• Binding of galectin-1 (gal-1) to the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen on trophoblast cells and inhibition of proliferation of trophoblast tumor cells in vitro by gal-1 or an anti-TF antibody.

      Jeschke, Udo; Karsten, Uwe; Wiest, Irmi; Schulze, Sandra; Kuhn, Christina; Friese, Klaus; Walzel, Hermann (2006-10)
      Galectin-1 (gal-1), a member of the mammalian beta-galactoside-binding proteins, recognizes preferentially Galbeta1-4GlcNAc sequences of several cell surface oligosaccharides. We demonstrate histochemically that the lectin recognizes appropriate glycotopes on the syncytiotrophoblast and extravillous trophoblast layer from second trimester human placenta and on BeWo chorion carcinoma cells. Gal-1 binding to BeWo cells was diminished by the Thomsen-Friedreich (TF)-disaccharide (Galbeta1-3GalNAc-) conjugated to polyacrylamide (TF-PAA). Gal-1 also inhibited BeWo cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Similar antiproliferative effects were also observed with an anti-TF monoclonal antibody (mAb, A78-G/A7). Therefore, we conclude that ligation of Galbeta1-4GlcNAc and Galbeta1-3GalNAc epitopes on BeWo cells may have regulatory effects on cell proliferation.
    • Red palm oil suppresses the formation of azoxymethane (AOM) induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in Fisher 344 male rats.

      Boateng, J.; Verghese, M.; Chawan, C.B.; Shackelford, L.; Walker, L.T.; Khatiwada, J.; Williams, D.S. (2006-10)
      Red palm oil (RPO) contains significant levels of carotenoids and Vitamin E. In this experiment we compared the inhibitory effects of RPO (7% and 14% levels) and soybean oil (7% and 14%) on azoxymethane (AOM) induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Thirty-two male Fisher 344 rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Two groups received AIN-93 G control (C) diet containing 7% and 14% soybean oil (SBO), respectively. Groups 3 and 4 received a treatment diet consisting of 7% and 14% RPO, respectively. The rats received subcutaneous injections of AOM at 16 mg/kg body weight at 7 and 8 weeks of age. At 17 weeks of age rats were killed by CO(2) asphyxiation. Numbers of ACF (mean+/-SE) in the proximal and distal colon were: 39.9 +/- 0.9, 53.8 +/- 2.8, 26.0 +/- 3.0, 27.5 +/- 1.5 and 118.2 +/- 1.7, 125.6 +/- 3.2, 41 +/- 7, 52.3 +/- 1.8 in rats fed 7% SBO, 14% SBO, 7% RPO and 14% RPO, respectively. The results of this study showed that RPO reduced the incidence of AOM induced ACF and may therefore have a beneficial effect in reducing the incidence of colon cancer.
    • Polymorphisms in genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair pathway and susceptibility to benzene-induced hematotoxicity.

      Shen, Min; Lan, Qing; Zhang, Luoping; Chanock, Stephen; Li, Guilan; Vermeulen, Roel; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Guo, Weihong; Hayes, Richard B.; Linet, Martha; et al. (2006-10)
      Benzene is a recognized hematotoxicant and carcinogen that produces genotoxic damage. DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) are one of the most severe DNA lesions caused directly and indirectly by benzene metabolites. DSB may lead to chromosome aberrations, apoptosis and hematopoietic progenitor cell suppression. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in DNA DSB repair may modify benzene-induced hematotoxicity. We analyzed one or more single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in each of seven candidate genes (WRN, TP53, NBS1, BRCA1, BRCA2, XRCC3 and XRCC4) in a study of 250 workers exposed to benzene and 140 controls in China. Four SNPs in WRN (Ex4 -16 G > A, Ex6 +9 C > T, Ex20 -88 G > T and Ex26 -12 T > G), one SNP in TP53 (Ex4 +119 C > G) and one SNP in BRCA2 (Ex11 +1487 A > G) were associated with a statistically significant decrease in total white blood cell (WBC) counts among exposed workers. The SNPs in WRN and TP53 remained significant after accounting for multiple comparisons. One or more SNPs in WRN had broad effects on WBC subtypes, with significantly decreased granulocyte, total lymphocyte, CD4(+)-T cell, CD8(+)-T cell and monocyte counts. Haplotypes of WRN were associated with decreased WBC counts among benzene-exposed subjects. Likewise, subjects with TP53 Ex4 +119 C > G variant had reduced granulocyte, CD4(+)-T cell and B cell counts. The effect of BRCA2 Ex11 +1487 A > G polymorphism was limited to granulocytes. These results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in WRN, TP53 and BRCA2 that maintain genomic stability impact benzene-induced hematotoxicity.
    • t(14;18) translocations in lymphocytes of healthy dioxin-exposed individuals from Seveso, Italy.

      Baccarelli, Andrea; Hirt, Carsten; Pesatori, Angela C.; Consonni, Dario; Patterson, Donald G.; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Dölken, Gottfried; Landi, Maria Teresa (2006-10)
      Dioxin exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in epidemiological investigations. The NHL-related t(14;18) translocations can be detected at a low copy number in lymphocytes from healthy subjects. Exposure to NHL-associated carcinogens, such as dioxin or pesticides, may cause expansion of t(14;18)-positive clones. We investigated prevalence and frequency of circulating t(14;18)-positive lymphocytes in 144 healthy subjects from a population exposed to dioxin [plasma TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) range: <1.7-475.0 parts per trillion (p.p.t.)] after the Seveso, Italy, accident of 1976. t(14;18) translocations were measured in DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes by high-sensitivity real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found that the frequency, but not the prevalence, of t(14;18) translocation-positive cells increased with increasing plasma TCDD. Among t(14;18)-positive subjects (n = 50;34.7%), the mean number of t(14;18) translocations/10(6) lymphocytes was 4.2 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.9-6.2] in subjects with plasma TCDD < 10.0 p.p.t., 8.1 (95% CI, 4.9-13.3) in subjects with plasma TCDD between 10.0 and 50.0 and 12.5 (95% CI, 7.4-21.1) in subjects with plasma TCDD between 50.0 and 475.0 p.p.t. (P-trend = 0.003). As expected, t(14;18) frequency was associated with cigarette smoking and was highest in subjects who smoked for > or =16 years (mean = 12.6; 95% CI, 7.4-21.3; P = 0.01). Higher t(14;18) prevalence was found among individuals with fair hair color (P = 0.01) and light eye color (P = 0.04). No significant association between t(14;18)-and age was found. Our results show that dioxin exposure is associated with increased number of circulating t(14;18) positive cells. Whether this change in t(14;18) frequency is an indicator of elevated lymphoma risk remains speculative and needs further investigation for its potential impact on public health.
    • HPV-induced carcinogenesis of the uterine cervix is associated with reduced serum ATRA level.

      Berlin Grace, V. M.; Niranjali Devaraj, S.; Radhakrishnan Pillai, M.; Devaraj, Halagowder (2006-10)
      OBJECTIVE: In uterine cervical cancer, certain oncogenic HPV types are considered as key etiologic factor. But the progression of HPV associated cervical precancerous lesions depends on many other factors such as oncogenes, immune system, anti-viral factors etc. This study is therefore focused on the effect of an important dietary anti-viral factor called All Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) on the development of HPV associated cervical cancer as it is found higher in poor socioeconomic people. METHOD: We analyzed a total population of 130 including control subjects who have no complaints of uterine cervical lesions and the HPV-6/11, 16/18 infected cases of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [SIL], high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [HSIL], and invasive cancers, for serum ATRA level. This study also focused to find out the association of serum ATRA level with the proliferation status in terms of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression as it is an anti-proliferation agent and with the grades of cervical lesions, using SPSS statistical package. RESULTS: The results showed a highly significant negative association for serum ATRA level with different stages of cervical lesions (F = 3.305; P = 0.000) by one-way ANOVA and with intensity of PCNA expression (r = -0.825; P < 0.01) by Pearson's correlation test. A highly significant association was observed for the PCNA expression with the grades of cervical lesions too (F = 37.89; P = 0.000). Further, we found from our data that all the invasive cancer cases were infected with HPV-16/18 and none with HPV-6/11. Hence, we analyzed the association of serum ATRA level with HPV-16/18 infected preinvasive cases in developing invasiveness, by Fisher's Exact Test, using Graph Pad Prism as shown in Table 1. The results show an odds ratio (OR) of 36.93 and a relative risk (RR) of 4.99 with an 95% interval being 2.896 to 8.603, which is significant at the level of P = 0.0001 for the reduced [<0.6 mug/ml] serum ATRA level in developing invasive cancer in HPV-16/18 infected preinvasive cases. CONCLUSION: All these results suggest that the serum ATRA level highly influences the progression of cervical lesions to invasive cancer and can be therefore aimed as a marker for progression in combination with HPV-16/18, which helps to enhance the modalities of therapy towards cost effectiveness.
    • Dietary effects of soy isoflavones daidzein and genistein on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in ovariectomized Big Blue transgenic rats.

      Manjanatha, Mugimane; Shelton, Sharon; Bishop, Michelle; Lyn-Cook, Lascelles; Aidoo, Anane (2006-10)
      The major constituents of isoflavones daidzein (DZ) and genistein (GE) interact with the and estrogen receptors in several tissues including mammary tissues. In this study, we used ovariectomy (OVX) to model menopause and determined the effects of DZ, GE or 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) exposures on chemically induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in the mammary glands of female Big Blue transgenic rats. The rats were fed control diet containing the isoflavones and E(2) and treated with a single oral dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) at PND50. Animals were euthanized at 16 or 20 weeks post-carcinogen treatment to assess mutant frequencies (MFs) and histopathological parameters, respectively. The isoflavones or E(2) supplementation alone resulted in the lac I MFs that were not significantly different from the MFs measured in rats fed the control diet alone. DMBA exposure, however, induced significant increases in the lac I MFs in the mammary tissues of both OVX and INT rats and Hprt MFs in spleen lymphocytes (P < 0.01). In general, feeding the isoflavones or E(2) did not cause any significant changes in DMBA-induced mutagenicity in the mammary tissues. However, feeding the isoflavone mixture (daidzein + genistein; DZG) resulted in a significant reduction in the DMBA-induced lac I MFs (P < 0.05). Cell proliferation as measured by PCNA immunohistochemistry was increased in both OVX and INT rats exposed to DMBA as compared with rats fed control diet (P < 0.05). Mammary histology indicated that hyperplasia was induced in most of the treatment groups including control. Although DMBA did not induce mammary tumors in the OVX rats, adenoma and adenocarcinoma were detected in the mammary glands of INT rats.
    • Indole-3-carbinol in the maternal diet provides chemoprotection for the fetus against transplacental carcinogenesis by the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dibenzo[a,l]pyrene.

      Yu, Zhen; Mahadevan, Brinda; Lohr, Christiane V.; Fischer, Kay A.; Louderback, Mandy A.; Krueger, Sharon K.; Pereira, Clifford B.; Albershardt, Daniel J.; Baird, William M.; Bailey, George S.; et al. (2006-10)
      The fetus and neonate are sensitive targets for chemically induced carcinogenesis. Few studies have examined the risk/benefit of chemoprotective phytochemicals, given in the maternal diet, against transplacental carcinogenesis. In this study, B6129 SF1/J (AHR(b-1/d)) and 129Sv/ImJ (AHR(d/d)) mice were cross-bred. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP), was administered to pregnant mice (15 mg/kg, gavage) on gestation day 17, and 2000 p.p.m. indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a chemoprotective phytochemical from cruciferous vegetables, was fed to half of the mice from gestation day 9 until weaning. Offspring born to dams fed I3C exhibited markedly fewer mortalities (P < 0.0001). Maternal dietary exposure to I3C also significantly lowered lung tumor multiplicity (P = 0.035) in offspring surviving to 10 months of age. The I3C chemoprotection was independent of either maternal or fetal AHR genotype. The bioavailability of DBP to fetal target tissue was demonstrated by assessing DNA covalent adduction with a (33)P-post-labeling assay. The bioavailability of I3C was determined by dosing a subset of pregnant mice with [(14)C]-I3C. Addition of chemoprotective agents to the maternal diet during pregnancy and nursing may be an effective new approach in reducing the incidence of cancers in children and young adults.
    • Enhancement of mammary carcinogenesis in two rodent models by silymarin dietary supplements.

      Malewicz, Barbara; Wang, Zaisen; Jiang, Cheng; Guo, Junming; Cleary, Margot P.; Grande, Joseph P.; Lü, Junxuan (2006-09)
      Silymarin is a mixture of polyphenolic flavonoids isolated from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) with anticancer activities reported for several organ sites. The present study tested the efficacy of dietary silymarin against mammary carcinogenesis in two rodent models. In the Sprague-Dawley rat model, female rats were fed a purified diet supplemented with none, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3 or 1% (w/w) of silymarin from 21 days of age (DOA) and carcinogenesis was initiated by a single i.p. injection of 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) at 51 DOA. Mammary tumor (MT) development was followed till 110 days after carcinogen injection. In the MMTV-neu/HER2 transgenic mouse mammary carcinogenesis model, homozygous transgenic females were fed a purified diet supplemented with none or 0.3% silymarin, either from 28 or 120 DOA and MT development was followed to approximately 300 DOA. The results showed that dietary silymarin increased the plasma concentration of free and total silibinin, a major component of silymarin, in a dose-dependent manner in the rat, but did not decrease either MT incidence or number. Instead silymarin modestly increased the number of MNU-induced MTs in rats. Similarly, silymarin increased MT incidence and multiplicity and non-MTs in the neu-transgenic mice. In cell culture, treatment of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells with serum-achievable concentrations of silymarin in the rodent models stimulated their growth, in part through an estrogen-like activity. Because silymarin is being used in the treatment of liver cirrhosis and a variety of other human ailments, and is sold as a dietary supplement, our findings add a cautionary note to its application in breast cancer prevention.
    • Dietary resistant starch type 3 prevents tumor induction by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and alters proliferation, apoptosis and dedifferentiation in rat colon.

      Bauer-Marinovic, Morana; Florian, Simone; Müller-Schmehl, Katrin; Glatt, Hansruedi; Jacobasch, Gisela (2006-09)
      Some epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that consumption of resistant starch is preventive against colon cancer. Resistant starch leads to a fermentation-mediated increase in the formation of short-chain fatty acids, with a particularly high butyrate fraction in large bowel. Butyrate is considered to be protective against colon cancer because it causes growth arrest and apoptosis and regulates expression of proteins involved in cellular dedifferentiation in various tumor cell lines in culture. We sought to investigate these processes under conditions of a carcinogenicity experiment in vivo. In the present study, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated Sprague-Dawley rats were fed standard diet (n=12) or diet with 10% hydrothermally modified Novelose 330, a resistant starch type 3 (RS3), replacing digestible starch (n=8). After 20 weeks tumor number, epithelial proliferation, apoptosis, immunoreactivity of carcinogenesis-related proteins [protein kinase C-delta (PKC-delta), heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) and gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase (GI-GPx)], as well as mucin properties were evaluated in proximal and distal colon in situ. No tumors developed under RS3 diet, compared to a tumor incidence of 0.6+/-0.6 (P<0.05) under the standard diet. RS3 decreased the number of proliferating cells, the length of the proliferation zone and the total length of the crypt in the distal colon, but not proximal colon, and enhanced apoptosis in both colonic segments. It induced PKC-delta and HSP25 expression, but inhibited GI-GPx expression in the epithelium of distal colon. RS3 increased the number of predominantly acidic mucin containing goblet cells in the distal colon, but had no effect on the goblet cell count. We conclude that hydrothermally treated RS3 prevented colon carcinogenesis, and that this effect was mediated by enhanced apoptosis of damaged cells accompanied by changes in parameters of dedifferentiation in colonic mucosa.
    • Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification: a diagnostic tool for simultaneous identification of different genetic markers in glial tumors.

      Jeuken, Judith; Cornelissen, Sandra; Boots-Sprenger, Sandra; Gijsen, Sabine; Wesseling, Pieter (2006-09)
      Genetic aberrations in tumors are predictive for chemosensitivity and survival. A test is needed that allows simultaneous detection of multiple changes and that is widely applicable in a routine diagnostic setting. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) allows detection of DNA copy number changes of up to 45 loci in one relatively simple, semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction-based assay. To assess the applicability of MLPA, we performed MLPA analysis to detect relevant genetic markers in a spectrum of 88 gliomas. The vast majority of these tumors (n = 79) were previously characterized by comparative genomic hybridization. With MLPA kit P088 (78 cases), complete and partial loss of 1p and 19q were reliably identified, even in samples containing only 50% tumor DNA. Distinct 1p deletions exist with different clinically prognostic consequences, and in contrast to the commonly used diagnostic strategies (loss of heterozygosity or fluorescent in situ hybridization 1p36), P088 allows detection of such distinct 1p losses. Combining P088 with P105 will further increase the accurate prediction of clinical behavior because this kit identified markers (EGFR, PTEN, and CDKN2A) of high-grade malignancy in 41 cases analyzed. We conclude that MLPA is a reliable diagnostic tool for simultaneous identification of different region-specific genetic aberrations of tumors.
    • Vitamin D physiology.

      Lips, P. (2006-09)
      Vitamin D3 is synthesized in the skin during summer under the influence of ultraviolet light of the sun, or it is obtained from food, especially fatty fish. After hydroxylation in the liver into 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and kidney into 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), the active metabolite can enter the cell, bind to the vitamin D-receptor and subsequently to a responsive gene such as that of calcium binding protein. After transcription and translation the protein is formed, e.g. osteocalcin or calcium binding protein. The calcium binding protein mediates calcium absorption from the gut. The production of 1,25(OH)2D is stimulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and decreased by calcium. Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency are premature birth, skin pigmentation, low sunshine exposure, obesity, malabsorption and advanced age. Risk groups are immigrants and the elderly. Vitamin D status is dependent upon sunshine exposure but within Europe, serum 25(OH)D levels are higher in Northern than in Southern European countries. Severe vitamin D deficiency causes rickets or osteomalacia, where the new bone, the osteoid, is not mineralized. Less severe vitamin D deficiency causes an increase of serum PTH leading to bone resorption, osteoporosis and fractures. A negative relationship exists between serum 25(OH)D and serum PTH. The threshold of serum 25(OH)D, where serum PTH starts to rise is about 75nmol/l according to most surveys. Vitamin D supplementation to vitamin D-deficient elderly suppresses serum PTH, increases bone mineral density and may decrease fracture incidence especially in nursing home residents. The effects of 1,25(OH)2D and the vitamin D receptor have been investigated in patients with genetic defects of vitamin D metabolism and in knock-out mouse models. These experiments have demonstrated that for active calcium absorption, longitudinal bone growth and the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts both 1,25(OH)2D and the vitamin D receptor are essential. On the other side, bone mineralization can occur by high ambient calcium concentration, so by high doses of oral calcium or calcium infusion. The active metabolite 1,25(OH)2D has its effects through the vitamin D receptor leading to gene expression, e.g. the calcium binding protein or osteocalcin or through a plasma membrane receptor and second messengers such as cyclic AMP. The latter responses are very rapid and include the effects on the pancreas, vascular smooth muscle and monocytes. Muscle cells contain vitamin D receptor and several studies have demonstrated that serum 25(OH)D is related to physical performance. The active metabolite 1,25(OH)2D has an antiproliferative effect and downregulates inflammatory markers. Extrarenal synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D occurs under the influence of cytokines and is important for the paracrine regulation of cell differentiation and function. This may explain that vitamin D deficiency can play a role in the pathogenesis of auto-immune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and diabetes type 1, and cancer. In conclusion, the active metabolite 1,25(OH)2D has pleiotropic effects through the vitamin D receptor and vitamin D responsive elements of many genes and on the other side rapid non-genomic effects through a membrane receptor and second messengers. Active calcium absorption from the gut depends on adequate formation of 1,25(OH)2D and an intact vitamin D receptor. Bone mineralization mainly depends on ambient calcium concentration. Vitamin D metabolites may play a role in the prevention of auto-immune disease and cancer.
    • The challenge resulting from positive and negative effects of sunlight: how much solar UV exposure is appropriate to balance between risks of vitamin D deficiency and skin cancer?

      Reichrath, Jörg (2006-09)
      There is no doubt that solar ultraviolet (UV) exposure is the most important environmental risk factor for the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. Therefore, sun protection is of particular importance to prevent these malignancies, especially in risk groups. However, 90% of all requisite vitamin D has to be formed in the skin through the action of the sun-a serious problem, for a connection between vitamin D deficiency and a broad variety of independent diseases including various types of cancer, bone diseases, autoimmune diseases, hypertension and cardiovascular disease has now been clearly indicated in a large number of epidemiologic and laboratory studies. An important link that improved our understanding of these new findings was the discovery that the biologically active vitamin D metabolite 1,25(OH)(2)D is not exclusively produced in the kidney, but in many other tissues such as prostate, colon, skin and osteoblasts. Extra-renally produced 1,25(OH)(2)D is now considered to be an autocrine or paracrine hormone, regulating various cellular functions including cell growth. We and others have shown that strict sun protection causes vitamin D deficiency in risk groups. In the light of new scientific findings that convincingly demonstrate an association of vitamin D deficiency with a variety of severe diseases including various cancers, the detection and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in sun-deprived risk groups is of high importance. It has to be emphasized that in groups that are at high risk of developing vitamin D deficiency (e.g., nursing home residents or patients under immunosuppressive therapy), vitamin D status has to be monitored. Vitamin D deficiency should be treated, e.g., by giving vitamin D orally. Dermatologists and other clinicians have to recognize that there is convincing evidence that the protective effect of less intense solar UV radiation outweighs its mutagenic effects. Although further work is necessary to define an adequate vitamin D status and adequate guidelines for solar UV exposure, it is at present mandatory that public health campaigns and recommendations of dermatologists on sun protection consider these facts. Well-balanced recommendations on sun protection have to ensure an adequate vitamin D status, thereby protecting people against adverse effects of strict sun protection without significantly increasing the risk of developing UV-induced skin cancer.
    • Immunohistochemical study of cell proliferation, Bcl-2, p53, and caspase-3 expression on preneoplastic changes induced by cadmium and zinc chloride in the ventral rat prostate.

      Arriazu, Riánsares; Pozuelo, José M.; Henriques-Gil, Nuno; Perucho, Teresa; Martín, Rocío; Rodríguez, Rosario; Santamaría, Luis (2006-09)
      This work was directed to evaluate immunoexpression of markers for apoptosis, resistance to apoptosis, and cell proliferation, as well as estimates of nuclear size in ventral prostate of rats treated with cadmium chloride and cadmium+zinc chloride because a possible protective effect of zinc has been postulated. The following variables were studied: volume fraction (VF) of Bcl-2 immunostaining, percentage of cells immunoreactive to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (LIPCNA) and p53 (LIp53), numerical density of caspase-3 immunoreactive cells (NV caspase-3), and estimates of volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (upsilonV). The LIPCNA and VF of Bcl-2 were significantly increased in the treated animals. The dysplasias (independent of their origin) showed a significant increase of the LIp53, NV caspase-3, and upsilonV in comparison with normal acini from treated and control animals. It can be concluded that cell proliferation is enhanced in long-term cadmium-exposed rats, and exposure to zinc combined with cadmium had no effect on any of the variables studied when comparing with normal acini. The increase of nuclear upsilonV could indicate a more aggressive behavior for pretumoral lesions.
    • Lifelong persistence of AML associated MLL partial tandem duplications (MLL-PTD) in healthy adults.

      Basecke, Jorg; Podleschny, Martina; Clemens, Robert; Schnittger, Susanne; Viereck, Volker; Trumper, Lorenz; Griesinger, Frank (2006-09)
      AML-associated MLL-PTD contribute to leukemogenesis by a gain of function and confer an unfavorable prognosis. Like other leukemia associated aberrations they are also present in healthy adults. To delineate the leukemogenic mechanism we tracked down MLL-PTD in normal hematopoiesis and investigated cord blood samples. MLL-PTD were observed in 56/60 (93%) of all cord bloods. In contrast to AML, the transcript frequency in cord blood was four log scales lower as determined by real-time PCR. The CD34+ progenitor cell, CD33+ myeloid, CD19+ B-lymphoid and CD3+ T-lymphoid subfractions were positive. The ubiquitous presence of MLL-PTD in cord blood implicates a lifelong exposure, not an accumulation during lifetime. Since also present in the stem cell subfraction, these factors seem not to be major determinants in MLL-PTD leukemogenesis.
    • Influence of cadmium on murine thymocytes: potentiation of apoptosis and oxidative stress.

      Pathak, Neelima; Khandelwal, Shashi (2006-08-20)
      Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known environmental carcinogen and a potent immunotoxicant. It induces thymocyte apoptosis in vitro. However, the mode of action is unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of Cd (10, 25 and 50microM) on mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-3 as well as oxidative stress markers in murine thymocytes. The cadmium induced apoptosis occurred in a concentration and time dependent manner. The early markers of apoptosis-loss in mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-3 activation were evident as early as 1.5h by 50microM Cd. Enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and glutathione (GSH) depletion were observed at 60min, prior to the lowering of mitochondrial membrane potential. The Cd induced DNA damage as depicted by internucleosomal fragmentation on agarose and histone associated mono- and oligonucleosomes detection by ELISA, corrobated with the apoptotic DNA (sub-G(1) population) and total apoptotic cells by Annexin V binding assay. The number of cells in sub-G(1) population increased to 66% at 50microM Cd concentration and the distribution of early and late apoptotic cells was 47% and 15%, respectively. Addition of N-acetylcysteine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (thiol antioxidants) to the Cd treated cells, lowered the sub-G(1) population, inhibited the ROS generation and raised the GSH levels. Buthionine sulfoximine (GSH depletor) on the other hand, enhanced both the ROS production and the sub-G(1) fraction. These results clearly demonstrate the apoptogenic potential of Cd in murine thymocytes, following mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase activation and ROS and GSH acting as critical mediators.
    • Differential effects of the oxidized metabolites of oltipraz on the activation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta and NF-E2-related factor-2 for GSTA2 gene induction.

      Ko, Myong Suk; Lee, Seung Jin; Kim, Jin Wan; Lim, Jee Woong; Kim, Sang Geon (2006-08)
      Comprehensive mechanistic studies suggest that oltipraz exerts cancer chemopreventive effects through the induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST). Previously, we have shown that the activation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta (C/EBPbeta), promoted by oltipraz, contributes to the transcriptional induction of the GSTA2 gene. Studies also indicated that exposure of animals to oltipraz triggers nuclear accumulation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) with an increase in Nrf2's antioxidant response element (ARE) binding activity. Given the previous reports that C/EBPbeta activation contributes to oltipraz's induction of the GSTA2 gene and that Nrf2 activation by oltipraz was variable depending on the concentrations, this study investigated whether the major oxidized metabolites of oltipraz induce GSTA2 through the activation of C/EBPbeta and/or Nrf2. Immunoblot analysis revealed that M1 [4-methyl-5-(pyrazin-2-yl)-3H-1,2-dithiol-3-one] and M2 (7-methyl-6,8-bis(methylthio)H-pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine), but not M3 (7-methyl-8-(methylsulfinyl)-6-(methylthio)H-pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine) and M4 (7-methyl-6,8-bis(methylsulfinyl)H-pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine), induced GSTA2 in H4IIE cells. M1 and M2 also increased the luciferase activity from pGL-1651, which contained the luciferase structural gene downstream of the -1.65-kilobase GSTA2 promoter region. Nuclear C/EBPbeta levels were enhanced by the metabolites but not by M3 or M4. Among the oxidized metabolites examined, only M2, which elicited cell death at a relatively high concentration, activated Nrf2, as indicated by nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and its ARE binding activity. The present study provides evidence that M1 and M2, but not M3 and M4, induce GSTA2 and that M1 induces GSTA2 only via C/EBPbeta activation, whereas M2 does so by activating Nrf2 as well as C/EBPbeta. These results substantiate the differential effects of oltipraz's metabolites on C/EBPbeta- and/or Nrf2-mediated GSTA2 induction.
    • The effects of short-chain fatty acids on colon epithelial proliferation and survival depend on the cellular phenotype.

      Comalada, Monica; Bailon, Elvira; de Haro, Oscar; Lara-Villoslada, Federico; Xaus, Jordi; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Galvez, Julio (2006-08)
      PURPOSE: The short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are produced via anaerobic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber within the colonic lumen. Among them, butyrate is thought to protect against colon carcinogenesis. However, few studies analyze the effects of butyrate, and other SCFA, on normal epithelial cells and on epithelial regeneration during disease recovery. Since there are controversial in vitro studies, we have explored the effects of SCFA on different biological processes. METHODS: We used both tumoral (HT-29) and normal (FHC) epithelial cells at different phenotypic states. In addition, we analyzed the in vivo activity of soluble dietary fiber and SCFA production in the proliferation rate and regeneration of intestinal epithelial cells. RESULTS: The effect of butyrate on epithelial cells depends on the phenotypic cellular state. Thus, in nondifferentiated, high proliferative adenocarcinoma cells, butyrate significantly inhibited proliferation while increased differentiation and apoptosis, whereas other SCFA studied did not. However, in normal cells or in differentiated cultures as well as in in vivo studies, the normal proliferation and regeneration of damaged epithelium is not affected by butyrate or SCFA exposure. CONCLUSION: Although butyrate could exert antiproliferative effects in tumor progression, its production is safe and without consequences for the normal epithelium growth.
    • Combined analysis of r-1,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in smokers' plasma.

      Carmella, Steven G.; Yoder, Andrea; Hecht, Stephen S. (2006-08)
      Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and tobacco-specific nitrosamines, such as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are widely accepted to be two important types of lung carcinogens in cigarette smoke. In this study, we have developed a method to estimate individual uptake of these compounds by quantifying r-1,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (PheT) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in 1 mL of smokers' plasma. PheT and NNAL are biomarkers of PAH and NNK uptake, respectively. [D10]PheT and [pyridine-D4]NNAL were added to plasma as internal standards. The plasma was treated with beta-glucuronidase to release any conjugated PheT and NNAL. The analytes were enriched by solid-phase extraction on a mixed mode cation exchange cartridge and the PheT fraction was further purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The appropriate fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry for PheT and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry for NNAL. The method was sensitive (limits of quantitation: PheT, 13 fmol/mL; NNAL, 3 fmol/mL), accurate, and precise. Levels of PheT and NNAL in plasma from 16 smokers averaged 95 +/- 71 and 36 +/- 21 fmol/mL, respectively, which are approximately 1% to 2% of the amounts found in urine. This method should be useful in molecular epidemiology studies of carcinogen uptake and lung cancer in smokers.
    • Inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene-activating enzymes and DNA binding in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells by methoxylated flavonoids.

      Tsuji, Petra A.; Walle, Thomas (2006-08)
      Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in lung carcinogenesis via carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrosamines. In this study, we used benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as the classic PAH compound and BEAS-2B cells, a model of normal human bronchial epithelial cells, to investigate whether 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF) and 3',4'-DMF compared with resveratrol (RV) have chemopreventive properties in this cancer. Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to [(3)H]BaP (1 microM) showed increasing binding to DNA up to 72 h of exposure, about 20-fold higher than that at 0.5 h exposure. BaP exposure also increased both CYP1A1/1B1 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) enzyme activities with a maximum 10-fold increase at 48 h. BaP induced CYP1A1 protein and mRNA levels maximally after 48 h. In contrast, although CYP1B1 mRNA was rapidly induced, its protein expression showed a very poor response. Simultaneous treatment with BaP and 5,7-DMF, 3',4'-DMF or RV for 48 h inhibited BaP-DNA binding by > or =75%, with 3',4'-DMF being the most effective. 5,7-DMF affected CYP1A1 mRNA levels only modestly, whereas 3',4'-DMF was a potent inhibitor. The catalytic activity of CYP1A1/1B1 was reduced over 95% after exposure to 5,7-DMF, 3',4'-DMF or RV, most effectively by 3',4'-DMF. BaP-induced mEH activity was not affected by treatment with 5,7-DMF, but was significantly inhibited by 3',4'-DMF. In contrast, mEH activity was notably increased by RV. Most importantly, western blotting showed all three polyphenols dramatically reducing BaP-induced CYP1A1 protein expression. Both 5,7-DMF and 3',4'-DMF demonstrated very high, about 40-fold, accumulation in BEAS-2B cells. In summary, BaP exposure results in a high level of DNA binding in BEAS-2B cells, which is mainly mediated by induction of CYP1A1 protein, just as in the human lung. Two methoxylated dietary flavonoids with highly specific effects on BaP bioactivation block this DNA binding and CYP1A1 protein expression as effectively as RV, thus making them potential chemopreventive agents for BaP-induced lung carcinogenesis.
    • Decreasing urinary PAH metabolites and 7-methylguanine after smoking cessation.

      Ichiba, M.; Matsumoto, A.; Kondoh, T.; Horita, M.; Tomokuni, K. (2006-08)
      OBJECTIVE: Humans are exposed to various carcinogens by smoking. Urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), one of the major carcinogens in cigarette smoke, were measured as the environmental carcinogen exposure marker for humans. We evaluated urinary exposure markers for smoking cessation. METHOD: In this study, we measured cigarette smoke exposure markers, such as urinary cotinine, PAH exposure markers, such as urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), 2-naphthol (2-NP) and 1-naphthol (1-NP), as well as a methylating chemical exposure marker, 7-methylguanine (7-MeG). The before smoking cessation levels of these markers, and the after smoking cessation levels were then compared. Eighteen subjects participated in this smoking cessation program. RESULTS: Levels of all of four markers were found to have decreased by 19-54% after smoking cessation. Urinary cotinine, 1-OHP, 2-NP and 7-MeG levels were found to have significantly decreased after smoking cessation. There were positive correlations between cotinine and three urinary PAH markers and between 1-OHP, 2-NP and 7-MeG. CONCLUSION: PAH metabolites were better biomarkers of smoking cessation than 7-MeG. Analyzing urinary metabolites or urinary DNA adducts is suitable for epidemiological studies.