• Carbohydrate digestibility predicts colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane-treated rats.

      Jacobsen, Helene; Poulsen, Morten; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Meyer, Otto; Lindecrona, Rikke Hvid (2006)
      The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of carbohydrate structure and digestibility on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis. Five groups of male Fischer 344 rats each comprising 30 animals were injected with AOM and fed a high-fat diet with 15% of various carbohydrates. The carbohydrate sources used were sucrose, cornstarch (a linear starch, reference group), potato starch (a branched starch), a short-chained oligofructose (Raftilose), and a long-chained inulin-type fructan (Raftiline). An interim sacrifice was performed after 9 wk to investigate markers of carbohydrate digestibility, including caecal fermentation (caecum weight and pH) and glucose and lipid metabolism [glucose, fructoseamine, HbA1c, triglycerides, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1]. In addition potential early predictors of carcinogenicity [cell proliferation and aberrant crypt foci (ACF)] at 9 wk and their correlation to colon cancer risk after 32 wk were investigated. Tumor incidence was significantly reduced in animals fed oligofructose, and the number of tumors per animal was significantly reduced in animals fed inulin and oligofructose at 32 wk after AOM induction compared to the reference group fed sucrose. Increased caecum weight and decreased caecal pH were seen in groups fed oligofructose, inulin, and potato starch. Plasma triglyceride was decreased in rats fed oligofructose and inulin. Cell proliferation was increased in the proximal colon of rats fed sucrose, oligofructose, and inulin, and the number of cells per crypt decreased in rats fed oligofructose and inulin. The total number of ACF's was unaffected by treatment, and the size and multiplicity of ACF was unrelated to tumor development. It was concluded that less digestible carbohydrates with an early effect on caecum fermentation and plasma triglyceride decreased subsequent tumor incidence and multiplicity. This was unrelated to ACF, cell proliferation, and other markers of glucose and lipid metabolism.
    • Effects of quercetin and beta-carotene supplementation on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis and inflammatory responses in rats fed with high-fat diet rich in omega-6 fatty acids.

      Choi, Soo-Yeon; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Kim, Jong-Sang; Kim, Mi Kyung; Aruoma, Okezie I.; Sung, Mi-Kyung (2006)
      Chronic inflammation in gastrointestinal tract has been suggested as a risk factor for tumor formation. The effect of dietary supplementation of quercetin or beta-carotene on colon carcinogenesis and inflammatory response in rats fed with high-fat diet rich in omega-6 fatty acids was assessed. Animals were exposed to two weekly subcutaneous injections of AOM (azoxymethane) at a single dose of 15 mg/kg body weight. A portion of rats from each group was sacrificed at 8 weeks after the last AOM treatment to determine ACF (aberrant crypt foci) formation. Colonic mucosa expression of iNOS (inducible nitric oxide) and COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) protein, and blood PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) level were measured. The remaining groups of animals were sacrificed at 33 weeks after the last AOM treatment to examine colon tumor formation. Rats on high-fat diet developed more aberrant crypt foci (P<0.05) compared with those of rats on regular diet. In the same vein, but in contrast to the effect seen with regular diet, the high-fat diet induced a significant up-regulation of iNOS expression. There was no significant change in the extent of COX-2 expression or in the PGE2 levels. Quercetin or beta-carotene supplementation reduced the number of ACF only in animals fed high-fat diet (p<0.05), however, no significant difference in tumor incidence was found. At week 33, the expression of iNOS was reduced by quercetin without a statistical significance, and COX-2 expression was slightly reduced in rats on beta-carotene supplementation. No change in PGE2 levels was observed. Whilst dietary antioxidants are considered as effective suppressors for precancerous lesion formation in colons exposed to high-risk diet, it is clear that elucidating the role of individual antioxidants in colon tumor formation coupled with an understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved would benefit colon cancer prevention strategies.
    • A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies of dietary fat, cholesterol and egg intake and ovarian cancer.

      Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Hunter, David J.; Spiegelman, Donna; Anderson, Kristin E.; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Buring, Julie E.; Colditz, Graham A.; Fraser, Gary E.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; et al. (2006-04)
      Fat and cholesterol are theorized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis by increasing circulating estrogen levels. Although case-control studies have reported positive associations between total and saturated fat intake and ovarian cancer risk, two cohort studies have observed null associations. Dietary cholesterol and eggs have been positively associated with ovarian cancer risk. A pooled analysis was conducted on 12 cohort studies. Among 523,217 women, 2,132 incident epithelial ovarian cancer cases were identified. Study-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models, and then pooled using a random effects model. Total fat intake was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (pooled multivariate RR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.86-1.34 comparing > or =45 to 30-<35% of calories). No association was observed for monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, trans-unsaturated, animal and vegetable fat, cholesterol and egg intakes with ovarian cancer risk. A weakly positive, but non-linear association, was observed for saturated fat intake (pooled multivariate RR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.01-1.66 comparing highest versus lowest decile). Results for histologic subtypes were similar. Overall, fat, cholesterol and egg intakes were not associated with ovarian cancer risk. The positive association for saturated fat intake at very high intakes merits further investigation.