• A 26-week carcinogenicity study of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in rasH2 mice.

      Okamura, Miwa; Moto, Mitsuyoshi; Muguruma, Masako; Ito, Tadashi; Jin, Meilan; Kashida, Yoko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi (2006)
      To evaluate the carcinogenic susceptibility of rasH2 mice to 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 7-week-old rasH2 mice and their wild-type littermates (non-Tg mice) of both the sexes were fed a diet containing 0 or 300 ppm IQ for 26 weeks. Microscopical examinations revealed that the proliferative lesions of the forestomach, including squamous cell hyperplasias, papillomas, and carcinomas, were frequently encountered in male and female rasH2 mice fed with IQ. In non-Tg mice, no significant differences in the incidence of forestomach lesions were observed between the 0 ppm and 300 ppm groups. Histopathological changes such as periportal hepatocellular hypertrophy and oval cell proliferation in the liver were more apparent in female rasH2 and non-Tg mice than in males, and the incidence of hepatocellular altered foci significantly increased in female rasH2 mice in the 300 ppm group as compared to that in the 0 ppm group. These results suggest that the carcinogenic potential of IQ can be detected in rasH2 mice by a 26-week, short-term carcinogenicity test.
    • 3-Hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene in the urine of smokers and non-smokers.

      Lafontaine, M.; Champmartin, C.; Simon, P.; Delsaut, P.; Funck-Brentano, C. (2006-04-10)
      The people studied were male volunteers without occupational and dietary exposure to PAH: 27 smokers (10 cigarettes or more) and 27 non-smokers matched for age and socio-professional category. For each person, all the 24h voided urine samples were reassembled in a single sample. 1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHPy) and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OHBaP) were then determined by automated column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography. Urinary 1-OHPy ranged from 0.041 to 0.530 micromol/molCreatinine (arithmetic mean 0.144, median 0.115) for smokers and from 0.01 to 0.148 mmol/molCreatinine (arithmetic mean 0.044, median 0.032) for non-smokers. These values are close to those of some other studies. Urinary 3-OHBaP ranged from <0.01 to 0.084 nmol/molCreatinine (arithmetic mean 0.030, median 0.023) for smokers and from <0.01 to 0.045 nmol/molCreatinine (arithmetic mean 0.014, median 0.011) for non-smokers. Considering more particularly the urinary 3-OHBaP values, the influence of smoking could be important among workers exposed to low levels of BaP (<100 ng/m(3)) and the concentrations for smokers were equivalent to most of the preshift values of exposed workers. The dietary BaP intake was slightly lower than the BaP intake for an average smoker. From the present study, temporary basic reference levels may be proposed for urinary 3-OHBaP.
    • 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides in the urine of infants exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.

      Hecht, Stephen S.; Carmella, Steven G.; Le, Ky-Anh; Murphy, Sharon E.; Boettcher, Angela J.; Le, Chap; Koopmeiners, Joseph; An, Larry; Hennrikus, Deborah J. (2006-05)
      Biomarkers of carcinogen uptake could provide important information pertinent to the question of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in childhood and cancer development later in life. Previous studies have focused on exposures before birth and during childhood, but carcinogen uptake from ETS in infants has not been reported. Exposures in infants could be higher than in children or adults because of their proximity to parents who smoke. Therefore, we quantified 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL) in the urine of 144 infants, ages 3 to 12 months, who lived in homes with parents who smoked. Total NNAL is an accepted biomarker of uptake of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. Cotinine and its glucuronide (total cotinine) and nicotine and its glucuronide (total nicotine) were also quantified. Total NNAL was detectable in 67 of 144 infants (46.5%). Mean levels of total NNAL in the 144 infants were 0.083 +/- 0.200 pmol/mL, whereas those of total cotinine and total nicotine were 0.133 +/- 0.190 and 0.069 +/- 0.102 nmol/mL, respectively. The number of cigarettes smoked per week in the home or car by any family member when the infant was present was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) when NNAL was detected than when it was not (76.0 +/- 88.1 versus 27.1 +/- 38.2). The mean level of NNAL detected in the urine of these infants was higher than in most other field studies of ETS exposure. The results of this study show substantial uptake of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in infants exposed to ETS and support the concept that persistent ETS exposure in childhood could be related to cancer later in life.
    • 9-cis-Retinoic acid inhibition of lung carcinogenesis in the A/J mouse model is accompanied by increased expression of RAR-beta but no change in cyclooxygenase-2.

      Mernitz, Heather; Smith, Donald E.; Zhu, Andrew X.; Wang, Xiang-Dong (2006-11-28)
      9-cis-Retinoic acid (9cRA) binds both retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and has been shown to be a potential chemopreventive agent both in lung cancer cell culture studies and in clinical trials studying former smokers. However, direct evidence of the efficacy of 9cRA against lung tumor development in vivo is lacking. In the present study, we determined whether treatment with 9cRA has the potential to inhibit lung carcinogenesis by upregulating RAR-beta and down-regulating COX-2 expression in the A/J mouse lung cancer model. A/J mice (n=14-15/group) were treated as follows: (1) Control (Sham treated); (2) NNK (100mg NNK/kg body weight); (3) NNK+9cRA (15mg/kg diet); and (4) NNK+celecoxib (a COX-2-specific inhibitor, 500mg/kg diet). Tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, RAR-beta mRNA, COX-2 mRNA, and COX-2 protein levels in lung samples of mice were determined 4 months after carcinogen injection. The results showed that mice receiving 9cRA supplementation had significantly lower tumor multiplicity (48% reduction, P<0.05) and showed a trend toward lower tumor incidence (40% reduction, P=0.078), as compared with the mice given NNK alone. Although, celecoxib treatment resulted in greater declines in tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity (75 and 88%, respectively, P<0.05), the chemoprotective effects of celecoxib were accompanied by increased mortality while 9cRA treatment resulted in no weight-loss associated toxicity or mortality. Supplementation with 9cRA was effective in increasing RAR-beta mRNA, but this increase was not accompanied by decreased levels of COX-2 mRNA or protein. These results suggest that 9cRA supplementation may provide protection against lung carcinogenesis and this effect may be mediated in part by 9cRA induction of RAR-beta, but not inhibition of COX-2 transcription.
    • ACTIBIND, an actin-binding fungal T2-RNase with antiangiogenic and anticarcinogenic characteristics.

      Roiz, Levava; Smirnoff, Patricia; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Schwartz, Betty; Shoseyov, Oded (2006-05-15)
      BACKGROUND: ACTIBIND is an Aspergillus niger extracellular ribonuclease (T2-ribonuclease [RNase]) that possesses actin-binding activity. In plants, ACTIBIND inhibits the elongation and alters the orientation of pollen tubes by interfering with the intracellular actin network. The question rose whether ACTIBIND can also affect mammalian cancer development. METHODS: Cell colony formation was performed in human colon (HT-29, Caco-2, RSB), breast (ZR-75-1), and ovarian (2780) cancer cells in the presence or absence of 1 muM ACTIBIND. In HT-29 and ZR-75-1 cells, the effect of ACTIBIND on cell migration was studied by microscopic observations and by invasion assay through Matrigel. Tube formation was assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in the presence of angiogenin or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (1 microg/mL each) following overnight incubation with 1 or 10 microM ACTIBIND. In an athymic mouse xenograft model, HT-29 cells were injected subcutaneously, followed by subcutaneous (0.4-8 mg/mouse/injection) or intraperitoneal (0.001-1 mg/mouse/injection) injections of ACTIBIND. In a rat dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-colorectal carcinogenesis model, ACTIBIND was released directly into the colon via osmotic micropumps (250 microg/rat/day) or given orally via microcapsules (1.6 mg/rat/day). Aberrant crypt foci, tumors in the distal colon, and tumor blood vessels were examined. RESULTS: ACTIBIND had an anticlonogenic effect unrelated to its ribonuclease activity. It also inhibited angiogenin-induced HUVEC tube formation in a dose-responsive manner. ACTIBIND was found to bind actin in vitro. It also bound to cancer cell surfaces, leading to disruption of the internal actin network and inhibiting cell motility and invasiveness through Matrigel-coated filters. In mice, ACTIBIND inhibited HT-29 xenograft tumor development, given either as a subcutaneous or intraperitoneal treatment. In rats, ACTIBIND exerted preventive and therapeutic effects on developing colonic tumors induced by DMH. It also reduced the degree of tumor observation. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that ACTIBIND is an effective antiangiogenic and anticarcinogenic factor.
    • Androgen deprivation induces human prostate epithelial neuroendocrine differentiation of androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells.

      Yuan, Ta-Chun; Veeramani, Suresh; Lin, Fen-Fen; Kondrikou, Dmitry; Zelivianski, Stanislav; Igawa, Tsukasa; Karan, Dev; Batra, Surinder K.; Lin, Ming-Fong (2006-03)
      Neuroendocrine (NE) cells are the minor cell populations in normal prostate epithelial compartments. During prostate carcinogenesis, the number of NE cells in malignant lesions increases, correlating with its tumorigenicity and hormone-refractory growth. It is thus proposed that cancerous NE cells promote prostate cancer (PCa) cell progression and its androgen-independent proliferation, although the origin of the cancerous NE cells is not clear. To investigate the role of cancerous NE cells in prostate carcinogenesis, we characterized three NE subclone cell lines-NE-1.3, NE-1.8 and NE-1.9, which were transdifferentiated from androgen-sensitive human PCa LNCaP cells by culturing in an androgen-depleted environment, resembling clinical androgen-ablation therapy. These subclone cells acquire many features of NE cells seen in clinical prostate carcinomas, for example exhibiting a neuronal morphology and expressing multiple NE markers, including neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin B, neurotensin, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, and to a lesser degree for chromogranin A, while lacking androgen receptor (AR) or prostate specific antigen (PSA) expression. These cells represent terminally differentiated stable cells because after 3 months of re-culturing in a medium containing androgenic activity, they still retained the NE phenotype and expressed NE markers. Despite these NE cells having a slow growth rate, they readily developed xenograft tumors. Furthermore, media conditioned by these NE cells exhibited a stimulatory effect on proliferation and PSA secretion by LNCaP cells in androgen-deprived conditions. Additionally, we found that receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha plays a role in upregulating multiple NE markers and acquiring the NE phenotype. These NE cells thus represent cancerous NE cells and could serve as a useful cell model system for investigating the role of cancerous NE cells in hormone-refractory proliferation of PCa cells.
    • Anthocyanin-rich extracts inhibit multiple biomarkers of colon cancer in rats.

      Lala, Geeta; Malik, Minnie; Zhao, Cuiwei; He, Jian; Kwon, Youngjoo; Giusti, M. Monica; Magnuson, Bernadene A. (2006)
      The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemoprotective activity of anthocyanin-rich extracts (AREs) from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), chokeberry (Aronia meloncarpa E.), and grape (Vitis vinifera) by assessing multiple biomarkers of colon cancer in male rats treated with a colon carcinogen, azoxymethane. Fischer 344 male rats were fed the AIN-93 diet (control) or AIN-93 diet supplemented with AREs for 14 wk. Biomarkers that were evaluated included the number and multiplicity of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), colonic cell proliferation, urinary levels of oxidative DNA damage, and expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) genes. To assess the bioavailability, levels of anthocyanins in serum, urine, and feces were evaluated. Total ACF were reduced (P<0.05) in bilberry, chokeberry, and grape diet groups compared with the control group. The number of large ACF was also reduced (P<0.05) in bilberry and chokeberry ARE-fed rats. Colonic cellular proliferation was decreased in rats fed bilberry ARE and chokeberry ARE diets. Rats fed bilberry and grape ARE diets had lower COX-2 mRNA expression of gene. High levels of fecal anthocyanins and increased fecal mass and fecal moisture occurred in ARE-fed rats. There was also a significant reduction (P<0.05) in fecal bile acids in ARE-fed rats. The levels of urinary 8-hydroxyguanosine were similar among rats fed different diets. These results support our previous in vitro studies suggesting a protective role of AREs in colon carcinogenesis and indicate multiple mechanisms of action.
    • Application of cryopreserved human hepatocytes in trichloroethylene risk assessment: relative disposition of chloral hydrate to trichloroacetate and trichloroethanol.

      Bronley-DeLancey, Apryl; McMillan, David C.; McMillan, JoEllyn M.; Jollow, David J.; Mohr, Lawrence C.; Hoel, David G. (2006-08)
      BACKGROUND: Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a suspected human carcinogen and a common groundwater contaminant. Chloral hydrate (CH) is the major metabolite of TCE formed in the liver by cytochrome P450 2E1. CH is metabolized to the hepatocarcinogen trichloroacetate (TCA) by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and to the noncarcinogenic metabolite trichloroethanol (TCOH) by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). ALDH and ADH are polymorphic in humans, and these polymorphisms are known to affect the elimination of ethanol. It is therefore possible that polymorphisms in CH metabolism will yield subpopulations with greater than expected TCA formation with associated enhanced risk of liver tumors after TCE exposure. METHODS: The present studies were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using commercially available, cryogenically preserved human hepatocytes to determine simultaneously the kinetics of CH metabolism and ALDH/ADH genotype. Thirteen human hepatocyte samples were examined. Linear reciprocal plots were obtained for 11 ADH and 12 ALDH determinations. RESULTS: There was large interindividual variation in the Vmax values for both TCOH and TCA formation. Within this limited sample size, no correlation with ADH/ALDH genotype was apparent. Despite the large variation in Vmax values among individuals, disposition of CH into the two competing pathways was relatively constant. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the use of cryopreserved human hepatocytes as an experimental system to generate metabolic and genomic information for incorporation into TCE cancer risk assessment models. The data are discussed with regard to cellular factors, other than genotype, that may contribute to the observed variability in metabolism of CH in human liver.
    • Balkan endemic nephropathy: role of ochratoxins A through biomarkers.

      Castegnaro, Marcel; Canadas, Delphine; Vrabcheva, Terry; Petkova-Bocharova, Theodora; Chernozemsky, Ivan N.; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie (2006-05)
      Several studies implicated mycotoxins, in endemic kidney disease geographically limited to Balkan region (Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN)). In Bulgaria, much higher prevalence of ochratoxin A (OTA), exceeding 2 microg/L, was observed in the blood of affected population. OTA is found more often in the urine of people living in BEN-endemic villages. To confirm and quantify exposure to OTA in Vratza district, we followed up OTA intake for 1 month, OTA in blood and urine from healthy (20-30 years old) volunteers, from two villages with high risk for BEN disease. Food samples were collected daily, blood and urine at the beginning of each week. Relations between increasing OTA intake, blood concentration and elimination of OTA in urine have been studied in rats. Average weekly intake of OTA varies from 1.9 to 206 ng/kg body weight, twice tolerable weekly intake recommended by JECFA. OTA blood concentrations are in the same range as previously reported in this region with concentrations reaching 10 microg/L. Weekly OTA food intake is not directly correlated with blood and urine concentrations. Biomarkers of biological effects such as DNA adducts were detected in patients affected by urinary tract tumours (UTT) and in rat study. All these plead for the implication of OTA, in BEN and UTT.
    • beta-carotene-induced changes in RARbeta isoform mRNA expression patterns do not influence lung adenoma multiplicity in the NNK-initiated A/J mouse model.

      Goralczyk, Regina; Bachmann, Heinrich; Wertz, Karin; Lenz, Barbara; Riss, Georges; Buchwald Hunziker, Petra; Greatrix, Brad; Aebischer, Claude-Pierre (2006)
      A number of epidemiological studies have reported associations of beta-carotene plasma levels or intake with decreased lung cancer risk. However, intervention studies in smokers reported increased lung tumor rates after high long-term beta-carotene supplementation. For insight into these conflicting results, we studied the influence of beta-carotene on tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung cancer development in the A/J-mouse using 4-(N-Methyl-N-nitro samino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) as the initiator and lung adenoma multiplicity as the functional endpoint. Gene regulation of the putative tumor suppressor RARbeta in mouse lung was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for its relevance in predicting the endpoint of lung cancer. A/J-mice achieved plasma beta-carotene levels of up to 3 micromol/L within 4 wk and up to 6 micromol/L after 6 mo of supplementation on a diet modified to enhance beta-carotene absorption. Despite high lung beta-carotene concentrations of up to 6 micromol/kg, tumor multiplicity was not significantly affected by the beta-carotene treatment, either in carcinogen-initiated or non-initiated mice, and was unrelated to beta-carotene dose and the time point of treatment during cancer formation. Tumor multiplicity did not correlate with beta-carotene plasma levels in NNK-treated animals. All RARbeta isoforms were significantly suppressed in the lungs of NNK- and NNK plus high dose beta-carotene-treated animals. However, the number of tumors per mouse did not correlate with the RARbeta-isoform expression levels. beta-carotene alone after 3 mo of supplementation mildly but significantly increased levels of RARbeta1, beta2, and beta4. This increase persisted for 6 mo for RARbeta2 and beta4. In summary, we found no effect of beta-carotene on tumor formation in the NNK-initiated A/J-mouse lung cancer model with respect to dose or time point of treatment. beta-Carotene-induced changes in RARbeta isoform gene expression levels were not predictive for the number of lung tumors but were indicative of intact beta-carotene metabolism and persistent sensitivity to retinoic acid in the mice. Down-regulation of RARbeta in NNK-induced adenoma-bearing lungs was similar to that observed in human lung cancer and further confirms the A/J-mouse as a valuable model for lung carcinogenesis.
    • Biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility in workers exposed to nitrotoluenes.

      Sabbioni, Gabriele; Jones, Christopher R.; Sepai, Ovnair; Hirvonen, Ari; Norppa, Hannu; Järventaus, Hilkka; Glatt, Hansruedi; Pomplun, Doreen; Yan, Huifang; Brooks, Lance R.; et al. (2006-03)
      Nitrotoluenes, such as 2-nitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (24DNT), and 26DNT, are carcinogenic in animal experiments. Humans are exposed to such chemicals in the workplace and in the environment. It is therefore important to develop methods to biomonitor people exposed to nitrotoluenes to prevent the potential harmful effects. For the present study, workers exposed to high levels of these chemicals were investigated. The external dose (air levels), the internal dose (urine metabolites), the biologically effective dose [hemoglobin (Hb) adducts and urine mutagenicity], and biological effects (chromosomal aberrations and health effects) were determined. Individual susceptibility was assessed by determining genetic polymorphisms of enzymes assumed to function in nitrotoluene metabolism, namely glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1), N-acetyltransferases (NAT1, NAT2), and sulfotransferases (SULT1A1, SULT1A2). The levels of urinary metabolites did not correlate with the air levels. The urinary mutagenicity levels determined in a subset of workers correlated with the levels of a benzylalcohol metabolite of DNT. The Hb-adducts correlated with the urine metabolites but not with the air levels. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations (gaps included) was increased (P < 0.05) in the exposed workers in comparison with a group of factory controls and correlated with the level of 24DNT Hb-adducts in young subjects (<31 years). The GSTM1-null genotype was significantly more prevalent in the controls than in the exposed group, which probably reflected an elevated susceptibility of the GSTM1-null genotype to adverse health effects of DNT exposure, such as nausea (odds ratio, 8.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-32.2). A statistically significant effect was seen for SULT1A2 genotype on a 24DNT Hb-adduct; GSTP1 genotype on a 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene Hb-adduct; and SULT1A1, SULT1A2, NAT1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genotypes on chromosomal aberrations in the exposed workers.
    • Black tea polyphenols protect against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

      Letchoumy, P. Vidjaya; Chandra Mohan, K. V. P.; Kumaraguruparan, R.; Hara, Y.; Nagini, S. (2006)
      Dietary chemoprevention has emerged as a cost-effective approach for cancer control. We evaluated the chemopreventive effects of black tea polyphenols (Polyphenon-B) administration during the preinitiation phase of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the buccal pouch and the concentration of lipid peroxides, protein carbonyl, and the antioxidant status in the buccal pouch, liver and erythrocytes were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. All the hamsters painted with DMBA alone for 14 weeks developed buccal pouch carcinomas associated with increased expression of PCNA, diminished lipid and protein oxidation, and enhanced antioxidant status. In the liver and erythrocytes of tumor-bearing animals, enhanced oxidation of lipids and proteins was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defenses. Dietary administration of Polyphenon-B effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis as revealed by decreased incidence of tumours and PCNA expression. In addition, Polyphenon-B modulated lipid and protein oxidation and enhanced the antioxidant status in the pouch, liver, and erythrocytes. We suggest that Polyphenon-B exerts its chemopreventive effects by inhibiting cell proliferation in the target tissue and modulating the oxidant-antioxidant status in the target as well as in host tissues.
    • Bladder cancer mortality and private well use in New England: an ecological study.

      Ayotte, Joseph D.; Baris, Dalsu; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Colt, Joanne; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Lubin, Jay H.; Karagas, Margaret; Hoover, Robert N.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Silverman, Debra T. (2006-02)
      STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible relation between bladder cancer mortality among white men and women and private water use in New England, USA, where rates have been persistently raised and use of private water supplies (wells) common. DESIGN: Ecological study relating age adjusted cancer mortality rates for white men and women during 1985-1999 and proportion of persons using private water supplies in 1970. After regressing mortality rates on population density, Pearson correlation coefficients were computed between residual rates and the proportion of the population using private water supplies, using the state economic area as the unit of calculation. Calculations were conducted within each of 10 US regions. SETTING: The 504 state economic areas of the contiguous United States. PARTICIPANTS: Mortality analysis of 11 cancer sites, with the focus on bladder cancer. MAIN RESULTS: After adjusting for the effect of population density, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between residual bladder cancer mortality rates and private water supply use among both men and women in New England (men, r = 0.42; women, r = 0.48) and New York/New Jersey (men, r = 0.49; women, r = 0.62). CONCLUSIONS: Use of well water from private sources, or a close correlate, may be an explanatory variable for the excess bladder cancer mortality in New England. Analytical studies are underway to clarify the relation between suspected water contaminants, particularly arsenic, and raised bladder cancer rates in northern New England.
    • Brassica vegetable consumption reduces urinary F2-isoprostane levels independent of micronutrient intake.

      Fowke, Jay H.; Morrow, Jason D.; Motley, Saundra; Bostick, Roberd M.; Ness, Reid M (2006-10)
      Isothiocyanates and indoles (e.g. indole-3-carbinol) from Brassica vegetables (e.g. broccoli) induce Phase I and Phase II enzymes responsible for the oxidation, reduction and metabolism of endogenous and exogenous carcinogens. Brassica vegetables also contain micronutrients that may provide additional DNA protection from reactive oxygen species. This randomized crossover trial (n = 20) compares the effects of a Brassica Vegetable (BV) intervention against a Micronutrient and Fiber Supplementation (M+F) intervention on urinary F2-isoprostane levels (F2-iP), a stable biomarker of systemic oxidative stress. Brassica intake was monitored by repeated 24 h recalls, urinary ITC levels and questionnaire. Urinary F2-iP levels were measured by mass spectrometry from first-morning urine samples collected at Baseline and after each intervention, and change in natural log transformed urinary F2-iP levels were analyzed using repeated measures regression. Brassica consumption increased from 2 grams/day (g/d) during the Baseline or M+F intervention periods to 218 g/d during the BV intervention, whereas exposure to most antioxidant vitamins and minerals was greatest during the M+F intervention. F2-iP levels significantly decreased by 22.0 or 21.8% during the BV intervention compared with Baseline or the M+F intervention (P = 0.05, P = 0.05, respectively). Urinary F2-iP levels did not significantly differ between Baseline and the M+F intervention (difference = 0.2%; P = 0.98). Brassica intake has been associated with reduced risk of colon, lung, bladder, breast, prostate and other cancers. Our results suggest that Brassica consumption reduces systemic oxidative stress independent of the vitamin and mineral content of these vegetables.
    • Carbohydrate digestibility predicts colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane-treated rats.

      Jacobsen, Helene; Poulsen, Morten; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Meyer, Otto; Lindecrona, Rikke Hvid (2006)
      The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of carbohydrate structure and digestibility on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis. Five groups of male Fischer 344 rats each comprising 30 animals were injected with AOM and fed a high-fat diet with 15% of various carbohydrates. The carbohydrate sources used were sucrose, cornstarch (a linear starch, reference group), potato starch (a branched starch), a short-chained oligofructose (Raftilose), and a long-chained inulin-type fructan (Raftiline). An interim sacrifice was performed after 9 wk to investigate markers of carbohydrate digestibility, including caecal fermentation (caecum weight and pH) and glucose and lipid metabolism [glucose, fructoseamine, HbA1c, triglycerides, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1]. In addition potential early predictors of carcinogenicity [cell proliferation and aberrant crypt foci (ACF)] at 9 wk and their correlation to colon cancer risk after 32 wk were investigated. Tumor incidence was significantly reduced in animals fed oligofructose, and the number of tumors per animal was significantly reduced in animals fed inulin and oligofructose at 32 wk after AOM induction compared to the reference group fed sucrose. Increased caecum weight and decreased caecal pH were seen in groups fed oligofructose, inulin, and potato starch. Plasma triglyceride was decreased in rats fed oligofructose and inulin. Cell proliferation was increased in the proximal colon of rats fed sucrose, oligofructose, and inulin, and the number of cells per crypt decreased in rats fed oligofructose and inulin. The total number of ACF's was unaffected by treatment, and the size and multiplicity of ACF was unrelated to tumor development. It was concluded that less digestible carbohydrates with an early effect on caecum fermentation and plasma triglyceride decreased subsequent tumor incidence and multiplicity. This was unrelated to ACF, cell proliferation, and other markers of glucose and lipid metabolism.
    • Challenges identifying genetic determinants of pediatric cancers--the childhood leukemia experience.

      Sinnett, Daniel; Labuda, Damian; Krajinovic, Maja (2006)
      Pediatric cancers affect approximately 1 in every 500 children before the age of 15. Little is known about the etiology of this heterogeneous group of diseases despite the fact they constitute the major cause of death by disease among this population. Because of its relatively high prevalence, most of the work done in pediatric oncogenetics has been focused on leukemias, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Although it is now well accepted that genetic variation plays a significant role in determining individual's cancer susceptibility, few studies have explored genetic susceptibility to childhood leukemia with respect to common polymorphisms. The biochemical and genetic mechanisms contributing to cancer susceptibility are numerous and can be grouped into broad categories: (1) cellular growth and differentiation, (2) DNA replication and repair, (3) metabolism of carcinogens (4) apoptosis, (5) oxidative stress response and (6) cell cycle. To evaluate whether candidate genes in these pathways are involved in childhood leukemogenesis, we conducted case-control studies. We showed that leukemogenesis in children may be associated with DNA variants in some of these genes and that the combination of genotypes seems to be more predictive of risk than either of them independently. We also observed that, at least at some loci, the parental genetics might be important in predicting the risk of cancer in this pediatric model of a complex disease. Taken together, these results indicate that the investigation of a single enzyme and/or a single genotype might not be sufficient to explain the etiology of childhood leukemia because of the complexity of the environment and that of the inter-individual variability in cancer susceptibility.
    • Chemoprevention of mouse urinary bladder carcinogenesis by fermented brown rice and rice bran.

      Kuno, Toshiya; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Hata, Kazuya; Qiang, Sheng Hong; Asano, Nami; Oyama, Takeru; Zhi, Huilan; Iwasaki, Teruaki; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; et al. (2006-03)
      Fermented brown rice by Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) has been shown to be a potent anti-carcinogenic compound. Here, we investigated the modifying effects of dietary feeding with a naturally occurring anti-oxidant FBRA on N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (OH-BBN)-induced urinary bladder carcinogenesis in male ICR mice. Five-week-old male ICR mice were divided into 7 groups, and groups 1-5 were given OH-BBN (500 ppm) in drinking water for 6 weeks starting at 7 weeks of age. Groups 2 and 3 were fed the diet containing 5% and 10% FBRA during the initiation phase, respectively, whereas groups 4 and 5 were fed these diets during the post-initiation phase. Group 6 was given the diet containing 10% FBRA throughout the experiment, and group 7 was kept on the basal diet alone and served as an untreated control. At the end of the study (week 32), the incidences of simple hyperplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma in the bladders of group 1 (OH-BBN alone) were 92%, 49% and 38%, respectively. Those of group 5 (64%, 23% and 10%) and the incidence of carcinoma of group 4 (17%) was significantly less than that of group 1. Furthermore, the multiplicity of simple hyperplasia and carcinoma of group 5 was significantly less than that of group 1. Post-initiation exposure of 10% FBRA significantly decreased the number/nucleus of silver-stained nucleolar organizer region proteins (AgNORs), an index of cell proliferation, in the non-lesional transitional epithelium when compared to that of the control. Our results indicate that FBRA exerts chemopreventive effects against chemically induced urinary bladder carcinogenesis through anti-proliferative mechanisms. FBRA could be a promising chemopreventive agent for human urinary bladder cancer.
    • Chemopreventive effects of dietary flaxseed on colon tumor development.

      Bommareddy, Ajay; Arasada, Bhanu L.; Mathees, Duane P.; Dwivedi, Chandradhar (2006)
      Fatty acid composition of dietary fat plays a vital role in colon tumor development in animal models. Fats containing omega-6 fatty acids (e.g., corn oil) enhanced and omega-3 fatty acids (e.g., flaxseed oil) reduced chemically induced colon tumor development in rats. Lignans have also been shown to prevent colon tumor development in experimental animals. The objective of this investigation is to study the effects of dietary flaxseed meal, a source of both omega-3 fatty acid and lignans, on colon tumor development and compare them with the effects of dietary corn meal. Male Fischer rats, two groups of 24 each, were assigned to the AIN-93M diet supplemented with either 15% corn meal or 15% flaxseed meal, respectively. Carcinogenesis was initiated with subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg) once a week for 3 consecutive wk. After 35 wk of initiation, rats were anesthetized with ether. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture, and rats were sacrificed. The gastrointestinal tract was isolated. The site, size, and number of tumors were recorded. The fatty acid analysis of the collected serum and colon samples was performed. Expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 was performed by Western blot method. Lignan levels in serum and colon samples were assayed. Colon tumor incidence, multiplicity, and size were found to be 82.6% and 29.4%; 1.3 and 0.3; and 44.4 and 5.3 mm(2) in corn and flaxseed meal groups, respectively. Colon and serum samples of the corn meal group showed higher levels of omega-6 fatty acid levels whereas the flaxseed meal group exhibited higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids. COX-1 and COX-2 expression in the flaxseed group was significantly lower (P < 0.05) as compared to the corn group. Dietary flaxseed meal containing high levels of omega-3 fatty acids and lignans is effective in preventing colon tumor development when compared with dietary corn meal possibly by increasing omega-3 fatty acid levels and decreasing COX-1 and COX-2 levels.
    • Chemopreventive effects of rofecoxib and folic acid on gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in rats.

      Fei, Su Juan; Xiao, Shu Dong; Peng, Yan Shen; Chen, Xiao Yu; Shi, Yao (2006)
      OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are chemopreventive agents of gastrointestinal cancers, but few studies on gastric cancer have been carried out. A decrease in folic acid supplement and subsequent DNA hypomethylation are related to gastrointestinal cancers, and it has been shown that high-dose folic acid may interfere with gastric carcinogenesis in dogs. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rofecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, and folic acid on the chemoprevention of gastric cancer induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in Wistar rats, and to evaluate the cell proliferation of gastric mucosa in different experimental groups. METHODS: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (16 rats in each group). In the control group, the rats were given pure water and basal diet. In the MNNG group, the rats received MNNG in drinking water (100 mg/L) and basal diet. In the MNNG + low-dose rofecoxib group, the rats were given MNNG and rofecoxib 5 mg/kg per day with basal diet. In the MNNG + high-dose rofecoxib group, the rats were given MNNG and rofecoxib 15 mg/kg per day with basal diet. In the MNNG + folic acid group, the rats were given MNNG and folic acid 5 mg/kg per day with basal diet. The experiment was terminated at 50 weeks, and all rats were killed. Blood samples of 3 mL were obtained for measurement of serum folic acid concentrations in the control group, the MNNG group and the MNNG + folic acid group by using chemiluminescent method. The stomach was removed from all rats for histopathological examination and immunohistochemical study. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in gastric epithelial cells was also determined. RESULTS: In the MNNG group, five of 11 rats (45.5%) developed gastric cancer, while in all other four groups no gastric cancer was found (P < 0.05). The positivity rate of PCNA expression in the cancerous tissues was significantly higher than that in the non-cancerous tissues (80.0%vs 14.1%, P < 0.05). The positivity rate of PCNA expression in the gastric mucosal cells of the MNNG group was significantly higher than that in the other four groups. The mean serum folic acid concentration of rats was significantly higher in the MNNG + folic acid group (193.70 +/- 60.73 ng/mL) than those in the control group (84.21 +/- 25.26 ng/mL) and the MNNG group (72.27 +/- 16.70 ng/mL, P < 0.05). It was shown that both low- and high-dose rofecoxib as well as folic acid interfered with the development of gastric cancer induced by MNNG in Wistar rats. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that rofecoxib as well as folic acid interferes with gastric carcinogenesis induced by MNNG in Wistar rats, and the suppression of gastric cell proliferation may play a crucial role in the chemoprevention of gastric cancer by rofecoxib and folic acid. The higher serum folic acid concentration of rats may play an important role in the prevention of gastric cancer.
    • A combined analysis of North American case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer.

      Krewski, Daniel; Lubin, Jay H.; Zielinski, Jan M.; Alavanja, Michael; Catalan, Vanessa S.; Field, R. William; Klotz, Judith B.; Letourneau, Ernest G.; Lynch, Charles F.; Lyon, Joseph L.; et al. (2006-04)
      Cohort studies have consistently shown underground miners exposed to high levels of radon to be at excess risk of lung cancer, and extrapolations based on those results indicate that residential radon may be responsible for nearly 10-15% of all lung cancer deaths per year in the United States. However, case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer have provided ambiguous evidence of radon lung cancer risks. Regardless, alpha-particle emissions from the short-lived radioactive radon decay products can damage cellular DNA. The possibility that a demonstrated lung carcinogen may be present in large numbers of homes raises a serious public health concern. Thus, a systematic analysis of pooled data from all North American residential radon studies was undertaken to provide a more direct characterization of the public health risk posed by prolonged radon exposure. To evaluate the risk associated with prolonged residential radon exposure, a combined analysis of the primary data from seven large scale case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer risk was conducted. The combined data set included a total of 4081 cases and 5281 controls, representing the largest aggregation of data on residential radon and lung cancer conducted to date. Residential radon concentrations were determined primarily by a-track detectors placed in the living areas of homes of the study subjects in order to obtain an integrated 1-yr average radon concentration in indoor air. Conditional likelihood regression was used to estimate the excess risk of lung cancer due to residential radon exposure, with adjustment for attained age, sex, study, smoking factors, residential mobility, and completeness of radon measurements. Although the main analyses were based on the combined data set as a whole, we also considered subsets of the data considered to have more accurate radon dosimetry. This included a subset of the data involving 3662 cases and 4966 controls with a-track radon measurements within the exposure time window (ETW) 5-30 yr prior to the index date considered previously by Krewski et al. (2005). Additional restrictions focused on subjects for which a greater proportion of the ETW was covered by measured rather than imputed radon concentrations, and on subjects who occupied at most two residences. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of lung cancer generally increased with radon concentration. The OR trend was consistent with linearity (p = .10), and the excess OR (EOR) was 0.10 per Bq/m3 with 95% confidence limits (-0.01, 0.26). For the subset of the data considered previously by Krewski et al. (2005), the EOR was 0.11 (0.00, 0.28). Further limiting subjects based on our criteria (residential stability and completeness of radon monitoring) expected to improve radon dosimetry led to increased estimates of the EOR. For example, for subjects who had resided in only one or two houses in the 5-30 ETW and who had a-track radon measurements for at least 20 yr of this 25-yr period, the EOR was 0.18 (0.02, 0.43) per 100 Bq/m3. Both estimates are compatible with the EOR of 0.12 (0.02, 0.25) per 100 Bq/m3 predicted by downward extrapolation of the miner data. Collectively, these results provide direct evidence of an association between residential radon and lung cancer risk, a finding predicted by extrapolation of results from occupational studies of radon-exposed underground miners.