• A 26-week carcinogenicity study of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in rasH2 mice.

      Okamura, Miwa; Moto, Mitsuyoshi; Muguruma, Masako; Ito, Tadashi; Jin, Meilan; Kashida, Yoko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi (2006)
      To evaluate the carcinogenic susceptibility of rasH2 mice to 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 7-week-old rasH2 mice and their wild-type littermates (non-Tg mice) of both the sexes were fed a diet containing 0 or 300 ppm IQ for 26 weeks. Microscopical examinations revealed that the proliferative lesions of the forestomach, including squamous cell hyperplasias, papillomas, and carcinomas, were frequently encountered in male and female rasH2 mice fed with IQ. In non-Tg mice, no significant differences in the incidence of forestomach lesions were observed between the 0 ppm and 300 ppm groups. Histopathological changes such as periportal hepatocellular hypertrophy and oval cell proliferation in the liver were more apparent in female rasH2 and non-Tg mice than in males, and the incidence of hepatocellular altered foci significantly increased in female rasH2 mice in the 300 ppm group as compared to that in the 0 ppm group. These results suggest that the carcinogenic potential of IQ can be detected in rasH2 mice by a 26-week, short-term carcinogenicity test.
    • 3-Hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene in the urine of smokers and non-smokers.

      Lafontaine, M.; Champmartin, C.; Simon, P.; Delsaut, P.; Funck-Brentano, C. (2006-04-10)
      The people studied were male volunteers without occupational and dietary exposure to PAH: 27 smokers (10 cigarettes or more) and 27 non-smokers matched for age and socio-professional category. For each person, all the 24h voided urine samples were reassembled in a single sample. 1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHPy) and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OHBaP) were then determined by automated column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography. Urinary 1-OHPy ranged from 0.041 to 0.530 micromol/molCreatinine (arithmetic mean 0.144, median 0.115) for smokers and from 0.01 to 0.148 mmol/molCreatinine (arithmetic mean 0.044, median 0.032) for non-smokers. These values are close to those of some other studies. Urinary 3-OHBaP ranged from <0.01 to 0.084 nmol/molCreatinine (arithmetic mean 0.030, median 0.023) for smokers and from <0.01 to 0.045 nmol/molCreatinine (arithmetic mean 0.014, median 0.011) for non-smokers. Considering more particularly the urinary 3-OHBaP values, the influence of smoking could be important among workers exposed to low levels of BaP (<100 ng/m(3)) and the concentrations for smokers were equivalent to most of the preshift values of exposed workers. The dietary BaP intake was slightly lower than the BaP intake for an average smoker. From the present study, temporary basic reference levels may be proposed for urinary 3-OHBaP.
    • 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides in the urine of infants exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.

      Hecht, Stephen S.; Carmella, Steven G.; Le, Ky-Anh; Murphy, Sharon E.; Boettcher, Angela J.; Le, Chap; Koopmeiners, Joseph; An, Larry; Hennrikus, Deborah J. (2006-05)
      Biomarkers of carcinogen uptake could provide important information pertinent to the question of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in childhood and cancer development later in life. Previous studies have focused on exposures before birth and during childhood, but carcinogen uptake from ETS in infants has not been reported. Exposures in infants could be higher than in children or adults because of their proximity to parents who smoke. Therefore, we quantified 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL) in the urine of 144 infants, ages 3 to 12 months, who lived in homes with parents who smoked. Total NNAL is an accepted biomarker of uptake of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. Cotinine and its glucuronide (total cotinine) and nicotine and its glucuronide (total nicotine) were also quantified. Total NNAL was detectable in 67 of 144 infants (46.5%). Mean levels of total NNAL in the 144 infants were 0.083 +/- 0.200 pmol/mL, whereas those of total cotinine and total nicotine were 0.133 +/- 0.190 and 0.069 +/- 0.102 nmol/mL, respectively. The number of cigarettes smoked per week in the home or car by any family member when the infant was present was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) when NNAL was detected than when it was not (76.0 +/- 88.1 versus 27.1 +/- 38.2). The mean level of NNAL detected in the urine of these infants was higher than in most other field studies of ETS exposure. The results of this study show substantial uptake of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in infants exposed to ETS and support the concept that persistent ETS exposure in childhood could be related to cancer later in life.
    • 9-cis-Retinoic acid inhibition of lung carcinogenesis in the A/J mouse model is accompanied by increased expression of RAR-beta but no change in cyclooxygenase-2.

      Mernitz, Heather; Smith, Donald E.; Zhu, Andrew X.; Wang, Xiang-Dong (2006-11-28)
      9-cis-Retinoic acid (9cRA) binds both retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and has been shown to be a potential chemopreventive agent both in lung cancer cell culture studies and in clinical trials studying former smokers. However, direct evidence of the efficacy of 9cRA against lung tumor development in vivo is lacking. In the present study, we determined whether treatment with 9cRA has the potential to inhibit lung carcinogenesis by upregulating RAR-beta and down-regulating COX-2 expression in the A/J mouse lung cancer model. A/J mice (n=14-15/group) were treated as follows: (1) Control (Sham treated); (2) NNK (100mg NNK/kg body weight); (3) NNK+9cRA (15mg/kg diet); and (4) NNK+celecoxib (a COX-2-specific inhibitor, 500mg/kg diet). Tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, RAR-beta mRNA, COX-2 mRNA, and COX-2 protein levels in lung samples of mice were determined 4 months after carcinogen injection. The results showed that mice receiving 9cRA supplementation had significantly lower tumor multiplicity (48% reduction, P<0.05) and showed a trend toward lower tumor incidence (40% reduction, P=0.078), as compared with the mice given NNK alone. Although, celecoxib treatment resulted in greater declines in tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity (75 and 88%, respectively, P<0.05), the chemoprotective effects of celecoxib were accompanied by increased mortality while 9cRA treatment resulted in no weight-loss associated toxicity or mortality. Supplementation with 9cRA was effective in increasing RAR-beta mRNA, but this increase was not accompanied by decreased levels of COX-2 mRNA or protein. These results suggest that 9cRA supplementation may provide protection against lung carcinogenesis and this effect may be mediated in part by 9cRA induction of RAR-beta, but not inhibition of COX-2 transcription.
    • The absence of interaction between drug metabolizing enzyme genotypes and maternal lifestyle factors on glycophorin A somatic mutation frequency levels in newborns.

      Nukui, Tomoko; Day, Richard D.; Gordish-Dressman, Heather A.; Harger, Gail; Bigbee, William L.; Ness, Roberta B.; Romkes, Marjorie (2006-02)
      Prenatal exposure to carcinogens results in newborn DNA damage which in turn is associated with impaired health conditions in both childhood and adulthood. The present study aimed to evaluate whether phase I and II biotransformation enzyme genetic polymorphisms in combination with environmental exposures during pregnancy result in elevated levels of newborn DNA damage. Maternal peripheral and umbilical cord blood samples from 406 mother/newborn pairs were genotyped for a panel of phase I/II metabolic enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and NAT2) responsible for the metabolism of tobacco and lifestyle-related mutagens and carcinogens. DNA damage was measured by somatic cell mutation frequency at the glycophorin A (GPA) locus in newborns. No association with elevated somatic cell mutation frequency was observed between the combination of maternal/newborn genotypes and cigarette smoke or lifestyle exposures. The observed variation in newborn GPA frequency might be due to either environmental factors not assessed in this study or inter-individual differences in alternative metabolic or DNA repair pathways.
    • ACTIBIND, an actin-binding fungal T2-RNase with antiangiogenic and anticarcinogenic characteristics.

      Roiz, Levava; Smirnoff, Patricia; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Schwartz, Betty; Shoseyov, Oded (2006-05-15)
      BACKGROUND: ACTIBIND is an Aspergillus niger extracellular ribonuclease (T2-ribonuclease [RNase]) that possesses actin-binding activity. In plants, ACTIBIND inhibits the elongation and alters the orientation of pollen tubes by interfering with the intracellular actin network. The question rose whether ACTIBIND can also affect mammalian cancer development. METHODS: Cell colony formation was performed in human colon (HT-29, Caco-2, RSB), breast (ZR-75-1), and ovarian (2780) cancer cells in the presence or absence of 1 muM ACTIBIND. In HT-29 and ZR-75-1 cells, the effect of ACTIBIND on cell migration was studied by microscopic observations and by invasion assay through Matrigel. Tube formation was assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in the presence of angiogenin or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (1 microg/mL each) following overnight incubation with 1 or 10 microM ACTIBIND. In an athymic mouse xenograft model, HT-29 cells were injected subcutaneously, followed by subcutaneous (0.4-8 mg/mouse/injection) or intraperitoneal (0.001-1 mg/mouse/injection) injections of ACTIBIND. In a rat dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-colorectal carcinogenesis model, ACTIBIND was released directly into the colon via osmotic micropumps (250 microg/rat/day) or given orally via microcapsules (1.6 mg/rat/day). Aberrant crypt foci, tumors in the distal colon, and tumor blood vessels were examined. RESULTS: ACTIBIND had an anticlonogenic effect unrelated to its ribonuclease activity. It also inhibited angiogenin-induced HUVEC tube formation in a dose-responsive manner. ACTIBIND was found to bind actin in vitro. It also bound to cancer cell surfaces, leading to disruption of the internal actin network and inhibiting cell motility and invasiveness through Matrigel-coated filters. In mice, ACTIBIND inhibited HT-29 xenograft tumor development, given either as a subcutaneous or intraperitoneal treatment. In rats, ACTIBIND exerted preventive and therapeutic effects on developing colonic tumors induced by DMH. It also reduced the degree of tumor observation. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that ACTIBIND is an effective antiangiogenic and anticarcinogenic factor.
    • Activation of human long interspersed nuclear element 1 retrotransposition by benzo(a)pyrene, an ubiquitous environmental carcinogen.

      Stribinskis, Vilius; Ramos, Kenneth S. (2006-03-01)
      Long interspersed nuclear elements [LINE-1 (L1)] are abundant retrotransposons in mammalian genomes that remain silent under most conditions. Cellular stress signals activate L1, but the molecular mechanisms controlling L1 activation remain unclear. Evidence is presented here that benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental hydrocarbon metabolized by mammalian cytochrome P450s to reactive carcinogenic intermediates, increases L1 retrotransposition in HeLa cells. Increased retrotransposition is mediated by up-regulation of L1 RNA levels, increased L1 cDNA synthesis, and stable genomic integration. Activation of L1 is dependent on the ability of BaP to cause DNA damage because it is absent in HeLa cells challenged with nongenotoxic hydrocarbon carcinogens. Thus, the mutations and genomic instability observed in human populations exposed to genotoxic environmental hydrocarbons may involve epigenetic activation of mobile elements dispersed throughout the human genome.
    • Active and passive smoking and risk of ovarian cancer.

      Baker, J. A.; Odunuga, O. O.; Rodabaugh, K. J.; Reid, M. E.; Menezes, R. J.; Moysich, K. B. (2009-03-18)
      It is unclear whether smoking is a risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer, although some studies have suggested that it may be associated with an increased risk of mucinous tumors. This study investigated the effect of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on ovarian cancer risk among 434 women with primary epithelial ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian cancers and 868 age- and region-matched hospital controls with nonneoplastic conditions. All participants completed a comprehensive epidemiologic questionnaire. Results indicate that decreased risk of ovarian cancer was associated with being a nonsmoker exposed to ETS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46-0.99), a former smoker (aOR 0.76, 95% CI 0.53-1.10), or a current smoker (aOR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32-0.88). A similar protective effect was noted for smokers with moderate or high exposure based on smoking intensity, duration, and cumulative exposure, as well as for never smokers exposed to ETS. Results did not differ substantially by histologic subtype. Although prevailing theories of ovarian cancer etiology implicate incessant ovulation, characteristics of the study population suggest that anovulation was not the protective mechanism in this study. Immunosuppression by nicotine or upregulation of enzymes that metabolize carcinogens may be responsible for the effects observed.
    • Aflatoxin M1 absorption and cytotoxicity on human intestinal in vitro model.

      Caloni, F.; Stammati, A.; Friggè, G.; De Angelis, I. (2006-03-15)
      Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the principal hydroxylated Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) metabolite and is detected in milk of mammals, after consumption of feed contaminated with AFB1. As it is classified as probable human carcinogen (group 2B of the IARC), most countries have regulated its maximum allowed levels in milk in order to reduce AFM1 risk (50 ng/kg the EU and 500 ng/kg in the USA). It was demonstrated that if AFB1 must be converted into its reactive epoxide to exert its effects, and the protein binding may play an important role in its cytotoxicity. Conversely, the AFM1 epoxidation in human liver microsomes is very limited and studies with human cell line (MCL5), expressing or not expressing cytochrome P450 enzymes, demonstrated a direct toxic potential of AFM1 in absence of metabolic activation. For this reason, while AFM1 is generally considered a detoxification product of AFB1 relatively to carcinogenicity and mutagenicity property, this is not always true for cytotoxicity activity. Aim of this work is to evaluate the intestinal absorption of AFM1 using a human in vitro model, the Caco-2 cell line. Either the parental Caco-2 cell line or its derived clone TC7, with higher metabolic competence, have been used. They were treated with different concentrations of AFM1, that mirror the milk contamination level (0.3-32 nM corresponding to 10-10,000 ng/kg), either in undifferentiated or in differentiated phase of growth. After 48 h of treatment in serum free medium, a dose dependent absorption of AFM1 has been detected in both cell lines, especially in differentiated cells, while, no appreciable effects on cell viability were observed, except for a general cellular suffering, revealed by LDH release, particularly evident in the undifferentiated cells. As well, no metabolites or AFM1 conjugates have been detected. The present results may be crucial for the evaluation of human risk to AFM1 exposure, in particular for children's population, due to their large use of milk and derivatives.
    • Allyl sulfur compounds from garlic modulate aberrant crypt formation.

      Ross, Sharon A.; Finley, John W.; Milner, John A. (2006-03)
      The health benefits of garlic, including inhibition of carcinogenesis, are supported by several epidemiologic and laboratory findings. Garlic's sulfur components have been reported to suppress experimentally induced tumor incidence in several organs, including the colon. Studies in humans also suggest that dietary garlic constituents reduce the risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps, which are considered precursors to colon cancer. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are proposed to be early preneoplastic lesions of adenoma-carcinoma in humans and chemically induced colon cancer in rodents. In preclinical studies, both water- and lipid-soluble allyl sulfur compounds arising from processed garlic inhibited ACF. The response to these allyl sulfur compounds appears to depend on several factors, including the speciation, quantity, and duration provided.
    • Androgen deprivation induces human prostate epithelial neuroendocrine differentiation of androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells.

      Yuan, Ta-Chun; Veeramani, Suresh; Lin, Fen-Fen; Kondrikou, Dmitry; Zelivianski, Stanislav; Igawa, Tsukasa; Karan, Dev; Batra, Surinder K.; Lin, Ming-Fong (2006-03)
      Neuroendocrine (NE) cells are the minor cell populations in normal prostate epithelial compartments. During prostate carcinogenesis, the number of NE cells in malignant lesions increases, correlating with its tumorigenicity and hormone-refractory growth. It is thus proposed that cancerous NE cells promote prostate cancer (PCa) cell progression and its androgen-independent proliferation, although the origin of the cancerous NE cells is not clear. To investigate the role of cancerous NE cells in prostate carcinogenesis, we characterized three NE subclone cell lines-NE-1.3, NE-1.8 and NE-1.9, which were transdifferentiated from androgen-sensitive human PCa LNCaP cells by culturing in an androgen-depleted environment, resembling clinical androgen-ablation therapy. These subclone cells acquire many features of NE cells seen in clinical prostate carcinomas, for example exhibiting a neuronal morphology and expressing multiple NE markers, including neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin B, neurotensin, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, and to a lesser degree for chromogranin A, while lacking androgen receptor (AR) or prostate specific antigen (PSA) expression. These cells represent terminally differentiated stable cells because after 3 months of re-culturing in a medium containing androgenic activity, they still retained the NE phenotype and expressed NE markers. Despite these NE cells having a slow growth rate, they readily developed xenograft tumors. Furthermore, media conditioned by these NE cells exhibited a stimulatory effect on proliferation and PSA secretion by LNCaP cells in androgen-deprived conditions. Additionally, we found that receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha plays a role in upregulating multiple NE markers and acquiring the NE phenotype. These NE cells thus represent cancerous NE cells and could serve as a useful cell model system for investigating the role of cancerous NE cells in hormone-refractory proliferation of PCa cells.
    • Anthocyanin-rich extracts inhibit multiple biomarkers of colon cancer in rats.

      Lala, Geeta; Malik, Minnie; Zhao, Cuiwei; He, Jian; Kwon, Youngjoo; Giusti, M. Monica; Magnuson, Bernadene A. (2006)
      The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemoprotective activity of anthocyanin-rich extracts (AREs) from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), chokeberry (Aronia meloncarpa E.), and grape (Vitis vinifera) by assessing multiple biomarkers of colon cancer in male rats treated with a colon carcinogen, azoxymethane. Fischer 344 male rats were fed the AIN-93 diet (control) or AIN-93 diet supplemented with AREs for 14 wk. Biomarkers that were evaluated included the number and multiplicity of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), colonic cell proliferation, urinary levels of oxidative DNA damage, and expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) genes. To assess the bioavailability, levels of anthocyanins in serum, urine, and feces were evaluated. Total ACF were reduced (P<0.05) in bilberry, chokeberry, and grape diet groups compared with the control group. The number of large ACF was also reduced (P<0.05) in bilberry and chokeberry ARE-fed rats. Colonic cellular proliferation was decreased in rats fed bilberry ARE and chokeberry ARE diets. Rats fed bilberry and grape ARE diets had lower COX-2 mRNA expression of gene. High levels of fecal anthocyanins and increased fecal mass and fecal moisture occurred in ARE-fed rats. There was also a significant reduction (P<0.05) in fecal bile acids in ARE-fed rats. The levels of urinary 8-hydroxyguanosine were similar among rats fed different diets. These results support our previous in vitro studies suggesting a protective role of AREs in colon carcinogenesis and indicate multiple mechanisms of action.
    • Anticancer effect of Kalpaamruthaa on mammary carcinoma in rats with reference to glycoprotein components, lysosomal and marker enzymes.

      Veena, Krishnamurthy; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham; Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr. A. L. Mudaliar Post-Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Chennai, India. (2006-03)
      A promising approach to reduce the occurrence of cancer is its treatment, specifically by chemical intervention through minor dietary constituents. Epidemiological studies suggest that specific pharmacologically active agents present in the diet might reduce cancer. A remarkable surge of interest in chemoprevention research has, thus, lead to the identification of many phytochemicals of dietary origin as effective potential chemotherapeutic agents. In the present investigation, attempt has been made to study the potency of Kalpaamruthaa (KA), a herbal preparation, against cancer. The changes in level of glycoprotein components, marker enzymes and lysosomal enzymes were carried out in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced Sprague-Dawley rats. The changes in the body weights and volume were also determined. KA was administered at the dosage level of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) in olive oil orally for 14 d, after the induction period is completed (90 d). On administration of KA, the levels of the above enzymes and the changes in the body weights and volume were significantly normalized in a dose dependent manner. The present study shows that KA is effective at the dosage level of 300 mg/kg body weight in mammary carcinoma bearing rats.
    • Application of cryopreserved human hepatocytes in trichloroethylene risk assessment: relative disposition of chloral hydrate to trichloroacetate and trichloroethanol.

      Bronley-DeLancey, Apryl; McMillan, David C.; McMillan, JoEllyn M.; Jollow, David J.; Mohr, Lawrence C.; Hoel, David G. (2006-08)
      BACKGROUND: Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a suspected human carcinogen and a common groundwater contaminant. Chloral hydrate (CH) is the major metabolite of TCE formed in the liver by cytochrome P450 2E1. CH is metabolized to the hepatocarcinogen trichloroacetate (TCA) by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and to the noncarcinogenic metabolite trichloroethanol (TCOH) by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). ALDH and ADH are polymorphic in humans, and these polymorphisms are known to affect the elimination of ethanol. It is therefore possible that polymorphisms in CH metabolism will yield subpopulations with greater than expected TCA formation with associated enhanced risk of liver tumors after TCE exposure. METHODS: The present studies were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using commercially available, cryogenically preserved human hepatocytes to determine simultaneously the kinetics of CH metabolism and ALDH/ADH genotype. Thirteen human hepatocyte samples were examined. Linear reciprocal plots were obtained for 11 ADH and 12 ALDH determinations. RESULTS: There was large interindividual variation in the Vmax values for both TCOH and TCA formation. Within this limited sample size, no correlation with ADH/ALDH genotype was apparent. Despite the large variation in Vmax values among individuals, disposition of CH into the two competing pathways was relatively constant. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the use of cryopreserved human hepatocytes as an experimental system to generate metabolic and genomic information for incorporation into TCE cancer risk assessment models. The data are discussed with regard to cellular factors, other than genotype, that may contribute to the observed variability in metabolism of CH in human liver.
    • Arsenic in the aetiology of cancer.

      Tapio, Soile; Grosche, Bernd (2006-06)
      Arsenic, one of the most significant hazards in the environment affecting millions of people around the world, is associated with several diseases including cancers of skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney and liver. Groundwater contamination by arsenic is the main route of exposure. Inhalation of airborne arsenic or arsenic-contaminated dust is a common health problem in many ore mines. This review deals with the questions raised in the epidemiological studies such as the dose-response relationship, putative confounders and synergistic effects, and methods evaluating arsenic exposure. Furthermore, it describes the metabolic pathways of arsenic, and its biological modes of action. The role of arsenic in the development of cancer is elucidated in the context of combined epidemiological and biological studies. However, further analyses by means of molecular epidemiology are needed to improve the understanding of cancer aetiology induced by arsenic.
    • Assessment of micronuclei induction in peripheral erythrocytes of fish exposed to xenobiotics under controlled conditions.

      Bolognesi, Claudia; Perrone, Emanuela; Roggieri, Paola; Pampanin, Daniela M.; Sciutto, Andrea (2006-06-01)
      The aim of the present study was to standardize and to assess the predictive value of the cytogenetic analysis by MN test in fish erythrocytes as a biomarker for marine environmental contamination. MN frequency baseline in erythrocytes was evaluated in a number of fish species from a reference area (S. Teresa, La Spezia Gulf) and genotoxic potential of a number of common chemical contaminants and mixtures was determined in fish experimentally exposed in aquarium under controlled conditions. Fish (Scophthalmus maximus) were exposed for 3 weeks to 50 ppb of single chemicals (dialkyl phthalate, bisphenol A, tetrabromodiphenyl ether), 30 ppb nonylphenol and mixtures (North Sea oil and North Sea oil with alkylated phenols). Chromosomal damage was determined as micronuclei (MN) frequency in fish erythrocytes. Nuclear anomalies such as blebbed, notched and lobed nuclei were also recorded. Significant increase in MN frequency was observed in erythrocytes of fish exposed to bisphenol A and tetrabromodiphenylether. Chemical mixture North Sea oil+alkylated phenols induced the highest MN frequency (2.95 micronucleated cells/1000 cells compared to 1 MNcell/1000 cells in control animals). The study results revealed that micronucleus test, as an index of cumulative exposure, appears to be a sensitive model to evaluate genotoxic compounds in fish under controlled conditions.
    • Atm-haploinsufficiency enhances susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary tumors.

      Lu, Shu; Shen, Kate; Wang, Yaolin; Santner, Steven J.; Chen, Jie; Brooks, S. C.; Wang, Y. Alan (2006-04)
      Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), which is due to mutations in the ATM gene, is a rare autosomal recessive genomic instability syndrome characterized by radiosensitivity and predisposition to cancer. Epidemiological studies have suggested that relatives of A-T patients (A-T carriers) have increased risks of developing breast cancer. We propose that increased breast cancer risks in A-T carriers may be due to exposure to various environmental carcinogens and/or dietary consumption. To test this hypothesis, we treated a congenic strain of Atm+/- mice with DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz(alpha)anthracene), a mammary carcinogen, and observed mammary tumor incidence. It was found that Atm+/- mice have a 2-fold increase, as well as early onset, in mammary tumor incidence relative to wild-type mice (P<0.005). The increased mammary tumor development is correlated with a 3-fold increase in the development of mammary dysplasia in Atm+/- compared with wild-type mice (P<0.05). We also found that Ras signaling pathway was not activated in DMBA-induced mammary tumors irrespective of the Atm status. At the cellular level, Atm-haploinsufficiency confers increased cellular stress manifested by an increased p53 expression and a slightly enhanced survival of mammary epithelial cells in response to radiation. Our results demonstrate that Atm heterozygotes are predisposed to mammary tumor development and support the hypothesis that exposure to environmental carcinogens contributes to the increased rate of breast cancer development in A-T carriers. Given that 1% of the general population are ATM heterozygotes (A-T carriers), this study has great implications in breast cancer development in this population.
    • Balkan endemic nephropathy: role of ochratoxins A through biomarkers.

      Castegnaro, Marcel; Canadas, Delphine; Vrabcheva, Terry; Petkova-Bocharova, Theodora; Chernozemsky, Ivan N.; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie (2006-05)
      Several studies implicated mycotoxins, in endemic kidney disease geographically limited to Balkan region (Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN)). In Bulgaria, much higher prevalence of ochratoxin A (OTA), exceeding 2 microg/L, was observed in the blood of affected population. OTA is found more often in the urine of people living in BEN-endemic villages. To confirm and quantify exposure to OTA in Vratza district, we followed up OTA intake for 1 month, OTA in blood and urine from healthy (20-30 years old) volunteers, from two villages with high risk for BEN disease. Food samples were collected daily, blood and urine at the beginning of each week. Relations between increasing OTA intake, blood concentration and elimination of OTA in urine have been studied in rats. Average weekly intake of OTA varies from 1.9 to 206 ng/kg body weight, twice tolerable weekly intake recommended by JECFA. OTA blood concentrations are in the same range as previously reported in this region with concentrations reaching 10 microg/L. Weekly OTA food intake is not directly correlated with blood and urine concentrations. Biomarkers of biological effects such as DNA adducts were detected in patients affected by urinary tract tumours (UTT) and in rat study. All these plead for the implication of OTA, in BEN and UTT.
    • beta-carotene-induced changes in RARbeta isoform mRNA expression patterns do not influence lung adenoma multiplicity in the NNK-initiated A/J mouse model.

      Goralczyk, Regina; Bachmann, Heinrich; Wertz, Karin; Lenz, Barbara; Riss, Georges; Buchwald Hunziker, Petra; Greatrix, Brad; Aebischer, Claude-Pierre (2006)
      A number of epidemiological studies have reported associations of beta-carotene plasma levels or intake with decreased lung cancer risk. However, intervention studies in smokers reported increased lung tumor rates after high long-term beta-carotene supplementation. For insight into these conflicting results, we studied the influence of beta-carotene on tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung cancer development in the A/J-mouse using 4-(N-Methyl-N-nitro samino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) as the initiator and lung adenoma multiplicity as the functional endpoint. Gene regulation of the putative tumor suppressor RARbeta in mouse lung was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for its relevance in predicting the endpoint of lung cancer. A/J-mice achieved plasma beta-carotene levels of up to 3 micromol/L within 4 wk and up to 6 micromol/L after 6 mo of supplementation on a diet modified to enhance beta-carotene absorption. Despite high lung beta-carotene concentrations of up to 6 micromol/kg, tumor multiplicity was not significantly affected by the beta-carotene treatment, either in carcinogen-initiated or non-initiated mice, and was unrelated to beta-carotene dose and the time point of treatment during cancer formation. Tumor multiplicity did not correlate with beta-carotene plasma levels in NNK-treated animals. All RARbeta isoforms were significantly suppressed in the lungs of NNK- and NNK plus high dose beta-carotene-treated animals. However, the number of tumors per mouse did not correlate with the RARbeta-isoform expression levels. beta-carotene alone after 3 mo of supplementation mildly but significantly increased levels of RARbeta1, beta2, and beta4. This increase persisted for 6 mo for RARbeta2 and beta4. In summary, we found no effect of beta-carotene on tumor formation in the NNK-initiated A/J-mouse lung cancer model with respect to dose or time point of treatment. beta-Carotene-induced changes in RARbeta isoform gene expression levels were not predictive for the number of lung tumors but were indicative of intact beta-carotene metabolism and persistent sensitivity to retinoic acid in the mice. Down-regulation of RARbeta in NNK-induced adenoma-bearing lungs was similar to that observed in human lung cancer and further confirms the A/J-mouse as a valuable model for lung carcinogenesis.
    • Binding of galectin-1 (gal-1) to the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen on trophoblast cells and inhibition of proliferation of trophoblast tumor cells in vitro by gal-1 or an anti-TF antibody.

      Jeschke, Udo; Karsten, Uwe; Wiest, Irmi; Schulze, Sandra; Kuhn, Christina; Friese, Klaus; Walzel, Hermann (2006-10)
      Galectin-1 (gal-1), a member of the mammalian beta-galactoside-binding proteins, recognizes preferentially Galbeta1-4GlcNAc sequences of several cell surface oligosaccharides. We demonstrate histochemically that the lectin recognizes appropriate glycotopes on the syncytiotrophoblast and extravillous trophoblast layer from second trimester human placenta and on BeWo chorion carcinoma cells. Gal-1 binding to BeWo cells was diminished by the Thomsen-Friedreich (TF)-disaccharide (Galbeta1-3GalNAc-) conjugated to polyacrylamide (TF-PAA). Gal-1 also inhibited BeWo cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Similar antiproliferative effects were also observed with an anti-TF monoclonal antibody (mAb, A78-G/A7). Therefore, we conclude that ligation of Galbeta1-4GlcNAc and Galbeta1-3GalNAc epitopes on BeWo cells may have regulatory effects on cell proliferation.