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Decreasing urinary PAH metabolites and 7-methylguanine after smoking cessation.OBJECTIVE: Humans are exposed to various carcinogens by smoking. Urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), one of the major carcinogens in cigarette smoke, were measured as the environmental carcinogen exposure marker for humans. We evaluated urinary exposure markers for smoking cessation. METHOD: In this study, we measured cigarette smoke exposure markers, such as urinary cotinine, PAH exposure markers, such as urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), 2-naphthol (2-NP) and 1-naphthol (1-NP), as well as a methylating chemical exposure marker, 7-methylguanine (7-MeG). The before smoking cessation levels of these markers, and the after smoking cessation levels were then compared. Eighteen subjects participated in this smoking cessation program. RESULTS: Levels of all of four markers were found to have decreased by 19-54% after smoking cessation. Urinary cotinine, 1-OHP, 2-NP and 7-MeG levels were found to have significantly decreased after smoking cessation. There were positive correlations between cotinine and three urinary PAH markers and between 1-OHP, 2-NP and 7-MeG. CONCLUSION: PAH metabolites were better biomarkers of smoking cessation than 7-MeG. Analyzing urinary metabolites or urinary DNA adducts is suitable for epidemiological studies.
Levels of 1-hydroxypyrene and other monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in children: a study based on U.S. reference range values.Urine samples collected in 1999 and 2000 as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed for 14 monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, metabolites of 7 PAH compounds) and for the first time reference range values were calculated for these metabolites in the U.S. population. The purpose of this paper is to explore differences in these PAH metabolites between children (6-11 years old), adolescents, and adults. More than 99% of the urine samples contained a detectable amount of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHpyrene), a metabolite of pyrene. We found that children in the youngest age group (6-11 years) had a geometric mean level (creatinine corrected data) 30% higher than children and adults in the other age groups, but no statistical differences existed between the two genders and among different racial groups. Smokers and persons exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in 12-19-year-old group and the 20-year-and-older group had higher levels of urinary 1-OHpyrene by a factor of 2-3 than non-smokers in the corresponding age group. Measurements of 3-hydroxyphenanthrene also suggested increased levels in children and in smokers. These results may indicate that young children are at a greater risk for PAH exposure, or that they absorb, distribute, metabolize, or eliminate PAH differently than adults.