• Dietary effects of soy isoflavones daidzein and genistein on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in ovariectomized Big Blue transgenic rats.

      Manjanatha, Mugimane; Shelton, Sharon; Bishop, Michelle; Lyn-Cook, Lascelles; Aidoo, Anane (2006-10)
      The major constituents of isoflavones daidzein (DZ) and genistein (GE) interact with the and estrogen receptors in several tissues including mammary tissues. In this study, we used ovariectomy (OVX) to model menopause and determined the effects of DZ, GE or 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) exposures on chemically induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in the mammary glands of female Big Blue transgenic rats. The rats were fed control diet containing the isoflavones and E(2) and treated with a single oral dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) at PND50. Animals were euthanized at 16 or 20 weeks post-carcinogen treatment to assess mutant frequencies (MFs) and histopathological parameters, respectively. The isoflavones or E(2) supplementation alone resulted in the lac I MFs that were not significantly different from the MFs measured in rats fed the control diet alone. DMBA exposure, however, induced significant increases in the lac I MFs in the mammary tissues of both OVX and INT rats and Hprt MFs in spleen lymphocytes (P < 0.01). In general, feeding the isoflavones or E(2) did not cause any significant changes in DMBA-induced mutagenicity in the mammary tissues. However, feeding the isoflavone mixture (daidzein + genistein; DZG) resulted in a significant reduction in the DMBA-induced lac I MFs (P < 0.05). Cell proliferation as measured by PCNA immunohistochemistry was increased in both OVX and INT rats exposed to DMBA as compared with rats fed control diet (P < 0.05). Mammary histology indicated that hyperplasia was induced in most of the treatment groups including control. Although DMBA did not induce mammary tumors in the OVX rats, adenoma and adenocarcinoma were detected in the mammary glands of INT rats.
    • Effects of genistein on the mammary gland proliferation of adult ovariectomised Wistar rats.

      Hertrampf, Torsten; Schmidt, Simone; Seibel, Jan; Laudenbach-Leschowsky, Ute; Degen, Gisela H.; Diel, Patrick (2006-03)
      The effects of phytoestrogens on the female breast are discussed controversially. On the one hand, epidemiological and experimental data provide evidence that dietary phytoestrogens may prevent the development of breast cancer. On the other hand, in breast cancer cell lines and tumour models isoflavone phytoestrogens have been demonstrated to stimulate the growth of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells. To further investigate the molecular effects of genistein (Gen) on the mammary gland, we treated non-tumour bearing, ovariectomised female Wistar rats with this phytoestrogen either subcutaneously (10 mg/kg body weight) or orally (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) for 3 days. Estradiol (E(2), 0.004 mg/kg s. c.) and ethynylestradiol (EE, 0.1 mg/kg per os) served as reference compounds. In the breast tissue, mRNA and protein expression of the progesterone receptor (marker for estrogenicity) and PCNA (marker gene for proliferation) were examined by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry; the uterotrophic response was assessed also. Treatment with Gen per os or s. c. results in a small but significant stimulation of the uterine wet weight. In the mammary gland, Gen stimulates the expression of progesterone receptor (PR) but, in contrast to E(2), the isoflavone does not stimulate the expression of PCNA. These findings resemble recent data demonstrating a differential ability of Gen to induce uterine gene expression and uterine proliferation. Our data indicate that in non-malignant breast tissue short-term administration of Gen, in contrast to more potent estrogens like E(2), does not induce proliferation. Chronic stimulation of proliferation is believed to be a key mechanism during the development of breast cancer. The limited ability of Gen to stimulate proliferation in this tissue could be an indication for a limited carcinogenic potency of Gen in the breast. In further investigations it is important to identify molecular differences between healthy and malignant breast tissue which may explain the different sensitivity towards Gen treatment.
    • Effects of soybean glyceollins and estradiol in postmenopausal female monkeys.

      Wood, Charles E.; Clarkson, Thomas B.; Appt, Susan E.; Franke, Adrian A.; Boue, Stephen M.; Burow, Matthew E.; McCoy, Thomas; Cline, J. Mark (2006)
      Glyceollins are a novel class of soybean phytoalexins with potential cancer-protective antiestrogenic effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the estrogen-antagonist effects of glyceollin-enriched soy protein on biomarkers for breast cancer risk. Thirty female postmenopausal cynomolgus macaques were randomized to one of three dietary treatments for 3 wk: 1) estradiol (E2, 1 mg/day) + casein/lactalbumin (control); 2) E2 + soy protein isolate (SPI) containing 194 mg/day isoflavonoids; and 3) E2 + glyceollin-enriched soy protein (GLY) containing 189 mg/day isoflavonoids + 134 mg/day glyceollins. Doses are expressed in calorically scaled human equivalents. Mean serum glyceollin concentrations at 4 h postfeeding were 134.2 +/- 34.6 nmol/L in the GLY group and negligible in the SPI group (P = 0.0007). Breast proliferation was significantly increased in the control group (+237%, P = 0.01) but not in the SPI group (+198%, P = 0.08) or GLY group (+36%, P = 0.18). Gene expression of trefoil factor 1 and progesterone receptor, two markers of estrogen receptor activity in breast epithelium, were also significantly higher in the control (P < 0.05 for both) but not in the GLY group. These preliminary findings suggest that soybean glyceollins are natural compounds with potential estrogen-modulating properties in the breast.
    • Sustained trophism of the mammary gland is sufficient to accelerate and synchronize development of ErbB2/Neu-induced tumors.

      Landis, M. D.; Seachrist, D. D.; Abdul-Karim, F. W.; Keri, R. A. (2006-06-01)
      Epidemiological studies indicate that parity enhances HER2/ErbB2/Neu-induced breast tumorigenesis. Furthermore, recent studies using multiparous, ErbB2/Neu-overexpressing mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV-Neu) mice have shown that parity induces a population of cells that are targeted for ErbB2/Neu-induced transformation. Although parity accelerates mammary tumorigenesis, the pattern of tumor development in multiparous MMTV-Neu mice remains stochastic, suggesting that additional events are required for ErbB2/Neu to cause mammary tumors. Whether such events are genetic in nature or reflective of the dynamic hormonal control of the gland that occurs with pregnancy remains unclear. We postulated that young age at pregnancy initiation or chronic trophic maintenance of mammary epithelial cells might provide a cellular environment that significantly increases susceptibility to ErbB2/Neu-induced tumorigenesis. MMTV-Neu mice that were maintained pregnant or lactating beginning at 3 weeks of age demonstrated accelerated tumorigenesis, but this process was still stochastic, indicating that early pregnancy does not provide the requisite events of tumorigenesis. However, bitransgenic mice that were generated by breeding MMTV-Neu mice with a luteinizing hormone-overexpressing mouse model of ovarian hyperstimulation developed multifocal mammary tumors in an accelerated, synchronous manner compared to virgin MMTV-Neu animals. This synchrony of tumor development in the bitransgenic mice suggests that trophic maintenance of the mammary gland provides the additional events required for tumor formation and maintains the population of cells that are targeted by ErbB2/Neu for transformation. Both the synchrony of tumor appearance and the ability to characterize a window of commitment by ovariectomy/palpation studies permitted microarray analysis to evaluate changes in gene expression over a defined timeline that spans the progression from normal to preneoplastic mammary tissue. These approaches led to identification of several candidate genes whose expression changes in the mammary gland with commitment to ErbB2/Neu-induced tumorigenesis, suggesting that they may either be regulated by ErbB2/Neu and/or contribute to tumor formation.
    • Tumor-protective and tumor-promoting actions of dietary whey proteins in an N-methyl-N-nitrosourea model of rat mammary carcinogenesis.

      Eason, Renea R.; Till, S. Renee; Frank, Julie A.; Badger, Thomas M.; Korourian, Sohelia; Simmen, Frank A.; Simmen, Rosalia C.M. (2006)
      The mammary tumor-protective effects of dietary factors are considered to be mediated by multiple signaling pathways, consistent with the heterogeneous nature of the disease and the distinct genetic profiles of tumors arising from diverse mammary cell populations. In a 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced model of carcinogenesis, we showed previously that female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to AIN-93G diet containing whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) beginning at gestation Day 4 had reduced tumor incidence than those exposed to diet containing casein (CAS), due partly to increased mammary differentiation and reduced activity of phase I metabolic enzymes. Here, we evaluated the tumor-protective effects of these same dietary proteins to the direct-acting carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU). We found that lifetime exposure to WPH, relative to CAS, decreased mammary tumor incidence and prolonged the appearance of tumors in NMU-treated female rats, with no corresponding effects on tumor multiplicity. At 115 days post-NMU, histologically normal mammary glands from WPH-fed tumor-bearing rats had increased gene expression for the tumor suppressor BRCA1 and the differentiation marker kappa-casein than those of CAS-fed tumor-bearing rats. Tumor-bearing rats from the WPH group had more advanced tumors, with a greater incidence of invasive ductal carcinoma than ductal carcinoma in situ and higher serum C-peptide levels than corresponding rats fed CAS. WPH-fed tumor-bearing rats were also heavier after NMU administration than CAS tumor-bearing rats, although no correlation was noted between body weight and C-peptide levels for either diet group. Results demonstrate the context-dependent tumor-protective and tumor-promoting effects of WPH; provide support for distinct signaling pathways underlying dietary effects on development of mammary carcinoma; and raise provocative questions on the role of diet in altering the prognosis of existing breast tumors.