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dc.contributor.authorIslami, Farhad
dc.contributor.authorBoffetta, Paolo
dc.contributor.authorVan Schooten, Frederik J.
dc.contributor.authorStrickland, Paul
dc.contributor.authorPhillips, David H.
dc.contributor.authorPourshams, Akram
dc.contributor.authorFazel-Tabar Malekshah, Akbar
dc.contributor.authorGodschalk, Roger
dc.contributor.authorJafari, Elham
dc.contributor.authorEtemadi, Arash
dc.contributor.authorAbubaker, Salahadin
dc.contributor.authorKamangar, Farin
dc.contributor.authorStraif, Kurt
dc.contributor.authorMøller, Henrik
dc.contributor.authorSchuz, Joachim
dc.contributor.authorMalekzadeh, Reza
dc.date.accessioned2013-02-15T12:02:24Z
dc.date.available2013-02-15T12:02:24Z
dc.date.issued2012
dc.identifier.citationFront. Oncol. 2012, 2:14en_GB
dc.identifier.issn2234-943X
dc.identifier.pmid22655262
dc.identifier.doi10.3389/fonc.2012.00014
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10146/269634
dc.description.abstractStudies have suggested a possible role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the etiology of esophageal cancer in Golestan Province, Iran, where incidence of this cancer is very high. In order to investigate the patterns of non-smoking related exposure to PAHs in Golestan, we conducted a cross-sectional study collecting questionnaire data, genotyping polymorphisms related to PAH metabolism, and measuring levels of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG), a PAH metabolite, in urine samples collected in two seasons from the same group of 111 randomly selected never-smoking women. Beta-coefficients for correlations between 1-OHPG as dependent variable and other variables were calculated using linear regression models. The creatinine-adjusted 1-OHPG levels in both winter and summer samples were approximately 110 μmol/molCr (P for seasonal difference = 0.40). In winter, red meat intake (β = 0.208; P = 0.03), processed meat intake (β = 0.218; P = 0.02), and GSTT1-02 polymorphism ("null" genotype: β = 0.228; P = 0.02) showed associations with 1-OHPG levels, while CYP1B1-07 polymorphism (GG versus AA + GA genotypes: β = -0.256; P = 0.008) showed an inverse association. In summer, making bread at home (> weekly versus never: β = 0.203; P = 0.04), second-hand smoke (exposure to ≥3 cigarettes versus no exposure: β = 0.254; P = 0.01), and GSTM1-02 "null" genotype (β = 0.198; P = 0.04) showed associations with 1-OHPG levels, but GSTP1-02 polymorphism (CT + TT versus CC: β = -0.218; P = 0.03) showed an inverse association. This study confirms high exposure of the general population in Golestan to PAHs and suggests that certain foods, cooking methods, and genetic polymorphisms increase exposure to PAHs.
dc.description.sponsorshipData and sample collection was supported by Digestive Disease Research Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and International Agency for Research on Cancer. Laboratory assessments were funded by ECNIS (Environmental Cancer Risk, Nutrition and Individual Susceptibility), a network of excellence operating within the European Union 6th Framework Program [Priority 5: “Food Quality and Safety” (Contract No. 513943)].en_GB
dc.language.isoenen
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.frontiersin.org/Cancer_Epidemiology_and_Prevention/10.3389/fonc.2012.00014/abstracten_GB
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3356003/en_GB
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to Frontiers in oncologyen_GB
dc.subjectPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonen_GB
dc.subjectEsophageal canceren_GB
dc.subjectPolymorphismen_GB
dc.subjectSmokingen_GB
dc.subjectUrineen_GB
dc.subject1-hydroxypyrene glucuronideen_GB
dc.subjectGenotypingen_GB
dc.subjectEpidemiologyen_GB
dc.subjectCross-sectional studyen_GB
dc.titleExposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Among Never Smokers in Golestan Province, Iran, an Area of High Incidence of Esophageal Cancer - a Cross-Sectional Study with Repeated Measurement of Urinary 1-OHPG in Two Seasons.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.identifier.journalFrontiers in Oncologyen_GB
html.description.abstractStudies have suggested a possible role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the etiology of esophageal cancer in Golestan Province, Iran, where incidence of this cancer is very high. In order to investigate the patterns of non-smoking related exposure to PAHs in Golestan, we conducted a cross-sectional study collecting questionnaire data, genotyping polymorphisms related to PAH metabolism, and measuring levels of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG), a PAH metabolite, in urine samples collected in two seasons from the same group of 111 randomly selected never-smoking women. Beta-coefficients for correlations between 1-OHPG as dependent variable and other variables were calculated using linear regression models. The creatinine-adjusted 1-OHPG levels in both winter and summer samples were approximately 110 μmol/molCr (P for seasonal difference = 0.40). In winter, red meat intake (β = 0.208; P = 0.03), processed meat intake (β = 0.218; P = 0.02), and GSTT1-02 polymorphism ("null" genotype: β = 0.228; P = 0.02) showed associations with 1-OHPG levels, while CYP1B1-07 polymorphism (GG versus AA + GA genotypes: β = -0.256; P = 0.008) showed an inverse association. In summer, making bread at home (> weekly versus never: β = 0.203; P = 0.04), second-hand smoke (exposure to ≥3 cigarettes versus no exposure: β = 0.254; P = 0.01), and GSTM1-02 "null" genotype (β = 0.198; P = 0.04) showed associations with 1-OHPG levels, but GSTP1-02 polymorphism (CT + TT versus CC: β = -0.218; P = 0.03) showed an inverse association. This study confirms high exposure of the general population in Golestan to PAHs and suggests that certain foods, cooking methods, and genetic polymorphisms increase exposure to PAHs.


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