• Solar cycles and their relationship to human disease and adaptability.

      Davis, George E.; Lowell, Walter E. (2006)
      In this paper, we show that 11-year solar cycle peaks predispose humans to disease, but also endow creativity and adaptability. We give several examples of diseases that are modulated by light and present evidence for an effect of intensity and variation in sunlight, primarily ultraviolet radiation (UVR), on the human genome. The birth dates of nearly 237,000 unique clients in the Maine Medicaid database collected from 1995 to 2004, inclusive, were related to solar cycle irradiance for the past seventy-one years, encompassing seven solar cycles. The sample was divided into four general categories of disease: mental/behavioral illnesses; metabolic diseases; autoimmune diseases; neoplasms. The birth months for those clients born in any given year were arranged in the form of a winter/summer ratio in order to more clearly appreciate the seasonality inherent in each disease category. Solar cycles were separated into chaotic (approximately three times as irradiant) or non-chaotic according to the Gutenberg-Richter power law and the uncertainty inherent in predicting solar storms. The results show that radiation peaks in solar cycles and particularly in chaotic solar cycles (CSCs) are associated with a higher incidence of mental disorders, suggesting the sensitivity of ectodermal embryonic tissues to UVR. Autoimmune diseases have intermediate sensitivity, while the neoplasms in the study, primarily of endoderm, appear suppressed by peak UVR intensity. The ratio of the number of clients born in CSC cycles to non-CSC cycles was highest for the more genetic mental diseases, like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but as that ratio decreased, the clients with diseases like multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis showed more environmental features manifested as a greater winter/summer birth month ratio that was significantly different than that of the average client in the whole data set. The paper presents evidence that latitude, e.g., variation in light, is an added stress to the immune system (especially at 53-54 degrees N. latitude) that is involved in nearly all human disease. We hypothesize that introns, the presumptive engenderers of gene control, modulate the effects of UVR, particularly for the neoplasms studied. We conclude that intermittent and largely unpredictable peak solar cycle radiation has been the fundamental engine of evolution, forcing organisms to adapt to mutagenic UVR and producing enough damage to instigate genetic variation. Probably a chance genetic mutation over 80,000 years ago produced a human brain capable of abstract thought and consciousness. The slight genetic instability that favored an adaptable, creative brain also produced other somatic variations that present phenotypically as disease, but largely expressed after natural selection (reproduction) and associated with the inexorable entropy of aging.
    • 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides in the urine of infants exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.

      Hecht, Stephen S.; Carmella, Steven G.; Le, Ky-Anh; Murphy, Sharon E.; Boettcher, Angela J.; Le, Chap; Koopmeiners, Joseph; An, Larry; Hennrikus, Deborah J. (2006-05)
      Biomarkers of carcinogen uptake could provide important information pertinent to the question of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in childhood and cancer development later in life. Previous studies have focused on exposures before birth and during childhood, but carcinogen uptake from ETS in infants has not been reported. Exposures in infants could be higher than in children or adults because of their proximity to parents who smoke. Therefore, we quantified 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL) in the urine of 144 infants, ages 3 to 12 months, who lived in homes with parents who smoked. Total NNAL is an accepted biomarker of uptake of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. Cotinine and its glucuronide (total cotinine) and nicotine and its glucuronide (total nicotine) were also quantified. Total NNAL was detectable in 67 of 144 infants (46.5%). Mean levels of total NNAL in the 144 infants were 0.083 +/- 0.200 pmol/mL, whereas those of total cotinine and total nicotine were 0.133 +/- 0.190 and 0.069 +/- 0.102 nmol/mL, respectively. The number of cigarettes smoked per week in the home or car by any family member when the infant was present was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) when NNAL was detected than when it was not (76.0 +/- 88.1 versus 27.1 +/- 38.2). The mean level of NNAL detected in the urine of these infants was higher than in most other field studies of ETS exposure. The results of this study show substantial uptake of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in infants exposed to ETS and support the concept that persistent ETS exposure in childhood could be related to cancer later in life.
    • A comparison of carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols in the serum and buccal mucosa of chronic cigarette smokers versus nonsmokers.

      Gabriel, Helen E.; Liu, Zhenhua; Crott, Jimmy W.; Choi, Sang-Woon; Song, Byeng Chun; Mason, Joel B.; Johnson, Elizabeth J. (2006-05)
      BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking, a major risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer, is reported to alter oral levels of carotenoids and tocopherols. Such effects may be important because these nutrients, as well as retinoids, are putative chemoprotective agents. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether chronic smoking is associated with altered concentrations of these nutrients in serum and buccal mucosa; to distinguish whether such effects are ascribable to diet; and to determine whether oral concentrations of these nutrients correlate with a putative biomarker of oral cancer risk. METHODS: Serum and buccal mucosal cells (BMC) were analyzed for these nutrients and for BMC micronuclei in smokers (n = 35) and nonsmokers (n = 21). RESULTS: General linear regression with adjustments for dietary intake showed that smokers possess lower serum concentrations of beta- and alpha-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin (P
    • Biomarkers of environmental contaminants in field population of green mussel (Perna viridis) from Karnataka-Kerala coast (South West coast of India).

      Krishnakumar, P.K.; Sasikumar, Geetha; Bhat, G.S.; Asokan, D.P.K. (2006-05)
      The green mussel Perna viridis was sampled from relatively clean and contaminated sites along the Kartanata-Kerala coast (south west coast of India) to study the tissue concentration of trace metals and biological responses to stress (biomarkers) such as sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosomal aberration, micronucleus (MN) test, hemic neoplasia (HN), Chromotest (Ames test) and comet assay. In general, mean tissue concentrations of toxic trace metals collected from 25 sampling sites were found to be below the World Health Organisation (WHO) permissible concentration given for seafood. The digestive gland extract of mussels from all 25 sampling sites showed negative reaction for mutagenic activity (Ames test) in the absence of metabolic activation. Very low levels of chromosomal aberration, SCE, MN, HN and comet cells were observed in mussels collected from both the urban associated and relatively clean sites. This study seems to indicate that that the coastal waters of Karnataka and Kerala are minimally contaminated with genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals.
    • Cancer survivorship--genetic susceptibility and second primary cancers: research strategies and recommendations.

      Travis, Lois B.; Rabkin, Charles S.; Brown, Linda Morris; Allan, James M.; Alter, Blanche P.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Begg, Colin B.; Caporaso, Neil; Chanock, Stephen; DeMichele, Angela; et al. (2006-01-04)
      Cancer survivors constitute 3.5% of the United States population, but second primary malignancies among this high-risk group now account for 16% of all cancer incidence. Although few data currently exist regarding the molecular mechanisms for second primary cancers and other late outcomes after cancer treatment, the careful measurement and documentation of potentially carcinogenic treatments (chemotherapy and radiotherapy) provide a unique platform for in vivo research on gene-environment interactions in human carcinogenesis. We review research priorities identified during a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored workshop entitled "Cancer Survivorship--Genetic Susceptibility and Second Primary Cancers." These priorities include 1) development of a national research infrastructure for studies of cancer survivorship; 2) creation of a coordinated system for biospecimen collection; 3) development of new technology, bioinformatics, and biomarkers; 4) design of new epidemiologic methods; and 5) development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Many of the infrastructure resources and design strategies that would facilitate research in this area also provide a foundation for the study of other important nonneoplastic late effects of treatment and psychosocial concerns among cancer survivors. These research areas warrant high priority to promote NCI's goal of eliminating pain and suffering related to cancer.
    • The epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection.

      Trottier, Helen; Franco, Eduardo L. (2006-03-30)
      Clinical and subclinical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world, and most sexually-active individuals are likely to be exposed to HPV infection during their lifetimes. More than 40 genotypes of HPV infect the epithelial lining of the anogenital tract and other mucosal areas of the body; of these, 13-18 types are considered to be high-oncogenic risk HPV types (HR-HPV). Persistent infection with HR-HPVs is now unequivocally established as a necessary cause of cervical cancer and is likely to be responsible for a substantial proportion of other anogenital neoplasms and upper aero-digestive tract cancers. Low oncogenic risk HPV types (LR-HPV) are also responsible for considerable morbidity as the cause of genital warts. Youth and certain sexual characteristics are key risk factors for HPV acquisition and persistence of HPV infection, but other mediating factors include smoking, oral contraceptive (OC) use, other STIs (e.g. chlamydia, herpes simplex virus), chronic inflammation, immunosuppressive conditions including HIV infection, parity, dietary factors, and polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen system. Not surprisingly, these factors are also established or candidate cofactors identified in epidemiologic studies of cervical cancer. HPV transmissibility and molecular events in HPV-induced carcinogenesis have been the focus of recent multidisciplinary epidemiologic studies. This shift in research focus coincides with a shift in cancer prevention techniques towards immunization with HPV vaccines and HPV testing of precancerous lesions.
    • CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) of colorectal cancer is best characterised by quantitative DNA methylation analysis and prospective cohort studies.

      Ogino, S.; Cantor, M.; Kawasaki, T.; Brahmandam, M.; Kirkner, G. J.; Weisenberger, D. J.; Campan, M.; Laird, P. W.; Loda, M.; Fuchs, C. S. (2006-07)
      BACKGROUND: The concept of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is not universally accepted. Even if specific clinicopathological features have been associated with CIMP, investigators often failed to demonstrate a bimodal distribution of the number of methylated markers, which would suggest CIMP as a distinct subtype of colorectal cancer. Previous studies primarily used methylation specific polymerase chain reaction which might detect biologically insignificant low levels of methylation. AIM: To demonstrate a distinct genetic profile of CIMP colorectal cancer using quantitative DNA methylation analysis that can distinguish high from low levels of DNA methylation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (MethyLight) assays and measured DNA methylation (percentage of methylated reference) of five carefully selected loci (promoters of CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, MLH1, and NEUROG1) in 460 colorectal cancers from large prospective cohorts. RESULTS: There was a clear bimodal distribution of 80 microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) tumours according to the number of methylated promoters, with no tumours showing 3/5 methylated loci. Thus we defined CIMP as having >or=4/5 methylated loci, and 17% (78) of the 460 tumours were classified as CIMP. CIMP was significantly associated with female sex, MSI, BRAF mutations, and wild-type KRAS. Both CIMP MSI-H tumours and CIMP microsatellite stable (MSS) tumours showed much higher frequencies of BRAF mutations (63% and 54%) than non-CIMP counterparts (non-CIMP MSI-H (0%, p<10(-5)) and non-CIMP MSS tumours (6.6%, p<10(-4)), respectively). CONCLUSION: CIMP is best characterised by quantitative DNA methylation analysis. CIMP is a distinct epigenotype of colorectal cancer and may be less frequent than previously reported.
    • Point mutations in the juxtamembrane domain of FLT3 define a new class of activating mutations in AML.

      Reindl, Carola; Bagrintseva, Ksenia; Vempati, Sridhar; Schnittger, Susanne; Ellwart, Joachim W.; Wenig, Katja; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Spiekermann, Karsten (2006-05-01)
      In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), two clusters of activating mutations are known in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) gene: FLT3-internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITDs) in the juxtamembrane (JM) domain in 20% to 25% of patients, and FLT3 point mutations in the tyrosine-kinase domain (FLT3-TKD) in 7% to 10% of patients, respectively. Here, we have characterized a new class of activating point mutations (PMs) that cluster in a 16-amino acid stretch of the juxtamembrane domain of FLT3 (FLT3-JM-PMs). Expression of 4 FLT3-JM-PMs in interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent Ba/F3 cells led to factor-independent growth, hyperresponsiveness to FLT3 ligand, and resistance to apoptotic cell death. FLT3-JM-PM receptors were autophosphorylated and showed a higher constitutive dimerization rate compared with the FLT3-wild-type (WT) receptor. As a molecular mechanism, we could show activation of STAT5 and up-regulation of Bcl-x(L) by all FLT3-JM-PMs. The FLT3 inhibitor PKC412 abrogated the factor-independent growth of FLT3-JM-PM-expressing cells. Compared with FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD mutants, the FLT3-JM-PMs showed a weaker transforming potential related to lower autophosphorylation of the receptor and its downstream target STAT5. Mapping of the FLT3-JM-PMs on the crystal structure of FLT3 showed that these mutations reduce the stability of the autoinhibitory JM domain, and provides a structural basis for the transforming capacity of this new class of gain-of-function mutations of FLT3.
    • The reaction of flavanols with nitrous acid protects against N-nitrosamine formation and leads to the formation of nitroso derivatives which inhibit cancer cell growth.

      Lee, Stephanie Y. H.; Munerol, Bibiana; Pollard, Susan; Youdim, Kuresh A.; Pannala, Ananth S.; Kuhnle, Gunter G. C.; Debnam, Edward S.; Rice-Evans, Catherine; Spencer, Jeremy P. E. (2006-01-15)
      Studies have suggested that diets rich in polyphenols such as flavonoids may lead to a reduced risk of gastrointestinal cancers. We demonstrate the ability of monomeric and dimeric flavanols to scavenge reactive nitrogen species derived from nitrous acid. Both epicatechin and dimer B2 (epicatechin dimer) inhibited nitrous acid-induced formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and the formation of the carcinogenic N-nitrosamine, N-nitrosodimethylamine. The reaction of monomeric and dimeric epicatechin with nitrous acid led to the formation of mono- and di-nitroso flavanols, whereas the reaction with hesperetin resulted primarily in the formation of nitrated products. Although, epicatechin was transferred across the jejunum of the small intestine yielding metabolites, its nitroso form was not absorbed. Dimer B2 but not epicatechin monomer inhibited the proliferation of, and triggered apoptosis in, Caco-2 cells. The latter was accompanied by caspase-3 activation and reductions in Akt phosphorylation, suggesting activation of apoptosis via inhibition of prosurvival signaling. Furthermore, the dinitroso derivative of dimer B2, and to a lesser extent the dinitroso-epicatechin, also induced significant toxic effects in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory effects on cellular proliferation were paralleled by early inhibition of ERK 1/2 phosphorylation and later reductions in cyclin D1 levels, indicating modulation of cell cycle regulation in Caco-2 cells. These effects highlight multiple routes in which dietary derived flavanols may exert beneficial effects in the gastrointestinal tract.
    • Increasing exposure levels cause an abrupt change in the absorption and metabolism of acutely inhaled benzo(a)pyrene in the isolated, ventilated, and perfused lung of the rat.

      Ewing, Per; Blomgren, Bo; Ryrfeldt, Ake; Gerde, Per (2006-06)
      The carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are active primarily at the site of entry to the body. Lung cancer following inhalation of PAH-containing aerosols such as tobacco smoke is one likely example. A suggested mechanism for this site preference is a slow passage of the highly lipophilic PAHs through the thicker epithelia of the conducting airways, accompanied by substantial local metabolism in airway epithelium. However, it is likely that the airway epithelium will become saturated with PAHs at surprisingly low exposure levels. The purpose of this research was to quantify the level of saturation for inhaled benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the isolated, perfused lung (IPL) of the rat. BaP was coated onto carrier particles of silica 3.5 microm diameter at three different levels. The DustGun aerosol generator was then used to deliver respectively 2.2, 36, and 8400 ng of BaP to the IPL with the carrier particles in less than 1 min. For 77 min after the exposure, single-pass perfusate was collected from the lungs. Lungs were then removed and, with the perfusate, analyzed for BaP and metabolites. Results show that the absorption and metabolism of inhaled BaP in the lungs was highly dose dependent. At low exposure levels absorption of BaP in the mucosa was proportional to the concentration in the air/blood barrier and proceeded with substantial local metabolism. At higher exposure levels the capacity of the epithelium to dissolve and metabolize BaP became saturated, and the absorption rate remained constant until crystalline BaP had dissolved, and the process proceeded with much smaller fractions of BaP metabolites produced in the mucosa. This phenomenon may explain the well-known difficulties of inducing lung cancer in laboratory animals with inhalants containing carcinogenic PAHs, where similar lifespan exposures are used as humans may experience but with much higher dose rates.
    • The gene expression program of prostate fibroblast senescence modulates neoplastic epithelial cell proliferation through paracrine mechanisms.

      Bavik, Claes; Coleman, Ilsa; Dean, James P.; Knudsen, Beatrice; Plymate, Steven; Nelson, Peter S. (2006-01-15)
      The greatest risk factor for developing carcinoma of the prostate is advanced age. Potential molecular and physiologic contributors to the frequency of cancer occurrence in older individuals include the accumulation of somatic mutations through defects in genome maintenance, epigenetic gene silencing, oxidative stress, loss of immune surveillance, telomere dysfunction, chronic inflammation, and alterations in tissue microenvironment. In this context, the process of prostate carcinogenesis can be influenced through interactions between intrinsic cellular alterations and the extrinsic microenvironment and macroenvironment, both of which change substantially as a consequence of aging. In this study, we sought to characterize the molecular alterations that occur during the process of prostate fibroblast senescence to identify factors in the aged tissue microenvironment capable of promoting the proliferation and potentially the neoplastic progression of prostate epithelium. We evaluated three mechanisms leading to cell senescence: oxidative stress, DNA damage, and replicative exhaustion. We identified a consistent program of gene expression that includes a subset of paracrine factors capable of influencing adjacent prostate epithelial growth. Both direct coculture and conditioned medium from senescent prostate fibroblasts stimulated epithelial cell proliferation, 3-fold and 2-fold, respectively. The paracrine-acting proteins fibroblast growth factor 7, hepatocyte growth factor, and amphiregulin (AREG) were elevated in the extracellular environment of senescent prostate fibroblasts. Exogenous AREG alone stimulated prostate epithelial cell growth, and neutralizing antibodies and small interfering RNA targeting AREG attenuated, but did not completely abrogate the growth-promoting effects of senescent fibroblast conditioned medium. These results support the concept that aging-related changes in the prostate microenvironment may contribute to the progression of prostate neoplasia.
    • Obesity and colorectal cancer: epidemiology, mechanisms and candidate genes.

      Gunter, Marc J.; Leitzmann, Michael F. (2006-03)
      There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of energy homeostasis is associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. Epidemiological data have consistently demonstrated a positive relation between increased body size and colorectal malignancy, whereas mechanistic studies have sought to uncover obesity-related carcinogenic pathways. The phenomenon of "insulin resistance" or the impaired ability to normalize plasma glucose levels has formed the core of these pathways, but other mechanisms have also been advanced. Obesity-induced insulin resistance leads to elevated levels of plasma insulin, glucose and fatty acids. Exposure of the colonocyte to heightened concentrations of insulin may induce a mitogenic effect within these cells, whereas exposure to glucose and fatty acids may induce metabolic perturbations, alterations in cell signaling pathways and oxidative stress. The importance of chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of obesity has recently been highlighted and may represent an additional mechanism linking increased adiposity to colorectal carcinogenesis. This review provides an overview of the epidemiology of body size and colorectal neoplasia and outlines current knowledge of putative mechanisms advanced to explain this relation. Family based studies have shown that the propensity to become obese is heritable, but this is only manifest in conditions of excess energy intake over expenditure. Inheritance of a genetic profile that predisposes to increased body size may also be predictive of colorectal cancer. Genomewide scans, linkage studies and candidate gene investigations have highlighted more than 400 chromosomal regions that may harbor variants that predispose to increased body size. The genetics underlying the pathogenesis of obesity are likely to be complex, but variants in a range of different genes have already been associated with increased body size and insulin resistance. These include genes encoding elements of insulin signaling, adipocyte metabolism and differentiation, and regulation of energy expenditure. A number of investigators have begun to study genetic variants within these pathways in relation to colorectal neoplasia, but at present data remain limited to a handful of studies. These pathways will be discussed with particular reference to genetic polymorphisms that have been associated with obesity and insulin resistance.
    • Does growth hormone cause cancer?

      Jenkins, P. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Shalet, S. M. (2006-02)
      The ability of GH, via its mediator peptide IGF-1, to influence regulation of cellular growth has been the focus of much interest in recent years. In this review, we will explore the association between GH and cancer. Available experimental data support the suggestion that GH/IGF-1 status may influence neoplastic tissue growth. Extensive epidemiological data exist that also support a link between GH/IGF-1 status and cancer risk. Epidemiological studies of patients with acromegaly indicate an increased risk of colorectal cancer, although risk of other cancers is unproven, and a long-term follow-up study of children deficient in GH treated with pituitary-derived GH has indicated an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Conversely, extensive studies of the outcome of GH replacement in childhood cancer survivors show no evidence of an excess of de novo cancers, and more recent surveillance of children and adults treated with GH has revealed no increase in observed cancer risk. However, given the experimental evidence that indicates GH/IGF-1 provides an anti-apoptotic environment that may favour survival of genetically damaged cells, longer-term surveillance is necessary; over many years, even a subtle alteration in the environmental milieu in this direction, although not inducing cancer, could result in acceleration of carcinogenesis. Finally, even if GH/IGF-1 therapy does result in a small increase in cancer risk compared to untreated patients with GH deficiency, it is likely that the eventual risk will be the same as the general population. Such a restoration to normality will need to be balanced against the known morbidity of untreated GH deficiency.
    • Characterization of 67 kD laminin receptor, a protein whose gene is overexpressed on treatment of cells with anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide.

      An, She-Juan; Chen, Jia-Kun; Chen, Hua-jie; Chang, Wei; Jiang, Yi-Guo; Wei, Qing-Yi; Chen, Xue-Min (2006-04)
      The molecular mechanisms potentially related to tumorigenesis induced by anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (anti-BPDE) were investigated by suppression subtractive hybridization of the human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) carcinoma induced by BPDE-transformed 16HBE cells (16HBE-C). The 67 kD laminin receptor gene (67LR1) is one of the screened overexpressed genes in 16HBE-C cells when compared with 16HBE. In order to understand the main functions of 67LR1 gene, we amplified the full length of 67LR1 gene using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. The amplified gene products were inserted into pcDNA 3.1 Directional TOPO expression vector. We then transfected 16HBE cells with this vector and derived stable transfected 16HBE cell lines containing the 67LR1 gene by using lipofectin and G418 selection protocols. The expression products of transfected genes were analyzed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Soft agar growth assay was carried out to identify the malignant features of 67LR1 gene. The stable transfected cell lines can form colonies in soft agar. Further, the transfected cells showed morphological changes compared to the control cells, such as the obvious pseudopods. These data suggest that the 67LR1 gene may be related to malignant transformation induced by the anti-BPDE. The 67LR1 protein may be related to the directionality of cell movement.
    • Environmental impact and human health risks of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator: a case study.

      Ferré-Huguet, Núria; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L. (2006-01-01)
      The purpose of this study was to assess the environmental impact of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) 4 years after regular operation of the facility. A double approach was carried out. The PCDD/F congener profiles corresponding to environmental samples, soil and herbage, collected before the HWI (baseline) and 4 years after starting regular operations, as well as PCDD/F profiles of air emission samples, were compared. The potential health risks (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) due to PCDD/F exposure were assessed for adults and children living in the neighborhood of the facility. Human exposure to PCDD/Fs was mainly due to dietary food intake. Comparisons between the PCDD/F congener profiles corresponding to the baseline and current surveys, as well as data concerning the human health risk assessment, indicate that the HWI in question does not cause additional risks to the environment orto the population living in the vicinity of the facility.
    • Inhibition of hepatocarcinogenesis by the deletion of the p50 subunit of NF-kappaB in mice administered the peroxisome proliferator Wy-14,643.

      Glauert, Howard P.; Eyigor, Aysegul; Tharappel, Job C.; Cooper, Simon; Lee, Eun Y.; Spear, Brett T. (2006-04)
      Wy-14,643 (WY) is a hypolipidemic drug that induces hepatic peroxisome proliferation and tumors in rodents. We previously showed that peroxisome proliferators increase NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in rats, mice, and hepatoma cell lines, and that mice deficient in the p50 subunit of NF-kappaB had much lower cell proliferation in response to the peroxisome proliferator ciprofibrate. In this study we examined the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis by WY in the p50 knockout (-/-) mice. The p50 -/- and wild type mice were first administered diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as an initiating agent. Mice were then fed a control diet or a diet containing 0.05% WY for 38 weeks. Wild-type mice receiving DEN only developed a low incidence of tumors, and the majority of wild-type mice receiving both DEN and WY developed tumors. However, no tumors were seen in any of the p50 -/- mice. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured in hepatocytes by BrdU labeling and the TUNEL assay, respectively. Treatment with DEN + WY increased both cell proliferation and apoptosis in both the wild-type and p50 -/- mice; DEN treatment alone has no effect. In the DEN/WY-treated mice, cell proliferation and apoptosis were slightly lower in the p50 -/- mice than in the wild-type mice. These data demonstrate that NF-kappaB is involved in the promotion of hepatic tumors by the peroxisome proliferator WY; however, the difference in tumor incidence could not be attributed to alterations in either cell proliferation or apoptosis.
    • Sustained trophism of the mammary gland is sufficient to accelerate and synchronize development of ErbB2/Neu-induced tumors.

      Landis, M. D.; Seachrist, D. D.; Abdul-Karim, F. W.; Keri, R. A. (2006-06-01)
      Epidemiological studies indicate that parity enhances HER2/ErbB2/Neu-induced breast tumorigenesis. Furthermore, recent studies using multiparous, ErbB2/Neu-overexpressing mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV-Neu) mice have shown that parity induces a population of cells that are targeted for ErbB2/Neu-induced transformation. Although parity accelerates mammary tumorigenesis, the pattern of tumor development in multiparous MMTV-Neu mice remains stochastic, suggesting that additional events are required for ErbB2/Neu to cause mammary tumors. Whether such events are genetic in nature or reflective of the dynamic hormonal control of the gland that occurs with pregnancy remains unclear. We postulated that young age at pregnancy initiation or chronic trophic maintenance of mammary epithelial cells might provide a cellular environment that significantly increases susceptibility to ErbB2/Neu-induced tumorigenesis. MMTV-Neu mice that were maintained pregnant or lactating beginning at 3 weeks of age demonstrated accelerated tumorigenesis, but this process was still stochastic, indicating that early pregnancy does not provide the requisite events of tumorigenesis. However, bitransgenic mice that were generated by breeding MMTV-Neu mice with a luteinizing hormone-overexpressing mouse model of ovarian hyperstimulation developed multifocal mammary tumors in an accelerated, synchronous manner compared to virgin MMTV-Neu animals. This synchrony of tumor development in the bitransgenic mice suggests that trophic maintenance of the mammary gland provides the additional events required for tumor formation and maintains the population of cells that are targeted by ErbB2/Neu for transformation. Both the synchrony of tumor appearance and the ability to characterize a window of commitment by ovariectomy/palpation studies permitted microarray analysis to evaluate changes in gene expression over a defined timeline that spans the progression from normal to preneoplastic mammary tissue. These approaches led to identification of several candidate genes whose expression changes in the mammary gland with commitment to ErbB2/Neu-induced tumorigenesis, suggesting that they may either be regulated by ErbB2/Neu and/or contribute to tumor formation.
    • Revised assessment of cancer risk to dichloromethane II. Application of probabilistic methods to cancer risk determinations.

      David, Raymond M.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Gentry, P. Robinan; Covington, Tammie R.; Morgott, David A.; Marino, Dale J. (2006-06)
      An updated PBPK model of methylene chloride (DCM, dichloromethane) carcinogenicity in mice was recently published using Bayesian statistical methods (Marino et al., 2006). In this work, this model was applied to humans, as recommended by Sweeney et al.(2004). Physiological parameters for input into the MCMC analysis were selected from multiple sources reflecting, in each case, the source that was considered to represent the most current scientific evidence for each parameter. Metabolic data for individual subjects from five human studies were combined into a single data set and population values derived using MCSim. These population values were used for calibration of the human model. The PBPK model using the calibrated metabolic parameters was used to perform a cancer risk assessment for DCM, using the same tumor incidence and exposure concentration data relied upon in the current IRIS entry. Unit risks, i.e., the risk of cancer from exposure to 1 microg/m3 over a lifetime, for DCM were estimated using the calibrated human model. The results indicate skewed distributions for liver and lung tumor risks, alone or in combination, with a mean unit risk (per microg/m3) of 1.05 x 10(-9), considering both liver and lung tumors. Adding the distribution of genetic polymorphisms for metabolism to the ultimate carcinogen, the unit risks range from 0 (which is expected given that approximately 20% of the US population is estimated to be nonconjugators) up to a unit risk of 2.70 x 10(-9) at the 95th percentile. The median, or 50th percentile, is 9.33 x 10(-10), which is approximately a factor of 500 lower than the current EPA unit risk of 4.7 x 10(-7) using a previous PBPK model. These values represent the best estimates to date for DCM cancer risk because all available human data sets were used, and a probabilistic methodology was followed.
    • Brassica vegetable consumption reduces urinary F2-isoprostane levels independent of micronutrient intake.

      Fowke, Jay H.; Morrow, Jason D.; Motley, Saundra; Bostick, Roberd M.; Ness, Reid M (2006-10)
      Isothiocyanates and indoles (e.g. indole-3-carbinol) from Brassica vegetables (e.g. broccoli) induce Phase I and Phase II enzymes responsible for the oxidation, reduction and metabolism of endogenous and exogenous carcinogens. Brassica vegetables also contain micronutrients that may provide additional DNA protection from reactive oxygen species. This randomized crossover trial (n = 20) compares the effects of a Brassica Vegetable (BV) intervention against a Micronutrient and Fiber Supplementation (M+F) intervention on urinary F2-isoprostane levels (F2-iP), a stable biomarker of systemic oxidative stress. Brassica intake was monitored by repeated 24 h recalls, urinary ITC levels and questionnaire. Urinary F2-iP levels were measured by mass spectrometry from first-morning urine samples collected at Baseline and after each intervention, and change in natural log transformed urinary F2-iP levels were analyzed using repeated measures regression. Brassica consumption increased from 2 grams/day (g/d) during the Baseline or M+F intervention periods to 218 g/d during the BV intervention, whereas exposure to most antioxidant vitamins and minerals was greatest during the M+F intervention. F2-iP levels significantly decreased by 22.0 or 21.8% during the BV intervention compared with Baseline or the M+F intervention (P = 0.05, P = 0.05, respectively). Urinary F2-iP levels did not significantly differ between Baseline and the M+F intervention (difference = 0.2%; P = 0.98). Brassica intake has been associated with reduced risk of colon, lung, bladder, breast, prostate and other cancers. Our results suggest that Brassica consumption reduces systemic oxidative stress independent of the vitamin and mineral content of these vegetables.
    • Indole-3-carbinol in the maternal diet provides chemoprotection for the fetus against transplacental carcinogenesis by the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dibenzo[a,l]pyrene.

      Yu, Zhen; Mahadevan, Brinda; Lohr, Christiane V.; Fischer, Kay A.; Louderback, Mandy A.; Krueger, Sharon K.; Pereira, Clifford B.; Albershardt, Daniel J.; Baird, William M.; Bailey, George S.; et al. (2006-10)
      The fetus and neonate are sensitive targets for chemically induced carcinogenesis. Few studies have examined the risk/benefit of chemoprotective phytochemicals, given in the maternal diet, against transplacental carcinogenesis. In this study, B6129 SF1/J (AHR(b-1/d)) and 129Sv/ImJ (AHR(d/d)) mice were cross-bred. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP), was administered to pregnant mice (15 mg/kg, gavage) on gestation day 17, and 2000 p.p.m. indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a chemoprotective phytochemical from cruciferous vegetables, was fed to half of the mice from gestation day 9 until weaning. Offspring born to dams fed I3C exhibited markedly fewer mortalities (P < 0.0001). Maternal dietary exposure to I3C also significantly lowered lung tumor multiplicity (P = 0.035) in offspring surviving to 10 months of age. The I3C chemoprotection was independent of either maternal or fetal AHR genotype. The bioavailability of DBP to fetal target tissue was demonstrated by assessing DNA covalent adduction with a (33)P-post-labeling assay. The bioavailability of I3C was determined by dosing a subset of pregnant mice with [(14)C]-I3C. Addition of chemoprotective agents to the maternal diet during pregnancy and nursing may be an effective new approach in reducing the incidence of cancers in children and young adults.