• Selenised casein protects against AOM-induced colon tumors in Sprague Dawley rats.

      McIntosh, Graeme H.; Royle, Peter J.; Lesno, Severine; Scherer, Ben L. (2006)
      Selenium (Se) has been shown to be protective against cancers in animal models at concentrations exceeding those considered essential for normal nutritional requirements. Organic forms of Se provided as dairy proteins were obtained from cows fed diets supplemented with yeast Se. The casein extracted from milk was found to contain approximately half the Se of the Se-enriched milk. This casein was included in a semi-purified AIN rodent diet so as to provide 1 ppm Se and 25% protein and was compared with AIN diets containing no added Se (control, 0.05 ppm), 1 ppm and 4 ppm Se as selenised yeast (Sel-Plex) Their influence on colon tumor expression was examined in rats induced with azoxymethane, the diets being introduced post-induction. The selenised casein diet at this concentration was effective in reducing colon tumor incidence (by 29%) and burden (decreased 52%, P < 0.05) relative to the control in rats 26 wk post-induction. Selenised yeast, when added at similar (1 ppm) and increased Se concentration (4 ppm), did not influence significantly colon tumor expression. However, in a second study, with Se yeast providing Se at 1 ppm, 4 ppm, and 8 ppm throughout the experiment, a significant reduction in tumors was observed with 8 ppm Se (colon tumor incidence was 15% lower and colon tumor burden was 35% lower, P < 0.05). However this was associated with a significantly lower body weight in the rats (down 10.5%, P < 0.05) indicating a possible disturbance with normal energy intake or metabolism. The form in which Se is presented in the diet may influence significantly its bioavailability and/or anticancer potential at given concentrations within a safe range. The efficacy of selenised casein and indeed other potential dietary sources deserve further investigation with regard to their ability to prevent colon tumors at concentrations considered safe in the diet.
    • Selenium, apoptosis, and colorectal adenomas.

      Connelly-Frost, Alexandra; Poole, Charles; Satia, Jessie A.; Kupper, Lawrence L.; Millikan, Robert C.; Sandler, Robert S. (2006-03)
      BACKGROUND: Selenium is an essential trace element found in cereals, wheat, dairy products, meat, and fish. This micronutrient may prevent carcinogenesis through several biochemical pathways; one suggested pathway is enhanced apoptosis. OBJECTIVES: The relation between selenium and colorectal adenomas was evaluated because the colorectal adenoma is the established precursor lesion of most colorectal cancers. Apoptosis was a pathway of interest because decreased apoptosis has been associated with an increased prevalence of adenomas. Our objectives were as follows: to investigate the association between (a) selenium and colorectal adenomas and (b) selenium and apoptosis. METHODS: The study population was assembled for the Diet and Health Study III (n = 803), a cross-sectional study conducted at the University of North Carolina Hospital (Chapel Hill, NC). There were 451 participants in the analysis of selenium and adenoma prevalence and 351 participants in the analysis of selenium and apoptosis. Selenium was measured from serum collected at the time of colonoscopy. Apoptosis was measured in biopsies from normal rectal epithelium obtained during the colonoscopy procedure. RESULTS: Participants in the highest fifth of serum selenium were less likely to have adenomas in comparison with those in the lowest fifth (prevalence ratio, 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.1). Selenium and apoptosis (>2.76 cells per crypt) were not strongly related, but results collectively suggested a roughly inverse association. CONCLUSIONS: High selenium was associated with a reduced prevalence of colorectal adenomas. Apoptosis, however, did not seem to be the mechanism by which selenium was related to adenoma prevalence in our data.