• Early loss of Fhit in the respiratory tract of rodents exposed to environmental cigarette smoke.

      D'Agostini, Francesco; Izzotti, Alberto; Balansky, Roumen; Zanesi, Nicola; Croce, Carlo M.; De Flora, Silvio (2006-04-01)
      The Fhit gene, encompassing the most active common human chromosomal fragile region, FRA3B, has been shown to act as a tumor suppressor. Several studies have shown significant Fhit alterations or Fhit protein loss in lung cancers from smokers compared with lung cancers from nonsmokers. To evaluate the role of Fhit under controlled experimental conditions, we exposed rodents to environmental cigarette smoke (ECS) and evaluated Fhit expression or Fhit protein in the respiratory tract. After 14 days of exposure to ECS, loss of Fhit protein in the bronchial/bronchiolar epithelium affected half of the tested B6-129(F(1)) mice, either wild type or Fhit(+/-). After 28 days, it affected the vast majority of the tested SKH-1 hairless mice and of A/J mice and all (UL53-3 x A/J)F(1) mice, either wild type or P53(+/-). In Sprague-Dawley rats, exposure to ECS for up to 30 days caused a time-dependent loss of Fhit in pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Moreover, ECS down-regulated Fhit expression and significantly decreased Fhit protein in the rat bronchial epithelium. The oral administration of N-acetylcysteine attenuated the ECS-related loss of Fhit, whereas oltipraz, 5,6-benzoflavone, phenethyl isothiocyanate, and indole 3-carbinol, and their combinations had no significant effect. Parallel studies evaluated a variety of molecular, biochemical, and cytogenetic alterations in the respiratory tract of the same animals. In conclusion, there is unequivocal evidence that Fhit is an early, critical target in smoke-related lung carcinogenesis in rodents, and that certain chemopreventive agents can attenuate the occurrence of this gene alteration.
    • Effect of dietary apigenin on colonic ornithine decarboxylase activity, aberrant crypt foci formation, and tumorigenesis in different experimental models.

      Au, Angela; Li, Boyong; Wang, Weiqun; Roy, Hemant; Koehler, Ken; Birt, Diane (2006)
      The efficacy of dietary apigenin, a dietary flavonoid, in colon cancer prevention was investigated by evaluating the inhibition of the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and by studying the ability of apigenin to block colon carcinogenesis in two mouse models. First, the activity of ODC was measured in colon cancer cells (Caco-2) and in the colon epithelium of CF-1 mice. Apigenin at 10 and 30 muM significantly inhibited the ODC activity of Caco-2 cells by 26% and 57%, respectively. Colonic ODC activity in CF-1 mice was reduced with 0.1% dietary apigenin by 42% compared with the control, but this difference was not statistically significant. Second, ACF formation was evaluated in azoxymethane (AOM)-induced CF-1 mice. Female CF-1 mice at 6 wk of age were i.p. injected with 5 mg/kg body weight (BW) AOM once to induce ACF. ACF formation in CF-1 mice was reduced by 50% (P < 0.05) with 0.1% dietary apigenin fed for 6 wk when compared with the control. Dietary apigenin inhibited ACF only in the distal region of the CF-1 mouse colon. Finally, tumorigenesis studies were conducted using two different mouse models: AOM-induced CF-1 mice and Min mice with mutant adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Female CF-1 mice at 6 wk of age were i.p. injected with 10 mg/kg BW AOM weekly for 6 (AOM Study I) or 4 (AOM Study II) wk to induce tumors. CF-1 mice were fed diets containing 0.025% or 0.1% apigenin for 23-25 wk. Female Min mice were fed diets for 10 wk beginning at 5 wk of age. In two AOM-treated mouse colon tumor studies 0.025% and 0.1% dietary apigenin modestly reduced tumors in the group fed 0.025% apigenin (25% incidence in comparison with 65% in the controls) in a non-dose response manner. Apigenin failed to inhibit adenoma formation in the Min mouse study. These results suggest that dietary apigenin showed promise in cancer prevention by reducing the ODC activity and ACF formation, however, clear evidence of cancer prevention was not obtained in mouse tumor studies. Further investigation of the potential chemopreventive effect of apigenin in carcinogenesis is warranted.
    • The effect of lifestyle factors on gynaecological cancer.

      Rieck, Gudrun; Fiander, Alison (2006-04)
      Several lifestyle factors affect a woman's risk of gynaecological cancer and-potentially-can be modified to reduce risk. This chapter summarises the evidence for the effect of lifestyle factors on the incidence of gynaecological malignancy. The incidence of obesity is increasing in the developed world such that it now contributes as much as smoking to overall cancer deaths. Women with a body mass index (BMI)>40 have a 60% higher risk of dying from all cancers than women of normal weight. They are also at increased risk from gynaecological cancer. Dietary factors significantly influence the risk of gynaecological cancer: fruit, vegetables and antioxidants reduce risk whereas high animal fat and energy intakes increase risk. Alcohol intake adversely affects breast cancer risk, possibly accounting for 4% of all breast cancers. Physical activity protects against ovarian, endometrial and postmenopausal breast cancer, independently of BMI. The oral contraceptive pill has a substantial and long-lasting effect on the prevention of ovarian and endometrial cancer and is one of the best examples of large-scale chemoprevention in the developed world. Childbearing is protective against ovarian, endometrial and breast cancer but increases the risk of cervical cancer. Smoking acts as a cofactor in cervical carcinogenesis and increases the risk of ovarian cancer, particularly mucinous tumours.
    • Effect of short-term fasting on urinary excretion of primary lipid peroxidation products and on markers of oxidative DNA damage in healthy women.

      Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Bartsch, Helmut; Nair, Jagadeesan; Yoo, Dong-Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul; Cho, Soo-Hun; Kang, Daehee (2006-07)
      The goal of this study was to determine whether short-term fasting changes in urinary biomarkers related to oxidative stress: malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha (8-isoPGF), 8-hydroxydeoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG) and 1,N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine (epsilondA) among female volunteers participating in the short-term fasting program in South Korea. The study subjects were 52 healthy women (mean age 28, range 15-48 years old) who provided urine samples both before and after the fasting program (average 7.2, range: 3-11 days). Urinary MDA was measured by HPLC-UV and epsilondA levels were measured by immuno-affinity purification followed by HPLC-fluorescence detection. Urinary 8-OHdG and 8-isoPGF concentrations were determined by ELISA. Plasma leptin levels were also measured by radioimmunoassay. Information on demographic characteristics, personal habits (smoking and alcohol consumption) and previous medical history were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Percent loss of body weight (average 6.3%, 4.28 +/- 0.25 kg) was significantly correlated with fasting duration (r = 0.70, n = 52, P < 0.01). The plasma leptin levels after fasting (5.89 +/- 1.10 ng/ml) were significantly lower than before fasting (6.91 +/- 1.13 ng/ml) (n = 27, P = 0.05). Urinary MDA levels after fasting (0.18 +/- 1.10 mg/g creatinine) were significantly lower than before fasting (0.37 +/- 1.11) (n = 51, P < 0.01). Urinary 8-isoPGF also were significantly reduced after fasting (n = 47, P < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in 8-OHdG or epsilondA. There was a statistically significant correlation between % change of urinary MDA level with % change of 8-isoPGF level (partial correlation coefficient r = 0.57, n = 46, P = 0.01). The correlations between % change of 8-OHdG and plasma leptin was also significant (partial correlation coefficient r = 0.51, n = 27, P = 0.02). Our results demonstrate that the short-term fasting reduces lipid peroxidation products but does not affect oxidative stress-induced DNA damage.
    • Effect of urban traffic, individual habits, and genetic polymorphisms on background urinary 1-hydroxypyrene excretion.

      Cocco, Pierluigi; Moore, Patrick S.; Ennas, Maria G.; Tocco, Maria G.; Ibba, Antonio; Mattuzzi, Silvia; Meloni, Michele; Monne, Maria; Piras, Giovanna; Collu, Stefania; et al. (2007-01)
      PURPOSE: Potential sources of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and genetic polymorphisms were investigated in relation to their contribution to interindividual variation in baseline levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) excretion in subjects without occupational exposure to PAHs. METHODS: Urinary excretion of 1-OHP was measured in 114 subjects, including 48 women and 66 men. Questionnaire information was collected on possible environmental and individual sources of PAH exposure. A subset of 70 individuals also was evaluated for a single-nucleotide polymorphism (Ex7+295C-->T) in the cytochrome P-450 1A2 (CYP1A2) gene, and 61 of these also were evaluated for the glutathione transferase T1 (GSTT1) gene polymorphism. RESULTS: 1-OHP values did not show a significant seasonal variability and were unaffected by age; education; body mass index; smoking status, including passive smoking; or the C-->T base substitution in position 295 of exon 7 of the CYP1A2 gene. After reciprocal adjustment with logistic regression, living in a heavily trafficked urban area (odds ratio, 4.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-24.9), and frequent intake of grilled meat (odds ratio, 6.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-43.5) were significant predictors of background urinary 1-OHP levels of 0.50 microg/g creatinine or greater. Elevated risks also were associated with daily alcohol intake greater than 65 g and the nonnull GSTT1 genotype. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that exposure to urban traffic, dietary habits, and the nonnull GSTT1 genotype may contribute to interindividual variation in background levels of 1-OHP urinary excretion in subjects without occupational exposure to PAHs.
    • Effects of genistein on the mammary gland proliferation of adult ovariectomised Wistar rats.

      Hertrampf, Torsten; Schmidt, Simone; Seibel, Jan; Laudenbach-Leschowsky, Ute; Degen, Gisela H.; Diel, Patrick (2006-03)
      The effects of phytoestrogens on the female breast are discussed controversially. On the one hand, epidemiological and experimental data provide evidence that dietary phytoestrogens may prevent the development of breast cancer. On the other hand, in breast cancer cell lines and tumour models isoflavone phytoestrogens have been demonstrated to stimulate the growth of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells. To further investigate the molecular effects of genistein (Gen) on the mammary gland, we treated non-tumour bearing, ovariectomised female Wistar rats with this phytoestrogen either subcutaneously (10 mg/kg body weight) or orally (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) for 3 days. Estradiol (E(2), 0.004 mg/kg s. c.) and ethynylestradiol (EE, 0.1 mg/kg per os) served as reference compounds. In the breast tissue, mRNA and protein expression of the progesterone receptor (marker for estrogenicity) and PCNA (marker gene for proliferation) were examined by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry; the uterotrophic response was assessed also. Treatment with Gen per os or s. c. results in a small but significant stimulation of the uterine wet weight. In the mammary gland, Gen stimulates the expression of progesterone receptor (PR) but, in contrast to E(2), the isoflavone does not stimulate the expression of PCNA. These findings resemble recent data demonstrating a differential ability of Gen to induce uterine gene expression and uterine proliferation. Our data indicate that in non-malignant breast tissue short-term administration of Gen, in contrast to more potent estrogens like E(2), does not induce proliferation. Chronic stimulation of proliferation is believed to be a key mechanism during the development of breast cancer. The limited ability of Gen to stimulate proliferation in this tissue could be an indication for a limited carcinogenic potency of Gen in the breast. In further investigations it is important to identify molecular differences between healthy and malignant breast tissue which may explain the different sensitivity towards Gen treatment.
    • Effects of quercetin and beta-carotene supplementation on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis and inflammatory responses in rats fed with high-fat diet rich in omega-6 fatty acids.

      Choi, Soo-Yeon; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Kim, Jong-Sang; Kim, Mi Kyung; Aruoma, Okezie I.; Sung, Mi-Kyung (2006)
      Chronic inflammation in gastrointestinal tract has been suggested as a risk factor for tumor formation. The effect of dietary supplementation of quercetin or beta-carotene on colon carcinogenesis and inflammatory response in rats fed with high-fat diet rich in omega-6 fatty acids was assessed. Animals were exposed to two weekly subcutaneous injections of AOM (azoxymethane) at a single dose of 15 mg/kg body weight. A portion of rats from each group was sacrificed at 8 weeks after the last AOM treatment to determine ACF (aberrant crypt foci) formation. Colonic mucosa expression of iNOS (inducible nitric oxide) and COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) protein, and blood PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) level were measured. The remaining groups of animals were sacrificed at 33 weeks after the last AOM treatment to examine colon tumor formation. Rats on high-fat diet developed more aberrant crypt foci (P<0.05) compared with those of rats on regular diet. In the same vein, but in contrast to the effect seen with regular diet, the high-fat diet induced a significant up-regulation of iNOS expression. There was no significant change in the extent of COX-2 expression or in the PGE2 levels. Quercetin or beta-carotene supplementation reduced the number of ACF only in animals fed high-fat diet (p<0.05), however, no significant difference in tumor incidence was found. At week 33, the expression of iNOS was reduced by quercetin without a statistical significance, and COX-2 expression was slightly reduced in rats on beta-carotene supplementation. No change in PGE2 levels was observed. Whilst dietary antioxidants are considered as effective suppressors for precancerous lesion formation in colons exposed to high-risk diet, it is clear that elucidating the role of individual antioxidants in colon tumor formation coupled with an understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved would benefit colon cancer prevention strategies.
    • The effects of short-chain fatty acids on colon epithelial proliferation and survival depend on the cellular phenotype.

      Comalada, Monica; Bailon, Elvira; de Haro, Oscar; Lara-Villoslada, Federico; Xaus, Jordi; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Galvez, Julio (2006-08)
      PURPOSE: The short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are produced via anaerobic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber within the colonic lumen. Among them, butyrate is thought to protect against colon carcinogenesis. However, few studies analyze the effects of butyrate, and other SCFA, on normal epithelial cells and on epithelial regeneration during disease recovery. Since there are controversial in vitro studies, we have explored the effects of SCFA on different biological processes. METHODS: We used both tumoral (HT-29) and normal (FHC) epithelial cells at different phenotypic states. In addition, we analyzed the in vivo activity of soluble dietary fiber and SCFA production in the proliferation rate and regeneration of intestinal epithelial cells. RESULTS: The effect of butyrate on epithelial cells depends on the phenotypic cellular state. Thus, in nondifferentiated, high proliferative adenocarcinoma cells, butyrate significantly inhibited proliferation while increased differentiation and apoptosis, whereas other SCFA studied did not. However, in normal cells or in differentiated cultures as well as in in vivo studies, the normal proliferation and regeneration of damaged epithelium is not affected by butyrate or SCFA exposure. CONCLUSION: Although butyrate could exert antiproliferative effects in tumor progression, its production is safe and without consequences for the normal epithelium growth.
    • Effects of soybean glyceollins and estradiol in postmenopausal female monkeys.

      Wood, Charles E.; Clarkson, Thomas B.; Appt, Susan E.; Franke, Adrian A.; Boue, Stephen M.; Burow, Matthew E.; McCoy, Thomas; Cline, J. Mark (2006)
      Glyceollins are a novel class of soybean phytoalexins with potential cancer-protective antiestrogenic effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the estrogen-antagonist effects of glyceollin-enriched soy protein on biomarkers for breast cancer risk. Thirty female postmenopausal cynomolgus macaques were randomized to one of three dietary treatments for 3 wk: 1) estradiol (E2, 1 mg/day) + casein/lactalbumin (control); 2) E2 + soy protein isolate (SPI) containing 194 mg/day isoflavonoids; and 3) E2 + glyceollin-enriched soy protein (GLY) containing 189 mg/day isoflavonoids + 134 mg/day glyceollins. Doses are expressed in calorically scaled human equivalents. Mean serum glyceollin concentrations at 4 h postfeeding were 134.2 +/- 34.6 nmol/L in the GLY group and negligible in the SPI group (P = 0.0007). Breast proliferation was significantly increased in the control group (+237%, P = 0.01) but not in the SPI group (+198%, P = 0.08) or GLY group (+36%, P = 0.18). Gene expression of trefoil factor 1 and progesterone receptor, two markers of estrogen receptor activity in breast epithelium, were also significantly higher in the control (P < 0.05 for both) but not in the GLY group. These preliminary findings suggest that soybean glyceollins are natural compounds with potential estrogen-modulating properties in the breast.
    • Endogenous versus exogenous exposure to N-nitroso compounds and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST) study.

      Jakszyn, Paula; Bingham, Sheila; Pera, Guillem; Agudo, Antonio; Luben, Robert; Welch, Ailsa; Boeing, Heiner; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Palli, Domenico; Saieva, Calogero; et al. (2006-07)
      The risk of gastric cancer (GC) associated with dietary intake of nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and endogenous formation of nitroso compounds (NOCs) was investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The study included 521,457 individuals and 314 incident cases of GC that had occurred after 6.6 average years of follow-up. An index of endogenous NOC (ENOC) formation was estimated using data of the iron content from meat intake and faecal apparent total NOC formation according to previous published studies. Antibodies to Helicobacter pylori and vitamin C levels were measured in a sub-sample of cases and matched controls included in a nested case-control within the cohort. Exposure to NDMA was < 1 microg on average compared with 93 mug on average from ENOC. There was no association between NDMA intake and GC risk (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.7-1.43). ENOC was significantly associated with non-cardia cancer risk (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.14-1.78 for an increase of 40 microg/day) but not with cardia cancer (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.69-1.33). Although the number of not infected cases is low, our data suggest a possible interaction between ENOC and H.pylori infection (P for interaction = 0.09). Moreover, we observed an interaction between plasma vitamin C and ENOC (P < 0.02). ENOC formation may account for our previously reported association between red and processed meat consumption and gastric cancer risk.
    • Enhancement of mammary carcinogenesis in two rodent models by silymarin dietary supplements.

      Malewicz, Barbara; Wang, Zaisen; Jiang, Cheng; Guo, Junming; Cleary, Margot P.; Grande, Joseph P.; Lü, Junxuan (2006-09)
      Silymarin is a mixture of polyphenolic flavonoids isolated from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) with anticancer activities reported for several organ sites. The present study tested the efficacy of dietary silymarin against mammary carcinogenesis in two rodent models. In the Sprague-Dawley rat model, female rats were fed a purified diet supplemented with none, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3 or 1% (w/w) of silymarin from 21 days of age (DOA) and carcinogenesis was initiated by a single i.p. injection of 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) at 51 DOA. Mammary tumor (MT) development was followed till 110 days after carcinogen injection. In the MMTV-neu/HER2 transgenic mouse mammary carcinogenesis model, homozygous transgenic females were fed a purified diet supplemented with none or 0.3% silymarin, either from 28 or 120 DOA and MT development was followed to approximately 300 DOA. The results showed that dietary silymarin increased the plasma concentration of free and total silibinin, a major component of silymarin, in a dose-dependent manner in the rat, but did not decrease either MT incidence or number. Instead silymarin modestly increased the number of MNU-induced MTs in rats. Similarly, silymarin increased MT incidence and multiplicity and non-MTs in the neu-transgenic mice. In cell culture, treatment of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells with serum-achievable concentrations of silymarin in the rodent models stimulated their growth, in part through an estrogen-like activity. Because silymarin is being used in the treatment of liver cirrhosis and a variety of other human ailments, and is sold as a dietary supplement, our findings add a cautionary note to its application in breast cancer prevention.
    • Environmental arsenic exposure and sputum metalloproteinase concentrations.

      Josyula, Arun B.; Poplin, Gerald S.; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; McClellen, Hannah E.; Kopplin, Michael J.; Stürup, Stefan; Clark Lantz, R.; Burgess, Jefferey L. (2006-11)
      Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with an increased rate of lung cancer. The objective of this study was to determine whether arsenic exposure at relatively low concentrations (approximately 20 microg/L) is associated with changes in biomarkers of lung inflammation, as measured by the ratio of sputum metalloproteinase and antiproteinase activity. A total of 73 subjects residing in Ajo and Tucson, Arizona were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Tap water and first morning void urine were analyzed for arsenic. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), 9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) were measured in induced sputum. Household tap water arsenic levels in Ajo (20.3+/-3.7 microg/L) were higher than in those Tucson (4.0+/-2.3 microg/L), as were mean urinary total inorganic arsenic levels (29.1+/-20.4 and 11.0+/-12.0 microg/L, respectively). Log-normalized MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 concentrations in sputum were not significantly different between towns. However, after adjusting for town, asthma, diabetes, urinary monomethylarsonic acid/inorganic arsenic, and smoking history, total urinary arsenic was negatively associated with MMP-2 and TIMP-1 levels in sputum and positively associated with the ratio of MMP-2/TIMP-1 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 in sputum. Increased sputum proteinase/antiproteinase activity suggests a potential toxic mechanism for low-level arsenic exposure.
    • Environmental impact and human health risks of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator: a case study.

      Ferré-Huguet, Núria; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L. (2006-01-01)
      The purpose of this study was to assess the environmental impact of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) 4 years after regular operation of the facility. A double approach was carried out. The PCDD/F congener profiles corresponding to environmental samples, soil and herbage, collected before the HWI (baseline) and 4 years after starting regular operations, as well as PCDD/F profiles of air emission samples, were compared. The potential health risks (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) due to PCDD/F exposure were assessed for adults and children living in the neighborhood of the facility. Human exposure to PCDD/Fs was mainly due to dietary food intake. Comparisons between the PCDD/F congener profiles corresponding to the baseline and current surveys, as well as data concerning the human health risk assessment, indicate that the HWI in question does not cause additional risks to the environment orto the population living in the vicinity of the facility.
    • The epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection.

      Trottier, Helen; Franco, Eduardo L. (2006-03-30)
      Clinical and subclinical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world, and most sexually-active individuals are likely to be exposed to HPV infection during their lifetimes. More than 40 genotypes of HPV infect the epithelial lining of the anogenital tract and other mucosal areas of the body; of these, 13-18 types are considered to be high-oncogenic risk HPV types (HR-HPV). Persistent infection with HR-HPVs is now unequivocally established as a necessary cause of cervical cancer and is likely to be responsible for a substantial proportion of other anogenital neoplasms and upper aero-digestive tract cancers. Low oncogenic risk HPV types (LR-HPV) are also responsible for considerable morbidity as the cause of genital warts. Youth and certain sexual characteristics are key risk factors for HPV acquisition and persistence of HPV infection, but other mediating factors include smoking, oral contraceptive (OC) use, other STIs (e.g. chlamydia, herpes simplex virus), chronic inflammation, immunosuppressive conditions including HIV infection, parity, dietary factors, and polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen system. Not surprisingly, these factors are also established or candidate cofactors identified in epidemiologic studies of cervical cancer. HPV transmissibility and molecular events in HPV-induced carcinogenesis have been the focus of recent multidisciplinary epidemiologic studies. This shift in research focus coincides with a shift in cancer prevention techniques towards immunization with HPV vaccines and HPV testing of precancerous lesions.
    • Evidence for genotoxicity of pesticides in pesticide applicators: a review.

      Bull, S.; Fletcher, K.; Boobis, A. R.; Battershill, J. M. (2006-03)
      A systematic review of the literature has been conducted and studies reporting investigations of genotoxicity biomarkers in pesticide workers have been assessed with view to establishing whether there was evidence for any risk to those using pesticides approved in the United Kingdom. Each of the studies was evaluated using a set of criteria drawn up by members of the UK Committee of Mutagenicity based upon the guidelines proposed by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) working group [R. J. Albertini, D. Anderson, G. R. Douglas, L. Hagmar, K. Hemminki, F. Merlo, A. T. Natarajan, H. Norppa, D. E. Shuker, R. Tice, M. D. Waters and A. Aitio (2000) Mutat. Res., 463, 111-172]; 24 out of 70 studies met the criteria for inclusion in the substantive evaluation. Positive findings were compared with occupational practices and evidence of exposure to specific pesticides with view to developing hypotheses for further consideration. Seventeen of the 24 studies reported positive findings, although in the majority of these the magnitude of increase was small. There was some limited evidence that the use of benzimidazoles was more consistently associated with positive findings. However, limitations in the data, particularly evidence of exposure, did not allow definitive conclusions to be drawn. Also, it was noted that the use (or not) of personal protective equipment (PPE) was not well documented and in the few studies in which its use was reported, the findings were more likely to be positive in the absence of PPE usage. An independent epidemiological review concluded that all studies were of limited design, particularly with regards to study size, the assessment of subject selection and potential recruitment bias. Variance in genotoxicity indices in the control population and a lack of understanding of the factors influencing this variability complicate attempts to characterize positive responses. More substantive data are needed in this respect so that the significance of relatively small increases in biomonitoring indices can be accurately assessed. Once these data are available, a study in workers using benzimidazoles would be appropriate.
    • Fish oil regulates adiponectin secretion by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-dependent mechanism in mice.

      Neschen, Susanne; Morino, Katsutaro; Rossbacher, Jörg C.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Cline, Gary W.; Sono, Saki; Gillum, Matthew; Shulman, Gerald I. (2006-04)
      Adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, but little is known about factors that regulate its secretion. To examine the effect of fish oil on adiponectin secretion, mice were fed either a control diet or isocaloric diets containing 27% safflower oil or 27, 13.5, and 8% menhaden fish oil. Within 15 days, fish oil feeding raised plasma adiponectin concentrations two- to threefold in a dose-dependent manner, and the concentrations remained approximately twofold higher for 7 days when the fish oil diet was replaced by the safflower oil diet. Within 24 h, fish oil markedly induced transcription of the adiponectin gene in epididymal adipose tissue but not in subcutaneous fat. The increase of plasma adiponectin by fish oil was completely blocked by administration of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma inhibitor bisphenol-A-diglycidyl ether. In contrast, there was no effect of fish oil feeding on adiponectin secretion in PPARalpha-null mice. These data suggest that fish oil is a naturally occurring potent regulator of adiponectin secretion in vivo and that it does so through a PPARgamma-dependent and PPARalpha-independent manner in epididymal fat.
    • Five glutathione s-transferase gene variants in 23,452 cases of lung cancer and 30,397 controls: meta-analysis of 130 studies.

      Ye, Zheng; Song, Honglin; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Pharoah, Paul; Danesh, John (2006-04)
      BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are known to abolish or reduce the activities of intracellular enzymes that help detoxify environmental carcinogens, such as those found in tobacco smoke. It has been suggested that polymorphisms in the GST genes are risk factors for lung cancer, but a large number of studies have reported apparently conflicting results. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Literature-based meta-analysis was supplemented by tabular data from investigators of all relevant studies of five GST polymorphisms (GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, I105V, and A114V polymorphisms in the GSTP1 genes, and GSTM3 intron 6 polymorphism) available before August, 2005, with investigation of potential sources of heterogeneity. Included in the present meta-analysis were 130 studies, involving a total of 23,452 lung cancer cases and 30,397 controls. In a combined analysis, the relative risks for lung cancer of the GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null polymorphisms were 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-1.23) and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02-1.16), respectively, but in the larger studies they were only 1.04 (95% CI: 0.95-1.14) and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.86-1.11), respectively. In addition to size of study, ethnic background was a significant source of heterogeneity among studies of the GSTM1 null genotype, with possibly weaker associations in studies of individuals of European continental ancestry. Combined analyses of studies of the 105V, 114V, and GSTM3*B variants showed no significant overall associations with lung cancer, yielding per-allele relative risks of 1.04 (95% CI: 0.99-1.09), 1.15 (95% CI: 0.95-1.39), and 1.05 (95% CI: 0.89-1.23), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of lung cancer is not strongly associated with the I105V and A114V polymorphisms in the GSTP1 gene or with GSTM3 intron 6 polymorphism. Given the non-significant associations in the larger studies, the relevance of the weakly positive overall associations with the GSTM1 null and the GSTT1 null polymorphisms is uncertain. As lung cancer has important environmental causes, understanding any genetic contribution to it in general populations will require the conduct of particularly large and comprehensive studies.
    • Frequency of RAS gene mutation and its cooperative genetic events in Southeast Asian adult acute myeloid leukemia.

      Auewarakul, Chirayu U.; Lauhakirti, Darat; Tocharoentanaphol, Chintana (2006-07)
      RAS gene as one of the most frequently mutated genes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has become an attractive target for molecular therapy. The role of oncogenic RAS and its associated genetic events in AML are not yet defined. We examined the frequency of RAS mutation in 239 Thai de novo adult AML patients using polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis. Thirty-five RAS mutations were found in 32 cases (13%) predominantly classified as M1/M2 (53%) followed by M4/M5 subtype (38%). Ten cases were positive for N-RAS codon 12, 11 cases for N-RAS codon 61, 13 cases for N-RAS codon 13, and one case for K-RAS codon 13. No mutation was found in K-RAS exon 2 or H-RAS. The most common base substitution was the G to A transition at codon 13. Most M1/M2 cases had mutations at codon 12 or 13, whereas M4/M5 cases preferentially affected codon 61. Half of the patients with RAS mutations had abnormal karyotypes with the majority involving chromosomes 21, 11 and 7. Four patients had core-binding factor leukemia and four additional patients had coexisting FLT3 or AML1 mutation. One patient had RAS, FLT3 and t(8;21) and the other had RAS, AML1 point mutation and del(9q). In conclusion, mutation of RAS gene was not as common in the Thais as in the western population. Several additional genetic abnormalities occurred in RAS-mutated patients. Future molecular-targeting approaches should take into account the multiple genetic events that coexist with RAS mutations in AML patients.
    • Functional analysis of a metal response element in the regulatory region of flounder cytochrome P450 1A and implications for environmental monitoring of pollutants.

      Lewis, Nick A.; Williams, Tim D.; Chipman, James K. (2006-08)
      Cytochrome P450 1A (CYP 1A) is a member of a multigene family of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. CYP 1A is highly inducible by numerous environmental contaminants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and is widely used in biomonitoring studies. Therefore, understanding the regulation of this gene is important for accurate interpretation of biomarker data. We describe here the functional role of a metal response element (MRE) in the European flounder CYP 1A promoter region. To help elucidate the potential role of this MRE, reporter gene constructs, with or without site-directed mutagenesis, were used in conjunction with a dual-luciferase assay. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was also used to investigate potential protein binding at this MRE site. Treatment with the prototypical PAH 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) (1.0 microM) produced a dose-dependent response at the CYP 1A promoter, whereas treatment with cadmium (0-1.0 microM) produced little transcriptional activity at either the wild-type or mutated promoter. Cotreatment with cadmium (1.0 microM) and 3MC (1.0 microM) reduced induction at this promoter to 1.83-fold compared to 3MC treatment alone (4.0-fold induction). Mutation of the MRE site resulted in abolishment of this cadmium-related loss of 3MC-dependent activity. Furthermore, a retarded band was observed in the EMSA when the MRE was used as a probe and incubated with liver nuclear protein from flounder treated with cadmium. The results not only add to knowledge of the diversity in vertebrate CYP 1A regulation but also raise the complexity of interpretation of CYP 1A induction in monitoring studies that involve mixtures of PAHs and metals.
    • Functional nsSNPs from carcinogenesis-related genes expressed in breast tissue: potential breast cancer risk alleles and their distribution across human populations.

      Savas, Sevtap; Schmidt, Steffen; Jarjanazi, Hamdi; Ozcelik, Hilmi (2006-03)
      Although highly penetrant alleles of BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been shown to predispose to breast cancer, the majority of breast cancer cases are assumed to result from the presence of low-moderate penetrant alleles and environmental carcinogens. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) are hypothesised to contribute to disease susceptibility and approximately 30 per cent of them are predicted to have a biological significance. In this study, we have applied a bioinformatics-based strategy to identify breast cancer-related nsSNPs from 981 carcinogenesis-related genes expressed in breast tissue. Our results revealed a total of 367 validated nsSNPs, 109 (29.7 per cent) of which are predicted to affect the protein function (functional nsSNPs), suggesting that these nsSNPs are likely to influence the development and homeostasis of breast tissue and hence contribute to breast cancer susceptibility. Sixty-seven of the functional nsSNPs presented as commonly occurring nsSNPs (minor allele frequencies > or =5 per cent), representing excellent candidates for breast cancer susceptibility. Additionally, a non-uniform distribution of the common functional nsSNPs among different human populations was observed: 15 nsSNPs were reported to be present in all populations analysed, whereas another set of 15 nsSNPs was specific to particular population(s). We propose that the nsSNPs analysed in this study constitute a unique resource of potential genetic factors for breast cancer susceptibility. Furthermore, the variations in functional nsSNP allele frequencies across major population backgrounds may point to the potential variability of the molecular basis of breast cancer predisposition and treatment response among different human populations.