• The absence of interaction between drug metabolizing enzyme genotypes and maternal lifestyle factors on glycophorin A somatic mutation frequency levels in newborns.

      Nukui, Tomoko; Day, Richard D.; Gordish-Dressman, Heather A.; Harger, Gail; Bigbee, William L.; Ness, Roberta B.; Romkes, Marjorie (2006-02)
      Prenatal exposure to carcinogens results in newborn DNA damage which in turn is associated with impaired health conditions in both childhood and adulthood. The present study aimed to evaluate whether phase I and II biotransformation enzyme genetic polymorphisms in combination with environmental exposures during pregnancy result in elevated levels of newborn DNA damage. Maternal peripheral and umbilical cord blood samples from 406 mother/newborn pairs were genotyped for a panel of phase I/II metabolic enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and NAT2) responsible for the metabolism of tobacco and lifestyle-related mutagens and carcinogens. DNA damage was measured by somatic cell mutation frequency at the glycophorin A (GPA) locus in newborns. No association with elevated somatic cell mutation frequency was observed between the combination of maternal/newborn genotypes and cigarette smoke or lifestyle exposures. The observed variation in newborn GPA frequency might be due to either environmental factors not assessed in this study or inter-individual differences in alternative metabolic or DNA repair pathways.
    • ACTIBIND, an actin-binding fungal T2-RNase with antiangiogenic and anticarcinogenic characteristics.

      Roiz, Levava; Smirnoff, Patricia; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Schwartz, Betty; Shoseyov, Oded (2006-05-15)
      BACKGROUND: ACTIBIND is an Aspergillus niger extracellular ribonuclease (T2-ribonuclease [RNase]) that possesses actin-binding activity. In plants, ACTIBIND inhibits the elongation and alters the orientation of pollen tubes by interfering with the intracellular actin network. The question rose whether ACTIBIND can also affect mammalian cancer development. METHODS: Cell colony formation was performed in human colon (HT-29, Caco-2, RSB), breast (ZR-75-1), and ovarian (2780) cancer cells in the presence or absence of 1 muM ACTIBIND. In HT-29 and ZR-75-1 cells, the effect of ACTIBIND on cell migration was studied by microscopic observations and by invasion assay through Matrigel. Tube formation was assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in the presence of angiogenin or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (1 microg/mL each) following overnight incubation with 1 or 10 microM ACTIBIND. In an athymic mouse xenograft model, HT-29 cells were injected subcutaneously, followed by subcutaneous (0.4-8 mg/mouse/injection) or intraperitoneal (0.001-1 mg/mouse/injection) injections of ACTIBIND. In a rat dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-colorectal carcinogenesis model, ACTIBIND was released directly into the colon via osmotic micropumps (250 microg/rat/day) or given orally via microcapsules (1.6 mg/rat/day). Aberrant crypt foci, tumors in the distal colon, and tumor blood vessels were examined. RESULTS: ACTIBIND had an anticlonogenic effect unrelated to its ribonuclease activity. It also inhibited angiogenin-induced HUVEC tube formation in a dose-responsive manner. ACTIBIND was found to bind actin in vitro. It also bound to cancer cell surfaces, leading to disruption of the internal actin network and inhibiting cell motility and invasiveness through Matrigel-coated filters. In mice, ACTIBIND inhibited HT-29 xenograft tumor development, given either as a subcutaneous or intraperitoneal treatment. In rats, ACTIBIND exerted preventive and therapeutic effects on developing colonic tumors induced by DMH. It also reduced the degree of tumor observation. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that ACTIBIND is an effective antiangiogenic and anticarcinogenic factor.
    • Activation of human long interspersed nuclear element 1 retrotransposition by benzo(a)pyrene, an ubiquitous environmental carcinogen.

      Stribinskis, Vilius; Ramos, Kenneth S. (2006-03-01)
      Long interspersed nuclear elements [LINE-1 (L1)] are abundant retrotransposons in mammalian genomes that remain silent under most conditions. Cellular stress signals activate L1, but the molecular mechanisms controlling L1 activation remain unclear. Evidence is presented here that benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental hydrocarbon metabolized by mammalian cytochrome P450s to reactive carcinogenic intermediates, increases L1 retrotransposition in HeLa cells. Increased retrotransposition is mediated by up-regulation of L1 RNA levels, increased L1 cDNA synthesis, and stable genomic integration. Activation of L1 is dependent on the ability of BaP to cause DNA damage because it is absent in HeLa cells challenged with nongenotoxic hydrocarbon carcinogens. Thus, the mutations and genomic instability observed in human populations exposed to genotoxic environmental hydrocarbons may involve epigenetic activation of mobile elements dispersed throughout the human genome.
    • Active and passive smoking and risk of ovarian cancer.

      Baker, J. A.; Odunuga, O. O.; Rodabaugh, K. J.; Reid, M. E.; Menezes, R. J.; Moysich, K. B. (2009-03-18)
      It is unclear whether smoking is a risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer, although some studies have suggested that it may be associated with an increased risk of mucinous tumors. This study investigated the effect of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on ovarian cancer risk among 434 women with primary epithelial ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian cancers and 868 age- and region-matched hospital controls with nonneoplastic conditions. All participants completed a comprehensive epidemiologic questionnaire. Results indicate that decreased risk of ovarian cancer was associated with being a nonsmoker exposed to ETS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46-0.99), a former smoker (aOR 0.76, 95% CI 0.53-1.10), or a current smoker (aOR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32-0.88). A similar protective effect was noted for smokers with moderate or high exposure based on smoking intensity, duration, and cumulative exposure, as well as for never smokers exposed to ETS. Results did not differ substantially by histologic subtype. Although prevailing theories of ovarian cancer etiology implicate incessant ovulation, characteristics of the study population suggest that anovulation was not the protective mechanism in this study. Immunosuppression by nicotine or upregulation of enzymes that metabolize carcinogens may be responsible for the effects observed.
    • Aflatoxin M1 absorption and cytotoxicity on human intestinal in vitro model.

      Caloni, F.; Stammati, A.; Friggè, G.; De Angelis, I. (2006-03-15)
      Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the principal hydroxylated Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) metabolite and is detected in milk of mammals, after consumption of feed contaminated with AFB1. As it is classified as probable human carcinogen (group 2B of the IARC), most countries have regulated its maximum allowed levels in milk in order to reduce AFM1 risk (50 ng/kg the EU and 500 ng/kg in the USA). It was demonstrated that if AFB1 must be converted into its reactive epoxide to exert its effects, and the protein binding may play an important role in its cytotoxicity. Conversely, the AFM1 epoxidation in human liver microsomes is very limited and studies with human cell line (MCL5), expressing or not expressing cytochrome P450 enzymes, demonstrated a direct toxic potential of AFM1 in absence of metabolic activation. For this reason, while AFM1 is generally considered a detoxification product of AFB1 relatively to carcinogenicity and mutagenicity property, this is not always true for cytotoxicity activity. Aim of this work is to evaluate the intestinal absorption of AFM1 using a human in vitro model, the Caco-2 cell line. Either the parental Caco-2 cell line or its derived clone TC7, with higher metabolic competence, have been used. They were treated with different concentrations of AFM1, that mirror the milk contamination level (0.3-32 nM corresponding to 10-10,000 ng/kg), either in undifferentiated or in differentiated phase of growth. After 48 h of treatment in serum free medium, a dose dependent absorption of AFM1 has been detected in both cell lines, especially in differentiated cells, while, no appreciable effects on cell viability were observed, except for a general cellular suffering, revealed by LDH release, particularly evident in the undifferentiated cells. As well, no metabolites or AFM1 conjugates have been detected. The present results may be crucial for the evaluation of human risk to AFM1 exposure, in particular for children's population, due to their large use of milk and derivatives.
    • Allyl sulfur compounds from garlic modulate aberrant crypt formation.

      Ross, Sharon A.; Finley, John W.; Milner, John A. (2006-03)
      The health benefits of garlic, including inhibition of carcinogenesis, are supported by several epidemiologic and laboratory findings. Garlic's sulfur components have been reported to suppress experimentally induced tumor incidence in several organs, including the colon. Studies in humans also suggest that dietary garlic constituents reduce the risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps, which are considered precursors to colon cancer. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are proposed to be early preneoplastic lesions of adenoma-carcinoma in humans and chemically induced colon cancer in rodents. In preclinical studies, both water- and lipid-soluble allyl sulfur compounds arising from processed garlic inhibited ACF. The response to these allyl sulfur compounds appears to depend on several factors, including the speciation, quantity, and duration provided.
    • Androgen deprivation induces human prostate epithelial neuroendocrine differentiation of androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells.

      Yuan, Ta-Chun; Veeramani, Suresh; Lin, Fen-Fen; Kondrikou, Dmitry; Zelivianski, Stanislav; Igawa, Tsukasa; Karan, Dev; Batra, Surinder K.; Lin, Ming-Fong (2006-03)
      Neuroendocrine (NE) cells are the minor cell populations in normal prostate epithelial compartments. During prostate carcinogenesis, the number of NE cells in malignant lesions increases, correlating with its tumorigenicity and hormone-refractory growth. It is thus proposed that cancerous NE cells promote prostate cancer (PCa) cell progression and its androgen-independent proliferation, although the origin of the cancerous NE cells is not clear. To investigate the role of cancerous NE cells in prostate carcinogenesis, we characterized three NE subclone cell lines-NE-1.3, NE-1.8 and NE-1.9, which were transdifferentiated from androgen-sensitive human PCa LNCaP cells by culturing in an androgen-depleted environment, resembling clinical androgen-ablation therapy. These subclone cells acquire many features of NE cells seen in clinical prostate carcinomas, for example exhibiting a neuronal morphology and expressing multiple NE markers, including neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin B, neurotensin, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, and to a lesser degree for chromogranin A, while lacking androgen receptor (AR) or prostate specific antigen (PSA) expression. These cells represent terminally differentiated stable cells because after 3 months of re-culturing in a medium containing androgenic activity, they still retained the NE phenotype and expressed NE markers. Despite these NE cells having a slow growth rate, they readily developed xenograft tumors. Furthermore, media conditioned by these NE cells exhibited a stimulatory effect on proliferation and PSA secretion by LNCaP cells in androgen-deprived conditions. Additionally, we found that receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha plays a role in upregulating multiple NE markers and acquiring the NE phenotype. These NE cells thus represent cancerous NE cells and could serve as a useful cell model system for investigating the role of cancerous NE cells in hormone-refractory proliferation of PCa cells.
    • Anthocyanin-rich extracts inhibit multiple biomarkers of colon cancer in rats.

      Lala, Geeta; Malik, Minnie; Zhao, Cuiwei; He, Jian; Kwon, Youngjoo; Giusti, M. Monica; Magnuson, Bernadene A. (2006)
      The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemoprotective activity of anthocyanin-rich extracts (AREs) from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), chokeberry (Aronia meloncarpa E.), and grape (Vitis vinifera) by assessing multiple biomarkers of colon cancer in male rats treated with a colon carcinogen, azoxymethane. Fischer 344 male rats were fed the AIN-93 diet (control) or AIN-93 diet supplemented with AREs for 14 wk. Biomarkers that were evaluated included the number and multiplicity of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), colonic cell proliferation, urinary levels of oxidative DNA damage, and expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) genes. To assess the bioavailability, levels of anthocyanins in serum, urine, and feces were evaluated. Total ACF were reduced (P<0.05) in bilberry, chokeberry, and grape diet groups compared with the control group. The number of large ACF was also reduced (P<0.05) in bilberry and chokeberry ARE-fed rats. Colonic cellular proliferation was decreased in rats fed bilberry ARE and chokeberry ARE diets. Rats fed bilberry and grape ARE diets had lower COX-2 mRNA expression of gene. High levels of fecal anthocyanins and increased fecal mass and fecal moisture occurred in ARE-fed rats. There was also a significant reduction (P<0.05) in fecal bile acids in ARE-fed rats. The levels of urinary 8-hydroxyguanosine were similar among rats fed different diets. These results support our previous in vitro studies suggesting a protective role of AREs in colon carcinogenesis and indicate multiple mechanisms of action.
    • Anticancer effect of Kalpaamruthaa on mammary carcinoma in rats with reference to glycoprotein components, lysosomal and marker enzymes.

      Veena, Krishnamurthy; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham; Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr. A. L. Mudaliar Post-Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Chennai, India. (2006-03)
      A promising approach to reduce the occurrence of cancer is its treatment, specifically by chemical intervention through minor dietary constituents. Epidemiological studies suggest that specific pharmacologically active agents present in the diet might reduce cancer. A remarkable surge of interest in chemoprevention research has, thus, lead to the identification of many phytochemicals of dietary origin as effective potential chemotherapeutic agents. In the present investigation, attempt has been made to study the potency of Kalpaamruthaa (KA), a herbal preparation, against cancer. The changes in level of glycoprotein components, marker enzymes and lysosomal enzymes were carried out in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced Sprague-Dawley rats. The changes in the body weights and volume were also determined. KA was administered at the dosage level of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) in olive oil orally for 14 d, after the induction period is completed (90 d). On administration of KA, the levels of the above enzymes and the changes in the body weights and volume were significantly normalized in a dose dependent manner. The present study shows that KA is effective at the dosage level of 300 mg/kg body weight in mammary carcinoma bearing rats.
    • Application of cryopreserved human hepatocytes in trichloroethylene risk assessment: relative disposition of chloral hydrate to trichloroacetate and trichloroethanol.

      Bronley-DeLancey, Apryl; McMillan, David C.; McMillan, JoEllyn M.; Jollow, David J.; Mohr, Lawrence C.; Hoel, David G. (2006-08)
      BACKGROUND: Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a suspected human carcinogen and a common groundwater contaminant. Chloral hydrate (CH) is the major metabolite of TCE formed in the liver by cytochrome P450 2E1. CH is metabolized to the hepatocarcinogen trichloroacetate (TCA) by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and to the noncarcinogenic metabolite trichloroethanol (TCOH) by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). ALDH and ADH are polymorphic in humans, and these polymorphisms are known to affect the elimination of ethanol. It is therefore possible that polymorphisms in CH metabolism will yield subpopulations with greater than expected TCA formation with associated enhanced risk of liver tumors after TCE exposure. METHODS: The present studies were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using commercially available, cryogenically preserved human hepatocytes to determine simultaneously the kinetics of CH metabolism and ALDH/ADH genotype. Thirteen human hepatocyte samples were examined. Linear reciprocal plots were obtained for 11 ADH and 12 ALDH determinations. RESULTS: There was large interindividual variation in the Vmax values for both TCOH and TCA formation. Within this limited sample size, no correlation with ADH/ALDH genotype was apparent. Despite the large variation in Vmax values among individuals, disposition of CH into the two competing pathways was relatively constant. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the use of cryopreserved human hepatocytes as an experimental system to generate metabolic and genomic information for incorporation into TCE cancer risk assessment models. The data are discussed with regard to cellular factors, other than genotype, that may contribute to the observed variability in metabolism of CH in human liver.
    • Arsenic in the aetiology of cancer.

      Tapio, Soile; Grosche, Bernd (2006-06)
      Arsenic, one of the most significant hazards in the environment affecting millions of people around the world, is associated with several diseases including cancers of skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney and liver. Groundwater contamination by arsenic is the main route of exposure. Inhalation of airborne arsenic or arsenic-contaminated dust is a common health problem in many ore mines. This review deals with the questions raised in the epidemiological studies such as the dose-response relationship, putative confounders and synergistic effects, and methods evaluating arsenic exposure. Furthermore, it describes the metabolic pathways of arsenic, and its biological modes of action. The role of arsenic in the development of cancer is elucidated in the context of combined epidemiological and biological studies. However, further analyses by means of molecular epidemiology are needed to improve the understanding of cancer aetiology induced by arsenic.
    • Assessment of micronuclei induction in peripheral erythrocytes of fish exposed to xenobiotics under controlled conditions.

      Bolognesi, Claudia; Perrone, Emanuela; Roggieri, Paola; Pampanin, Daniela M.; Sciutto, Andrea (2006-06-01)
      The aim of the present study was to standardize and to assess the predictive value of the cytogenetic analysis by MN test in fish erythrocytes as a biomarker for marine environmental contamination. MN frequency baseline in erythrocytes was evaluated in a number of fish species from a reference area (S. Teresa, La Spezia Gulf) and genotoxic potential of a number of common chemical contaminants and mixtures was determined in fish experimentally exposed in aquarium under controlled conditions. Fish (Scophthalmus maximus) were exposed for 3 weeks to 50 ppb of single chemicals (dialkyl phthalate, bisphenol A, tetrabromodiphenyl ether), 30 ppb nonylphenol and mixtures (North Sea oil and North Sea oil with alkylated phenols). Chromosomal damage was determined as micronuclei (MN) frequency in fish erythrocytes. Nuclear anomalies such as blebbed, notched and lobed nuclei were also recorded. Significant increase in MN frequency was observed in erythrocytes of fish exposed to bisphenol A and tetrabromodiphenylether. Chemical mixture North Sea oil+alkylated phenols induced the highest MN frequency (2.95 micronucleated cells/1000 cells compared to 1 MNcell/1000 cells in control animals). The study results revealed that micronucleus test, as an index of cumulative exposure, appears to be a sensitive model to evaluate genotoxic compounds in fish under controlled conditions.
    • Atm-haploinsufficiency enhances susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary tumors.

      Lu, Shu; Shen, Kate; Wang, Yaolin; Santner, Steven J.; Chen, Jie; Brooks, S. C.; Wang, Y. Alan (2006-04)
      Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), which is due to mutations in the ATM gene, is a rare autosomal recessive genomic instability syndrome characterized by radiosensitivity and predisposition to cancer. Epidemiological studies have suggested that relatives of A-T patients (A-T carriers) have increased risks of developing breast cancer. We propose that increased breast cancer risks in A-T carriers may be due to exposure to various environmental carcinogens and/or dietary consumption. To test this hypothesis, we treated a congenic strain of Atm+/- mice with DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz(alpha)anthracene), a mammary carcinogen, and observed mammary tumor incidence. It was found that Atm+/- mice have a 2-fold increase, as well as early onset, in mammary tumor incidence relative to wild-type mice (P<0.005). The increased mammary tumor development is correlated with a 3-fold increase in the development of mammary dysplasia in Atm+/- compared with wild-type mice (P<0.05). We also found that Ras signaling pathway was not activated in DMBA-induced mammary tumors irrespective of the Atm status. At the cellular level, Atm-haploinsufficiency confers increased cellular stress manifested by an increased p53 expression and a slightly enhanced survival of mammary epithelial cells in response to radiation. Our results demonstrate that Atm heterozygotes are predisposed to mammary tumor development and support the hypothesis that exposure to environmental carcinogens contributes to the increased rate of breast cancer development in A-T carriers. Given that 1% of the general population are ATM heterozygotes (A-T carriers), this study has great implications in breast cancer development in this population.
    • Balkan endemic nephropathy: role of ochratoxins A through biomarkers.

      Castegnaro, Marcel; Canadas, Delphine; Vrabcheva, Terry; Petkova-Bocharova, Theodora; Chernozemsky, Ivan N.; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie (2006-05)
      Several studies implicated mycotoxins, in endemic kidney disease geographically limited to Balkan region (Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN)). In Bulgaria, much higher prevalence of ochratoxin A (OTA), exceeding 2 microg/L, was observed in the blood of affected population. OTA is found more often in the urine of people living in BEN-endemic villages. To confirm and quantify exposure to OTA in Vratza district, we followed up OTA intake for 1 month, OTA in blood and urine from healthy (20-30 years old) volunteers, from two villages with high risk for BEN disease. Food samples were collected daily, blood and urine at the beginning of each week. Relations between increasing OTA intake, blood concentration and elimination of OTA in urine have been studied in rats. Average weekly intake of OTA varies from 1.9 to 206 ng/kg body weight, twice tolerable weekly intake recommended by JECFA. OTA blood concentrations are in the same range as previously reported in this region with concentrations reaching 10 microg/L. Weekly OTA food intake is not directly correlated with blood and urine concentrations. Biomarkers of biological effects such as DNA adducts were detected in patients affected by urinary tract tumours (UTT) and in rat study. All these plead for the implication of OTA, in BEN and UTT.
    • beta-carotene-induced changes in RARbeta isoform mRNA expression patterns do not influence lung adenoma multiplicity in the NNK-initiated A/J mouse model.

      Goralczyk, Regina; Bachmann, Heinrich; Wertz, Karin; Lenz, Barbara; Riss, Georges; Buchwald Hunziker, Petra; Greatrix, Brad; Aebischer, Claude-Pierre (2006)
      A number of epidemiological studies have reported associations of beta-carotene plasma levels or intake with decreased lung cancer risk. However, intervention studies in smokers reported increased lung tumor rates after high long-term beta-carotene supplementation. For insight into these conflicting results, we studied the influence of beta-carotene on tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung cancer development in the A/J-mouse using 4-(N-Methyl-N-nitro samino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) as the initiator and lung adenoma multiplicity as the functional endpoint. Gene regulation of the putative tumor suppressor RARbeta in mouse lung was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for its relevance in predicting the endpoint of lung cancer. A/J-mice achieved plasma beta-carotene levels of up to 3 micromol/L within 4 wk and up to 6 micromol/L after 6 mo of supplementation on a diet modified to enhance beta-carotene absorption. Despite high lung beta-carotene concentrations of up to 6 micromol/kg, tumor multiplicity was not significantly affected by the beta-carotene treatment, either in carcinogen-initiated or non-initiated mice, and was unrelated to beta-carotene dose and the time point of treatment during cancer formation. Tumor multiplicity did not correlate with beta-carotene plasma levels in NNK-treated animals. All RARbeta isoforms were significantly suppressed in the lungs of NNK- and NNK plus high dose beta-carotene-treated animals. However, the number of tumors per mouse did not correlate with the RARbeta-isoform expression levels. beta-carotene alone after 3 mo of supplementation mildly but significantly increased levels of RARbeta1, beta2, and beta4. This increase persisted for 6 mo for RARbeta2 and beta4. In summary, we found no effect of beta-carotene on tumor formation in the NNK-initiated A/J-mouse lung cancer model with respect to dose or time point of treatment. beta-Carotene-induced changes in RARbeta isoform gene expression levels were not predictive for the number of lung tumors but were indicative of intact beta-carotene metabolism and persistent sensitivity to retinoic acid in the mice. Down-regulation of RARbeta in NNK-induced adenoma-bearing lungs was similar to that observed in human lung cancer and further confirms the A/J-mouse as a valuable model for lung carcinogenesis.
    • Binding of galectin-1 (gal-1) to the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen on trophoblast cells and inhibition of proliferation of trophoblast tumor cells in vitro by gal-1 or an anti-TF antibody.

      Jeschke, Udo; Karsten, Uwe; Wiest, Irmi; Schulze, Sandra; Kuhn, Christina; Friese, Klaus; Walzel, Hermann (2006-10)
      Galectin-1 (gal-1), a member of the mammalian beta-galactoside-binding proteins, recognizes preferentially Galbeta1-4GlcNAc sequences of several cell surface oligosaccharides. We demonstrate histochemically that the lectin recognizes appropriate glycotopes on the syncytiotrophoblast and extravillous trophoblast layer from second trimester human placenta and on BeWo chorion carcinoma cells. Gal-1 binding to BeWo cells was diminished by the Thomsen-Friedreich (TF)-disaccharide (Galbeta1-3GalNAc-) conjugated to polyacrylamide (TF-PAA). Gal-1 also inhibited BeWo cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Similar antiproliferative effects were also observed with an anti-TF monoclonal antibody (mAb, A78-G/A7). Therefore, we conclude that ligation of Galbeta1-4GlcNAc and Galbeta1-3GalNAc epitopes on BeWo cells may have regulatory effects on cell proliferation.
    • Biomarkers of environmental contaminants in field population of green mussel (Perna viridis) from Karnataka-Kerala coast (South West coast of India).

      Krishnakumar, P.K.; Sasikumar, Geetha; Bhat, G.S.; Asokan, D.P.K. (2006-05)
      The green mussel Perna viridis was sampled from relatively clean and contaminated sites along the Kartanata-Kerala coast (south west coast of India) to study the tissue concentration of trace metals and biological responses to stress (biomarkers) such as sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosomal aberration, micronucleus (MN) test, hemic neoplasia (HN), Chromotest (Ames test) and comet assay. In general, mean tissue concentrations of toxic trace metals collected from 25 sampling sites were found to be below the World Health Organisation (WHO) permissible concentration given for seafood. The digestive gland extract of mussels from all 25 sampling sites showed negative reaction for mutagenic activity (Ames test) in the absence of metabolic activation. Very low levels of chromosomal aberration, SCE, MN, HN and comet cells were observed in mussels collected from both the urban associated and relatively clean sites. This study seems to indicate that that the coastal waters of Karnataka and Kerala are minimally contaminated with genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals.
    • Biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility in workers exposed to nitrotoluenes.

      Sabbioni, Gabriele; Jones, Christopher R.; Sepai, Ovnair; Hirvonen, Ari; Norppa, Hannu; Järventaus, Hilkka; Glatt, Hansruedi; Pomplun, Doreen; Yan, Huifang; Brooks, Lance R.; et al. (2006-03)
      Nitrotoluenes, such as 2-nitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (24DNT), and 26DNT, are carcinogenic in animal experiments. Humans are exposed to such chemicals in the workplace and in the environment. It is therefore important to develop methods to biomonitor people exposed to nitrotoluenes to prevent the potential harmful effects. For the present study, workers exposed to high levels of these chemicals were investigated. The external dose (air levels), the internal dose (urine metabolites), the biologically effective dose [hemoglobin (Hb) adducts and urine mutagenicity], and biological effects (chromosomal aberrations and health effects) were determined. Individual susceptibility was assessed by determining genetic polymorphisms of enzymes assumed to function in nitrotoluene metabolism, namely glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1), N-acetyltransferases (NAT1, NAT2), and sulfotransferases (SULT1A1, SULT1A2). The levels of urinary metabolites did not correlate with the air levels. The urinary mutagenicity levels determined in a subset of workers correlated with the levels of a benzylalcohol metabolite of DNT. The Hb-adducts correlated with the urine metabolites but not with the air levels. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations (gaps included) was increased (P < 0.05) in the exposed workers in comparison with a group of factory controls and correlated with the level of 24DNT Hb-adducts in young subjects (<31 years). The GSTM1-null genotype was significantly more prevalent in the controls than in the exposed group, which probably reflected an elevated susceptibility of the GSTM1-null genotype to adverse health effects of DNT exposure, such as nausea (odds ratio, 8.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-32.2). A statistically significant effect was seen for SULT1A2 genotype on a 24DNT Hb-adduct; GSTP1 genotype on a 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene Hb-adduct; and SULT1A1, SULT1A2, NAT1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genotypes on chromosomal aberrations in the exposed workers.
    • Black tea polyphenols protect against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

      Letchoumy, P. Vidjaya; Chandra Mohan, K. V. P.; Kumaraguruparan, R.; Hara, Y.; Nagini, S. (2006)
      Dietary chemoprevention has emerged as a cost-effective approach for cancer control. We evaluated the chemopreventive effects of black tea polyphenols (Polyphenon-B) administration during the preinitiation phase of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the buccal pouch and the concentration of lipid peroxides, protein carbonyl, and the antioxidant status in the buccal pouch, liver and erythrocytes were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. All the hamsters painted with DMBA alone for 14 weeks developed buccal pouch carcinomas associated with increased expression of PCNA, diminished lipid and protein oxidation, and enhanced antioxidant status. In the liver and erythrocytes of tumor-bearing animals, enhanced oxidation of lipids and proteins was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defenses. Dietary administration of Polyphenon-B effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis as revealed by decreased incidence of tumours and PCNA expression. In addition, Polyphenon-B modulated lipid and protein oxidation and enhanced the antioxidant status in the pouch, liver, and erythrocytes. We suggest that Polyphenon-B exerts its chemopreventive effects by inhibiting cell proliferation in the target tissue and modulating the oxidant-antioxidant status in the target as well as in host tissues.
    • Bladder cancer mortality and private well use in New England: an ecological study.

      Ayotte, Joseph D.; Baris, Dalsu; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Colt, Joanne; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Lubin, Jay H.; Karagas, Margaret; Hoover, Robert N.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Silverman, Debra T. (2006-02)
      STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible relation between bladder cancer mortality among white men and women and private water use in New England, USA, where rates have been persistently raised and use of private water supplies (wells) common. DESIGN: Ecological study relating age adjusted cancer mortality rates for white men and women during 1985-1999 and proportion of persons using private water supplies in 1970. After regressing mortality rates on population density, Pearson correlation coefficients were computed between residual rates and the proportion of the population using private water supplies, using the state economic area as the unit of calculation. Calculations were conducted within each of 10 US regions. SETTING: The 504 state economic areas of the contiguous United States. PARTICIPANTS: Mortality analysis of 11 cancer sites, with the focus on bladder cancer. MAIN RESULTS: After adjusting for the effect of population density, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between residual bladder cancer mortality rates and private water supply use among both men and women in New England (men, r = 0.42; women, r = 0.48) and New York/New Jersey (men, r = 0.49; women, r = 0.62). CONCLUSIONS: Use of well water from private sources, or a close correlate, may be an explanatory variable for the excess bladder cancer mortality in New England. Analytical studies are underway to clarify the relation between suspected water contaminants, particularly arsenic, and raised bladder cancer rates in northern New England.