale residential radon case-control study conducted in Iowa between 1994 and 1997. We were particularly interested in stratifying risk factors by smoking status. Relatively little risk factor information is available for Midwestern rural women. METHODS: Four hundred thirteen female lung cancer cases and 614 controls aged 40-84, who were residents of their current home for at least 20 years, were included. Risk factors examined included cigarette smoking, passive smoking, occupation, chemical exposure, previous lung disease, family history of cancer, and urban residence. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted after adjusting for age, education, and cumulative radon exposure. RESULTS: As expected, active cigarette smoking was the major risk factor for lung cancer. While cessation of smoking was significantly associated with a reduced risk for lung cancer, the risk remained significantly elevated for 25 years. Among all cases, asbestos exposure was a significant risk. Among ex-smokers, pack-year history predominated as the major risk. Among never smokers, a family history of kidney or bladder cancer were significant risk factors (OR=7.34, 95% CI=1.91-28.18; and OR=5.02, 95% CI=1.64-15.39, respectively), as was a history of previous lung disease (OR=2.28, 95% CI=1.24-4.18) and asbestos exposure. No statistically significant increase in lung cancer risk was found for occupation or urban residence. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking prevention activities are urgently needed in rural areas of the United States. Relatives of individuals with smoking-related cancers are potentially at increased risk. Genetic risk factors should be more fully investigated in never smokers.
    • Role of cyclooxygenase-2 in the carcinogenesis of gastrointestinal tract cancers: a review and report of personal experience.

      Fujimura, Takashi; Ohta, Tetsuo; Oyama, Katsunobu; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Miwa, Koichi (2006-03-07)
      Selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors (coxibs) were developed as one of the anti-inflammatory drugs to avoid the various side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However,coxibs also have an ability to inhibit tumor development of various kinds the same way that NSAIDs do. Many experimental studies using cell lines and animal models demonstrated an ability to prevent tumor proliferation of COX-2 inhibitors. After performing a randomized study for polyp chemoprevention study in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP),which showed that the treatment with celecoxib, one of the coxibs, significantly reduced the number of colorectal polyps in 2000, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) immediately approved the clinical use of celecoxib for FAP patients. However, some coxibs were recently reported to increase the risk of serious cardiovascular events including heart attack and stroke. In this article we review a role of COX-2 in carcinogenesis of gastrointestinal tract, such as the esophagus, stomach and colorectum,and also analyze the prospect of coxibs for chemoprevention of gastrointestinal tract tumors.
    • The role of XRCC1 polymorphisms in base excision repair of etheno-DNA adducts in French vinyl chloride workers.

      Li, Yongliang; Marion, Marie-Jeanne; Zipprich, Jennifer; Freyer, Greg; Santella, Regina M.; Kanki, Chisaka; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W. (2006)
      OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine whether polymorphisms in the XRCC1 DNA-repair protein can affect the base excision repair capacity to remove etheno-DNA adducts induced by vinyl chloride exposure that account for the occurrence of mutant biomarkers of effect seen in exposed workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and fluorescence polarization techniques, we examined the effect of three x-ray cross complementing-1 protein polymorphisms, at codons 194, 280 and 399, on the occurrence of mutant biomarkers in ras-p21 and p53 induced by vinyl chloride exposure in a cohort of 211 French vinyl chloride workers to correlate differences in genotype with differences in the presence of these biomarkers. Also, cell cultures of lymphoblast lines from a pair of individuals, one homozygous wild-type and one homozygous variant for the codon 399 polymorphism, were exposed to the reactive intermediate of vinyl chloride, and, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, levels of etheno-DNA adducts generated and repaired were measured and compared. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol drinking and cumulative vinyl chloride exposure, compared to workers who were homozygous wild-type for all alleles, the odds ratio for the presence of either biomarker increased to 2.0 (95% CI: 1.0-3.9) for workers with any one variant allele and to 2.4 (95% CI: 1.1-5.2) for workers with more than one variant allele. Data from the cell culture experiments indicating that repair of etheno-DNA adducts is considerably better in wild-type cells compared to polymorphic cells were supportive of the epidemiologic results. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides further evidence that polymorphisms in XRCC1 can be an important biomarker of susceptibility in populations exposed to agents that produce damage removed by base excision repair.
    • ROS release and Hsp70 expression after exposure to 1,800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in primary human monocytes and lymphocytes.

      Lantow, M.; Lupke, M.; Frahm, J.; Mattsson, M. O.; Kuster, N.; Simko, M. (2006-05)
      The aim of this study is to investigate if 1,800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) release and/or changes in heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression in human blood cells, using different exposure and co-exposure conditions. Human umbilical cord blood-derived monocytes and lymphocytes were used to examine ROS release after exposure to continuous wave or different GSM signals (GSM-DTX and GSM-Talk) at 2 W/kg for 30 or 45 min of continuous or intermittent (5 min ON/5 min OFF) exposure. The cells were exposed to incubator conditions, to sham, to RF-EMF, or to chemicals in parallel. Cell stimulation with the phorbol ester phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA; 1 microM) was used as positive control for ROS release. To investigate the effects on Hsp70 expression, the human monocytes were exposed to the GSM-DTX signal at 2 W/kg for 45 min, or to heat treatment (42 degrees C) as positive control. ROS production and Hsp70 expression were determined by flow cytometric analysis. The data were compared to sham and/or to control values and the statistical analysis was performed by the Student's t-test (P<0.05). The PMA treatment induced a significant increase in ROS production in human monocytes and lymphocytes when the data were compared to sham or to incubator controls. After continuous or intermittent GSM-DTX signal exposure (2 W/kg), a significantly different ROS production was detected in human monocytes if the data were compared to sham. However, this significant difference appeared due to the lowered value of ROS release during sham exposure. In human lymphocytes, no differences could be detected if data were compared either to sham or to incubator control. The Hsp70 expression level after 0, 1, and 2 h post-exposure to GSM-DTX signal at 2 W/kg for 1 h did not show any differences compared to the incubator or to sham control.
    • Selected polymorphisms of DNA repair genes and risk of pancreatic cancer.

      Jiao, Li; Bondy, Melissa L.; Hassan, Manal M.; Wolff, Robert A.; Evans, Douglas B.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Li, Donghui (2006)
      BACKGROUND: Genetic variants of DNA repair genes may contribute to pancreatic carcinogenesis. O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is the major protein that removes alkylating DNA adducts, and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) play important roles in the base excision repair pathway. METHODS: We investigated the association between polymorphisms of MGMT (Leu(84)Phe and Ile(143)Val), APE1 (Asp(148)Glu), and XRCC1 (Arg(194)Trp and Arg(399)Gln) and risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study. Exposure information from 384 patients with primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and 357 cancer-free healthy controls were collected and genomic DNAs were genotyped for five markers. Controls were frequency matched to patients by age at enrollment (+/-5 years), gender, and race. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by using unconditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: There was no significant main effect or interaction with smoking of these genetic variants on the risk of pancreatic cancer. However, the XRCC1(194) polymorphism had a significant interaction with the APE1(148) (p=0.005) or MGMT(84) polymorphism (p=0.02) in modifying the risk of pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that polymorphisms of genes involved in the repair of alkylating DNA adduct and DNA base damage may play a role in modulating the risk of pancreatic cancer. Larger studies are required to validate these preliminary findings. The mechanism of the combined genotype effects remains to be elucidated.
    • Selenised casein protects against AOM-induced colon tumors in Sprague Dawley rats.

      McIntosh, Graeme H.; Royle, Peter J.; Lesno, Severine; Scherer, Ben L. (2006)
      Selenium (Se) has been shown to be protective against cancers in animal models at concentrations exceeding those considered essential for normal nutritional requirements. Organic forms of Se provided as dairy proteins were obtained from cows fed diets supplemented with yeast Se. The casein extracted from milk was found to contain approximately half the Se of the Se-enriched milk. This casein was included in a semi-purified AIN rodent diet so as to provide 1 ppm Se and 25% protein and was compared with AIN diets containing no added Se (control, 0.05 ppm), 1 ppm and 4 ppm Se as selenised yeast (Sel-Plex) Their influence on colon tumor expression was examined in rats induced with azoxymethane, the diets being introduced post-induction. The selenised casein diet at this concentration was effective in reducing colon tumor incidence (by 29%) and burden (decreased 52%, P < 0.05) relative to the control in rats 26 wk post-induction. Selenised yeast, when added at similar (1 ppm) and increased Se concentration (4 ppm), did not influence significantly colon tumor expression. However, in a second study, with Se yeast providing Se at 1 ppm, 4 ppm, and 8 ppm throughout the experiment, a significant reduction in tumors was observed with 8 ppm Se (colon tumor incidence was 15% lower and colon tumor burden was 35% lower, P < 0.05). However this was associated with a significantly lower body weight in the rats (down 10.5%, P < 0.05) indicating a possible disturbance with normal energy intake or metabolism. The form in which Se is presented in the diet may influence significantly its bioavailability and/or anticancer potential at given concentrations within a safe range. The efficacy of selenised casein and indeed other potential dietary sources deserve further investigation with regard to their ability to prevent colon tumors at concentrations considered safe in the diet.
    • Selenium, apoptosis, and colorectal adenomas.

      Connelly-Frost, Alexandra; Poole, Charles; Satia, Jessie A.; Kupper, Lawrence L.; Millikan, Robert C.; Sandler, Robert S. (2006-03)
      BACKGROUND: Selenium is an essential trace element found in cereals, wheat, dairy products, meat, and fish. This micronutrient may prevent carcinogenesis through several biochemical pathways; one suggested pathway is enhanced apoptosis. OBJECTIVES: The relation between selenium and colorectal adenomas was evaluated because the colorectal adenoma is the established precursor lesion of most colorectal cancers. Apoptosis was a pathway of interest because decreased apoptosis has been associated with an increased prevalence of adenomas. Our objectives were as follows: to investigate the association between (a) selenium and colorectal adenomas and (b) selenium and apoptosis. METHODS: The study population was assembled for the Diet and Health Study III (n = 803), a cross-sectional study conducted at the University of North Carolina Hospital (Chapel Hill, NC). There were 451 participants in the analysis of selenium and adenoma prevalence and 351 participants in the analysis of selenium and apoptosis. Selenium was measured from serum collected at the time of colonoscopy. Apoptosis was measured in biopsies from normal rectal epithelium obtained during the colonoscopy procedure. RESULTS: Participants in the highest fifth of serum selenium were less likely to have adenomas in comparison with those in the lowest fifth (prevalence ratio, 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.1). Selenium and apoptosis (>2.76 cells per crypt) were not strongly related, but results collectively suggested a roughly inverse association. CONCLUSIONS: High selenium was associated with a reduced prevalence of colorectal adenomas. Apoptosis, however, did not seem to be the mechanism by which selenium was related to adenoma prevalence in our data.
    • Serum cadmium levels in pancreatic cancer patients from the East Nile Delta region of Egypt.

      Kriegel, Alison M.; Soliman, Amr S.; Zhang, Qing; El-Ghawalby, Nabih; Ezzat, Farouk; Soultan, Ahmed; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Fathy, Omar; Ebidi, Gamal; Bassiouni, Nadia; et al. (2006-01)
      The northeast Nile Delta region exhibits a high incidence of early-onset pancreatic cancer. It is well documented that this region has one of the highest levels of pollution in Egypt. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that cadmium, a prevalent pollutant in the northeast Nile Delta region, plays a role in the development of pancreatic cancer. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess serum cadmium levels as markers of exposure in pancreatic cancer patients and noncancer comparison subjects from the same region in Egypt. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We assessed serum cadmium levels of 31 newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer patients and 52 hospital comparison subjects from Mansoura, Egypt. EVALUATION/MEASUREMENTS: Serum cadmium levels were measured using a novel immunoassay procedure. RESULTS: We found a significant difference between the mean serum cadmium levels in patients versus comparison subjects (mean+/-SD, 11.1+/-7.7 ng/mL vs. 7.1+/-5.0 ng/mL, respectively; p=0.012) but not in age, sex, residence, occupation, or smoking status. The odds ratio (OR) for pancreatic cancer risk was significant for serum cadmium level [OR=1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.23; p=0.0089] and farming (OR=3.25; 95% CI, 1.03-11.64; p=0.0475) but not for age, sex, residence, or smoking status. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this pilot study suggest that pancreatic cancer in the East Nile Delta region is significantly associated with high levels of serum cadmium and farming. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE/PUBLIC HEALTH: Future studies should further investigate the etiologic relationship between cadmium exposure and pancreatic carcinogenesis in cadmium-exposed populations.
    • Single nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and basal cell carcinoma of skin.

      Thirumaran, Ranjit Kumar; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Goessler, Walter; Vahter, Marie; Leonardi, Giovanni S.; Clemens, Felicity; Fletcher, Tony; et al. (2006-08)
      In addition to environmental exposures like UV radiation and, in some cases, arsenic contamination of drinking water, genetic factors may also influence the individual susceptibility to basal cell carcinoma of skin (BCC). In the present study, 529 cases diagnosed with BCC and 533 controls from Hungary, Romania and Slovakia were genotyped for one polymorphism in each of seven DNA repair genes. The variant allele for T241M (C>T) polymorphism in the XRCC3 gene was associated with a decreased cancer risk [odds ratio (OR), 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.61-0.88; P = 0.0007, multiple testing corrected P = 0.004]. The risk of multiple BCC was significantly lower among variant allele carriers than in non-carriers (P = 0.04). Men homozygous for the C-allele for E185Q (G>C) polymorphism in the NBS1 gene showed an increased BCC risk (OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.23-3.91), but not women (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.49-1.47). In men, the age and nationality adjusted OR for the genotype CC (XRCC3)/CC (NBS1) was 8.79 (95% CI, 2.10-36.8), compared with the genotype TT (XRCC3)/GG (NBS1). The data from this study show overall risk modulation of BCC by variant allele for T241M polymorphism in XRCC3 and gender-specific effect by E185Q polymorphism in NBS1.
    • Solar cycles and their relationship to human disease and adaptability.

      Davis, George E.; Lowell, Walter E. (2006)
      In this paper, we show that 11-year solar cycle peaks predispose humans to disease, but also endow creativity and adaptability. We give several examples of diseases that are modulated by light and present evidence for an effect of intensity and variation in sunlight, primarily ultraviolet radiation (UVR), on the human genome. The birth dates of nearly 237,000 unique clients in the Maine Medicaid database collected from 1995 to 2004, inclusive, were related to solar cycle irradiance for the past seventy-one years, encompassing seven solar cycles. The sample was divided into four general categories of disease: mental/behavioral illnesses; metabolic diseases; autoimmune diseases; neoplasms. The birth months for those clients born in any given year were arranged in the form of a winter/summer ratio in order to more clearly appreciate the seasonality inherent in each disease category. Solar cycles were separated into chaotic (approximately three times as irradiant) or non-chaotic according to the Gutenberg-Richter power law and the uncertainty inherent in predicting solar storms. The results show that radiation peaks in solar cycles and particularly in chaotic solar cycles (CSCs) are associated with a higher incidence of mental disorders, suggesting the sensitivity of ectodermal embryonic tissues to UVR. Autoimmune diseases have intermediate sensitivity, while the neoplasms in the study, primarily of endoderm, appear suppressed by peak UVR intensity. The ratio of the number of clients born in CSC cycles to non-CSC cycles was highest for the more genetic mental diseases, like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but as that ratio decreased, the clients with diseases like multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis showed more environmental features manifested as a greater winter/summer birth month ratio that was significantly different than that of the average client in the whole data set. The paper presents evidence that latitude, e.g., variation in light, is an added stress to the immune system (especially at 53-54 degrees N. latitude) that is involved in nearly all human disease. We hypothesize that introns, the presumptive engenderers of gene control, modulate the effects of UVR, particularly for the neoplasms studied. We conclude that intermittent and largely unpredictable peak solar cycle radiation has been the fundamental engine of evolution, forcing organisms to adapt to mutagenic UVR and producing enough damage to instigate genetic variation. Probably a chance genetic mutation over 80,000 years ago produced a human brain capable of abstract thought and consciousness. The slight genetic instability that favored an adaptable, creative brain also produced other somatic variations that present phenotypically as disease, but largely expressed after natural selection (reproduction) and associated with the inexorable entropy of aging.
    • Stability and reactivity of 2-nitrosoamino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline.

      Lakshmi, Vijaya M.; Hsu, Fong Fu; Schut, Herman A. J.; Zenser, Terry V. (2006-02)
      2-Nitrosoamino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (N-NO-MeIQx) is a nitrosation product of the food carcinogen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and is proposed to form in vivo under inflammatory conditions. This study evaluated the stability and reactivity of N-NO-MeIQx to assess its possible role in the initiation of colon cancer by MeIQx. 14C-N-NO-MeIQx (4 microM) was incubated for 4 h over a range of pH values, and its stability was monitored by HPLC. At pH values from pH 7.4 to 9.0, N-NO-MeIQx was very stable with no detectable change observed. Glutathione (1 mM) did not alter stability at pH 7.4. As the pH decreased, this nitrosamine was less stable with only 48 +/- 1% remaining at pH 5.5 and none remaining at pH 3.5 or 2.0. Major products identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were 3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline and 2-hydroxy-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline. MeIQx was a minor product. At pH 2.0, the t(1/2) for N-NO-MeIQx was reduced from 2.1 +/- 0.2 to 1.2 +/- 0.1 min with 10 mM NaN3. This effect of azide was due to the formation of 2-azido-MeIQx. The binding of 14C-N-NO-MeIQx to DNA increased with decreasing pH. The 10-fold increase in binding observed at pH 2.0 as compared to pH 5.5 was completely inhibited by 10 mM NaN3 due to 2-azido-MeIQx formation. The reactivity of N-NO-MeIQx was compared to N-OH-MeIQx by evaluating adduct formation with 2'-deoxyguanosine 3'-monophosphate (dGp) by 32P-postlabeling. N-OH-MeIQx formed a single major adduct, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-MeIQx (dG-C8-MeIQx). Incubation of N-NO-MeIQx under inflammatory conditions (pH 5.5 +/- HOCl) produced dG-C8-MeIQx along with 4-6 other adducts. dG-C8-MeIQx formation increased in the presence of HOCl. Liver from a MeIQx-treated mouse contained dG-C8-MeIQx and two other adducts detected with N-NO-MeIQx but not N-OH-MeIQx. These results suggest that N-NO-MeIQx could be genotoxic, is activated by conditions that mediate inflammatory responses, and is a possible cancer risk factor for individuals with inflammation of the colon.
    • Stage matters: choosing relevant model systems to address hypotheses in diet and cancer chemoprevention research.

      Fenton, Jenifer I.; Hord, Norman G. (2006-05)
      Clinical evidence reveals that the efficacy of dietary factors to prevent cancer is probably stage-dependent. The ability to demonstrate stage-specific effects of dietary compounds on normal, preneoplastic and malignant cell models may provide insights into puzzling clinical results from cancer chemoprevention trials. The relevance of these models to the field of cancer prevention is immense and will undoubtedly facilitate the ability to discover which dietary factors are most effective at preventing cancer and which, if any, specific steps in neoplastic transformation render cells refractory to the effects of dietary compounds. There are illustrative examples where exposure of high-risk individuals to dietary chemopreventive agents increases rather than decreases cancer risk. While geneticists and clinical oncologists acknowledge the morphological continuum along which tumors develop in specific tissues, tumor cells, rather than normal and preneoplastic cells, continue to be the primary in vitro reductionist tool employed to elucidate mechanisms underlying disease progression and to investigate the potential utility of dietary as well as other chemopreventive agents. Currently, there are few relevant model systems to study the progression of neoplastic transformation, especially in epithelial cells. We highlight examples of model systems isolated from prostate, breast, endometrial and intestinal tissue, with special emphasis on a specific set of non-tumorigenic, conditionally immortal cell lines derived from C57/BL6 mice [YAMC (Young Adult Mouse Colon cells; Apc+/+) cells and IMCE (Immorto-Min Colonic Epithelium cells; ApcMin/+) cells] that have yielded important information on early events in colorectal neoplasia development. These cell lines are an illustrative example of how researchers can examine stage-dependent effects of specific dietary components on carcinogenesis. The utilization of cell culture systems modeling early, middle and late stages of tumorigenesis will yield important insights into mechanisms by which dietary components impact cancer progression.