• Concomitant suppression of hyperlipidemia and intestinal polyp formation by increasing lipoprotein lipase activity in Apc-deficient mice.

      Mutoh, Michihiro; Niho, Naoko; Wakabayashi, Keiji (2006-04)
      Epidemiologically, a high-fat diet is associated with the risk of colon cancer. In addition, serum levels of triglycerides (TGs) and cholesterol have been demonstrated to be positively associated with colon carcinogenesis. We recently found that an age-dependent hyperlipidemic state (high serum TG levels) exists in Apc-deficient mice, an animal model for human familial adenomatous polyposis. The mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which catalyzes TG hydrolysis, were shown to be downregulated in the liver and intestines of mice. Moreover, treatment with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonist, bezafibrate, or a PPARgamma agonist, pioglitazone, suppressed both hyperlipidemia and intestinal polyp formation in the mice, with induction of LPL mRNA. PPARalpha and PPARgamma agonists are reported to exert anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in cancer cells. One compound that also increases LPL expression levels but does not possess PPAR agnostic activity is NO-1886. When given at 400 or 800 ppm in the diet, it suppresses both hyperlipidemia and intestinal polyp formation in Apc-deficient mice, with elevation of LPL mRNA. In conclusion, a decrease in serum lipid levels by increasing LPL activity may contribute to a reduction in intestinal polyp formation with Apc deficiency. PPARalpha and PPARgamma agonists, as well as NO-1886, could be useful as chemopreventive agents for colon cancer.
    • Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis caused by the oxidation of nucleic acids.

      Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Sakumi, Kunihiko; Sakamoto, Katsumi; Tsuchimoto, Daisuke; Tsuzuki, Teruhisa; Nakatsu, Yoshimichi (2006-04)
      Genomes and their precursor nucleotides are highly exposed to reactive oxygen species, which are generated both as byproducts of oxygen respiration or molecular executors in the host defense, and by environmental exposure to ionizing radiation and chemicals. To counteract such oxidative damage in nucleic acids, mammalian cells are equipped with three distinct enzymes. MTH1 protein hydrolyzes oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphates, such as 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine triphosphate and 2-hydroxy-2'-deoxyadenosine triphosphate (2-OH-dATP), to the corresponding monophosphates. We observed increased susceptibility to spontaneous carcinogenesis in MTH1-null mice, which exhibit an increased occurrence of A:T-->C:G and G:C-->T:A transversion mutations. 8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG) DNA glycosylase, encoded by the OGG1 gene, and adenine DNA glycosylase, encoded by the MUTYH gene, are responsible for the suppression of G:C to T:A transversions caused by the accumulation of 8-oxoG in the genome. Deficiency of these enzymes leads to increased tumorigenesis in the lung and intestinal tract in mice, respectively. MUTYH deficiency may also increase G:C to T:A transversions through the misincorporation of 2-OH-dATP, especially in the intestinal tract, since MUTYH can excise 2-hydroxyadenine opposite guanine in genomic DNA and the repair activity is selectively impaired by a mutation found in patients with autosomal recessive colorectal adenomatous polyposis.
    • Oxidative and nitrative DNA damage in animals and patients with inflammatory diseases in relation to inflammation-related carcinogenesis.

      Kawanishi, Shosuke; Hiraku, Yusuke; Pinlaor, Somchai; Ma, Ning (2006-04)
      Infection and chronic inflammation are proposed to contribute to carcinogenesis through inflammation-related mechanisms. Infection with hepatitis C virus, Helicobacter pylori and the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini (OV), are important risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), gastric cancer and cholangiocarcinoma, respectively. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and oral diseases, such as oral lichen planus (OLP) and leukoplakia, are associated with colon carcinogenesis and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), respectively. We performed a double immunofluorescence labeling study and found that nitrative and oxidative DNA lesion products, 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), were formed and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was expressed in epithelial cells and inflammatory cells at the site of carcinogenesis in humans and animal models. Antibacterial, antiviral and antiparasitic drugs dramatically diminished the formation of these DNA lesion markers and iNOS expression. These results suggest that oxidative and nitrative DNA damage occurs at the sites of carcinogenesis, regardless of etiology. Therefore, it is considered that excessive amounts of reactive nitrogen species produced via iNOS during chronic inflammation may play a key role in carcinogenesis by causing DNA damage. On the basis of our results, we propose that 8-nitroguanine is a promising biomarker to evaluate the potential risk of inflammation-mediated carcinogenesis.