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AuthorsDragsted, Lars O.
Cook, Marcus S.
MetadataShow full item record
CitationIn: Dietary vitamins, polyphenols, selenium and probiotics: biomarkers of exposure and mechanism of anticarcinogenic action. Ed. Bjorn Akesson, Per Mercke. Lodz 2007, p. 25-113.
Series/Report no.ECNIS Report
SponsorsECNIS is a Network of Excellence within the European Union’s Sixth Framework Programme, Priority 5: Food Quality and Safety. It brings together some of the best European research groups in a concerted effort to achieve improved understanding of the environmental causes of cancer, of the potential of diet to prevent cancer and of the ways in which heredity can affect individual susceptibility to carcinogens, with the ultimate aim of reducing the cancer burden in Europe. ECNIS is coordinated by Prof. Konrad Rydzyƒski, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine,ul. Sw. Teresy 8, 91-348 Lodz, Poland. This review has been prepared as part of ECNIS Work Package 9: Mechanisms of modulation of cancer by dietary factors.
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Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk.Kirsh, Victoria A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Mayne, Susan T.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Subar, Amy F.; Dixon, L. Beth; Albanes, Demetrius; Andriole, Gerald L.; Urban, Donald A.; Peters, Ulrike (2006-02-15)BACKGROUND: Vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C are micronutrient antioxidants that protect cells from oxidative damage involved in prostate carcinogenesis. In separate trials, supplemental vitamin E was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer among smokers and supplemental beta-carotene was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer among men with low baseline plasma beta-carotene levels. METHODS: We evaluated the association between intake of these micronutrient antioxidants from foods and supplements and the risk of prostate cancer among men in the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. At baseline, trial participants completed a 137-item food frequency questionnaire that included detailed questions on 12 individual supplements. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified 1338 cases of prostate cancer among 29 361 men during up to 8 years of follow-up. Overall, there was no association between prostate cancer risk and dietary or supplemental intake of vitamin E, beta-carotene, or vitamin C. However, among current and recent (i.e., within the previous 10 years) smokers, decreasing risks of advanced prostate cancer (i.e., Gleason score > or = 7 or stage III or IV) were associated with increasing dose (RR for > 400 IU/day versus none = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.12 to 0.68; Ptrend = .01) and duration (RR for > or = 10 years of use versus none = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.96; Ptrend = .01) of supplemental vitamin E use. Supplemental beta-carotene intake at a dose level of at least 2000 microg/day was associated with decreased prostate cancer risk in men with low (below the median of 4129 microg/day) dietary beta-carotene intake (RR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.33 to 0.81). Among smokers, the age-adjusted rate of advanced prostate cancer was 492 per 100,000 person-years in those who did not take supplemental vitamin E, 153 per 100,000 person-years in those who took more than 400 IU/day of supplemental vitamin E, and 157 per 100,000 person-years in those who took supplemental vitamin E for 10 or more years. Among men with low dietary beta-carotene intake, the age-adjusted rate of prostate cancer was 1122 per 100,000 person-years in those who did not take supplemental beta-carotene, and 623 per 100,000 person-years in those who took at least 2000 microg/day of supplemental beta-carotene. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not provide strong support for population-wide implementation of high-dose antioxidant supplementation for the prevention of prostate cancer. However, vitamin E supplementation in male smokers and beta-carotene supplementation in men with low dietary beta-carotene intakes were associated with reduced risk of this disease.
Vitamins A and E during Pregnancy and Allergy Symptoms in an Early Childhood-Lack of Association with Tobacco Smoke Exposure.Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Polanska, Kinga; Kozlowska, Lucyna; Mikolajewska, Karolina; Stelmach, Iwona; Jerzyńska, Joanna; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Grzesiak, Mariusz; Hanke, Wojciech; Wasowicz, Wojciech; et al. (2018)Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between maternal antioxidant levels during pregnancy and development of allergic diseases in their offspring. The aim of the study was to determine plasma vitamins A and E concentration in the 1st trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and in cord blood and to search for a relationship with allergy in up to 2-year-old children who were prenatally exposed or not exposed to tobacco smoke. The study participants included 252 mother-child pairs from Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Vitamin concentrations were measured using the HPLC-UV method, smoking status—as saliva cotinine level using the HPLC-MS/MS technique. Children’s health status was assessed using a questionnaire and pediatricians/allergists examination. Cord plasma vitamin concentrations were significantly lower than their levels in maternal plasma in the 1sttrimester and at delivery (p < 0.001). Significantly higher concentrations of vitamin E have been shown to occur during the 1st trimester of pregnancy in plasma of the women who have actively/passively smoked cigarettes compared to the non-smokers (p < 0.02). Multivariate analysis with inclusion of a variety of confounding factors have not indicated any statistically significant associations between β-carotene, vitamins A and E and the risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis and wheezing in their children up to 2 years of age. The interaction between smoking during pregnancy and vitamins levels on the risk of allergy was not statistically significant (p < 0.4). The relationship between plasma concentration of vitamins A and E, and the risk of allergy in their young children has not been demonstrated.
Gene expression profiling reveals new protective roles for vitamin C in human skin cells.Duarte, Tiago L.; Cooke, Marcus S.; Jones, George D. D. (2009-01-01)The skin is a protective barrier against external insults and any lesion must be rapidly and efficiently repaired. Dermal fibroblasts are the major source of extracellular connective tissue matrix and play an important role in wound healing. Vitamin C is an important water-soluble free radical scavenger and an essential cofactor for collagen synthesis by dermal fibroblasts and, consequently, may contribute to the maintenance of healthy skin. Using microarray analysis, we investigated the effects of long-term exposure to a stable vitamin C derivative, ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P), in contact-inhibited populations of primary human dermal fibroblasts. Compared with "scorbutic" cells, cells exposed to AA2P increased the expression of genes associated with DNA replication and repair and with the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle. Consistent with the gene expression changes, AA2P increased the mitogenic stimulation of quiescent fibroblasts by serum factors and cell motility in the context of wound healing. Furthermore, AA2P-treated fibroblasts showed faster repair of oxidatively damaged DNA bases. We propose that vitamin C may protect the skin by promoting fibroblast proliferation, migration, and replication-associated base excision repair of potentially mutagenic DNA lesions, and we discuss the putative involvement of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 and collagen receptor-related signaling pathways.