• Quantification of 3-nitrobenzanthrone-DNA adducts using online column-switching HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

      Gamboa da Costa, Goncalo; Singh, Rajinder; Arlt, Volker M.; Mirza, Amin; Richards, Meirion; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Farmer, Peter B.; Phillips, David H. (2009-11)
      The aromatic nitroketone 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-nitro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one; 3-NBA) is an extremely potent mutagen and a suspected human carcinogen detected in the exhaust of diesel engines and in airborne particulate matter. 3-NBA is metabolically activated via reduction of the nitro group to the hydroxylamine (N-OH-3-ABA) to form covalent DNA adducts. Thus far, the detection and quantification of covalent 3-NBA-DNA adducts has relied solely on (32)P-postlabeling methodologies. In order to expand the range of available techniques for the detection and improved quantification of 3-NBA-DNA adducts, we have developed a method based upon online column-switching HPLC coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, with isotopic dilution of (15)N-labeled internal standards. This methodology was applied to the determination of three 3-NBA-derived adducts: 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-N(2)-3-ABA), N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-C8-N-3-ABA) and 2-(2'-deoxyguanosine-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-C8-C2-3-ABA). Dose-dependent increases were observed for all three adducts when salmon testis DNA was reacted with N-acetoxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-AcO-3-ABA). dG-C8-C2-3-ABA was detected at much lower levels (overall 1%) than the other two adducts. DNA samples isolated from tissues of rats treated either intratracheally with 3-NBA or intraperitoneally with N-OH-3-ABA were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and the results compared to those obtained by (32)P-postlabeling. The method required 50 microg of hydrolyzed animal DNA on column and the limit of detection was 2.0 fmol for each adduct. dG-C8-C2-3-ABA was not observed in any of the samples providing confirmation that it is not formed in vivo. Linear regression analysis of the levels of dG-N(2)-3-ABA and dG-C8-N-3-ABA in the rat DNA showed a reasonable correlation between the two methods (R(2) = 0.88 and 0.93, respectively). In summary, the mass spectrometric method is a faster, more automated analytical approach that also provides structural confirmation of the adducts detected by (32)P-postlabeling, and it has sufficient sensitivity and precision to analyze DNA adducts in animals exposed to 3-NBA or its hydroxylamine metabolite.
    • Quantification of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage in the urine of Swedish adults and children following exposure to sunlight.

      Liljendahl, Tove Sandberg; Kotova, Natalia; Segerback, Dan (2012-11)
      DNA damage following exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is important in skin cancer development. The predominant photoproduct, cyclobutane thymine dimer (T=T), is repaired and excreted in the urine, where it provides a biomarker of exposure.
    • Ranking of genome-wide association scan signals by different measures.

      Stromberg, Ulf; Bjork, Jonas; Vineis, Paolo; Broberg, Karin; Zeggini, Eleftheria (2009-10)
      BACKGROUND: The P-value approach has been employed to prioritizing genome-wide association (GWA) scan signals, with a genome-wide significance defined by a prior P-value threshold, although this is not ideal. A rationale put forward is that the association signals rather should be expected to give less support for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are rare (with associated low-power tests) than for common SNPs with equivalent P-values, unless investigators believe, a priori, that rare causative variants contribute to the disease and have more pronounced effects. METHODS: Using data from a GWA scan for type 2 diabetes (1924 cases, 2938 controls, 393 453 SNPs), we compared P-values with four alternative signal measures: likelihood ratio (LR), Bayes factor (BF; with a specified prior distribution for true effects), 'frequentist factor' (FF; reflecting the ratio between estimated--post-data-- 'power' and P-value) and probability of pronounced effect size (PrPES). RESULTS: The 19 common SNPs [minor allele frequency (MAF) among the controls >29%] yielding strong P-value signals (P < 5 x 10(-7)) were also top ranked by the other approaches. There was a strong similarity between the P-values, LR and BF signals, in terms of ranking SNPs. In contrast, FF and PrPES signals down-weighted rare SNPs (control MAF <10%) with low P-values. CONCLUSIONS: For prioritization of signals that do not achieve compelling levels of evidence for association, the main driving force behind observed differences between the various association signals appears to be SNP MAF. The statistical power afforded by follow-up samples for establishing replication should be taken into account when tailoring the signal selection strategy.
    • Recommendations for standardized description of and nomenclature concerning oxidatively damaged nucleobases in DNA.

      Cooke, Marcus S.; Loft, Steffen; Olinski, Ryszard; Evans, Mark D.; Bialkowski, Karol; Wagner, J. Richard; Dedon, Peter C.; Moller, Peter; Greenberg, Marc M.; Cadet, Jean (2010-04-19)
    • Recovery of bulky DNA adducts by the regular and a modified 32P-postlabelling assay; influence of the DNA-isolation method.

      Kovacs, Katalin; Anna, Livia; Rudnai, Peter; Schoket, Bernadette (2011-03-18)
      Bulky DNA adducts are widely used as biomarkers of human exposure to complex mixtures of environmental genotoxicants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The 32P-postlabelling method is highly sensitive for the detection of bulky DNA adducts, but its relatively low throughput poses limits to its use in large-scale molecular epidemiological studies. The objectives of this study were to compare the impact of DNA-sample preparation with a commercial DNA-isolation kit or with the classical phenol-extraction procedure on the measurement of bulky DNA adducts by 32P-postlabelling, and to increase the throughput of the 32P-postlabelling method--whilst maintaining radio-safety--by reducing the radioisotope requirement per sample. The test DNA samples were prepared from MCF-7 cells treated with benzo[a]pyrene and from human peripheral blood lymphocytes, buffy coat, and peripheral lung tissue. The modified 32P-postlabelling procedure involved an evaporation-to-dryness step after the enzymatic digestions of the DNA, and radio-labelling with a reduced amount of [γ-32P]ATP substrate in a reduced reaction volume compared with the regular method. Higher levels of DNA adducts were measured in the MCF-7 cells and in the lung-tissue samples after isolation with the kit than after solvent extraction. A seven-fold higher level of adducts was detected in the buffy-coat DNA samples isolated with the kit than with the phenol extraction procedure (p<0.001). Reduction of the amount of [γ-32P]ATP from 50 μCi to 25 μCi (>6000 Ci/mmol specific radioactivity) per sample in the modified 32P-postlabelling procedure was generally applicable without loss of adduct recovery for all test samples prepared with both DNA isolation methods. The difference between the bulky DNA-adduct levels resulting from the two DNA-isolation procedures requires further systematic investigation. The modified 32P-postlabelling procedure allows a 50% reduction of radioisotope requirement per sample, which facilitates increased throughput of the assay whilst maintaining radio-safety.
    • Reference genes for gene expression studies on non-small cell lung cancer.

      Gresner, Peter; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Wasowicz, Wojciech (2009)
      STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test a panel of 6 reference genes in order to identify and validate the most suitable reference genes for expression studies in paired healthy and non-small cell lung cancer tissues. METHOD: Quantitative real-time PCR followed by the NormFinder- and geNorm-based analysis was employed. The study involved 21 non-small cell lung cancer patients. RESULTS: The analysis of experimental data revealed HPRT1 as the most stable gene followed by RPLP0 and ESD. In contrast, GAPDH was found to be the least stable gene. HPRT1 together with ESD was revealed as the pair of genes introducing the least systematic error into data normalization. Validation by bootstrap random sampling technique and by normalizing exemplary gene expression data confirmed the results. CONCLUSION: Although HPRT1 and ESD may by recommended for data normalization in gene expression studies on non-small cell lung cancer, the suitability of selected reference genes must be unconditionally validated prior to each study.
    • Regulation of selenoprotein mRNA expression by hormones and retinoic acid in bovine mammary cells.

      Bruzelius, Katharina; Sundler, Roger; Pagmantidis, Vasileios; Akesson, Bjorn (2010-10)
      Selenium is essential for maintaining many body functions through the actions of selenoproteins. To find factors regulating selenoprotein biosynthesis in the bovine mammary cell line MAC-T, the effects of supplementation with selenite and also with retinoic acid, insulin, hydrocortisone and prolactin on the mRNA expression of a number of selenoproteins were investigated. It was found that MAC-T cells express glutathione peroxidase (GPx) 1 and 4, thioredoxin reductase 1 and selenoprotein P, but not GPx 3, which is interesting considering that GPx 3 is one of the only few selenoproteins detected in milk so far. Addition of selenite to the cell culture resulted in a large increase in GPx 1 expression and an increase in selenoprotein P expression, which is similar to the findings made in other systems investigated. Increased mRNA levels of GPx 1 were also observed in cells treated with insulin and hydrocortisone or with retinoic acid. The expression of thioredoxin reductase 1 was increased in cells treated with retinoic acid, whereas that of selenoprotein P was decreased in cells exposed to insulin. The results indicate that several hormones, selenium, and retinoic acid regulate the biosynthesis of various selenoproteins differently in the bovine mammary cell. The possible implications of the findings for processes related to milk formation and mammary carcinogenesis will need additional investigation. Further study of the detailed mechanisms involved is also necessary.
    • The relationship between 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine level and extent of cytosine methylation in leukocytes DNA of healthy subjects and in patients with colon adenomas and carcinomas.

      Guz, Jolanta; Foksinski, Marek; Siomek, Agnieszka; Gackowski, Daniel; Rozalski, Rafal; Dziaman, Tomasz; Szpila, Anna; Olinski, Ryszard (2008-04-02)
      It has been known for a long time that DNA hypomethylation occurs in many human cancers and precancerous conditions. However, the mechanisms of hypomethylation are largely unknown. It is possible that endogenous 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua) level may be linked to aberrant DNA methylation of adjacent cytosine and in this way influences carcinogenesis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess a possible link between 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) background level and 5-methylcytosine content in DNA from human leukocytes of healthy subjects (n=105) as well as in patients with colon adenomas (n=39) and carcinomas (n=50). Our results demonstrated statistically significant negative correlation between background level of 8-oxodG and 5-methylcytosine content in DNA isolated from leukocytes of healthy donors (r=-0.3436, p=0.0003). The mean content of 5-methylcytosine was significantly lower, while 8-oxodG level was significantly higher in leukocytes DNA of patients with colon adenomas and carcinomas in comparison with healthy subjects. The mean values for 5-methylcytosine were: 3.59+/-0.173% (healthy subjects), 3.38+/-0.128% (patients with adenomas), 3.40+/-0.208% (colon cancer patients). The mean values of 8-oxodG in DNA were, respectively: 4.67+/-1.276, 5.72+/-1.787, 5.76+/-1.884 8-oxodG per 10(6) dG molecules. DNA from affected tissue (colon) suffered from significant, about 10% reduction in cytosine methylation in comparison with leukocytes of the paired subjects. Our work provides the first in vivo evidence suggesting that increased levels of 8-oxodG in DNA may lead to carcinogenesis not only via mispair/mutagenic potential of the modified base but also through its ability to influence gene expression by affecting DNA methylation.
    • The repair of melphalan-induced DNA adducts in the transcribed strand of active genes is subject to a strong polarity effect.

      Episkopou, Hara; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Sfikakis, Petros P.; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Souliotis, Vassilis L. (2011-09-01)
      To investigate the mechanisms of the therapeutic action and drug resistance to the nitrogen mustard melphalan, melphalan-induced DNA damage repair and chromatin structure were examined along the p53, N-ras and d-globin gene loci in cells carrying different repair activities. In nucleotide excision repair-deficient XP-A cells, similar levels of adducts were found in all fragments examined, indicating uniform distribution of DNA damage. In both, repair-proficient CS-B and XP-C cells, faster repair was observed in regions inside the transcribed N-ras and p53 genes, compared to regions on both sides outside of the genes, while no such difference was observed for the inactive d-globin gene. Moreover, very fast adduct repair on the transcribed strand of the active genes was seen immediately downstream of the transcription start site, together with a steeply decreasing gradient of repair efficiency along the gene towards the 3'-end. In all cells analyzed, the above variation in DNA repair efficiency was paralleled exactly by the variation in the degree of local chromatin condensation, more relaxed chromatin being associated with faster repair. Similar results were obtained using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers, suggesting that the existence of a repair gradient along transcribed genes may be a universal phenomenon. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the repair of melphalan adducts in the transcribed strand of active genes is subject to a strong polarity effect arising from variations in the chromatin structure.
    • Repair of UV dimers in skin DNA of patients with basal cell carcinoma.

      Segerback, Dan; Strozyk, Malgorzata; Snellman, Erna; Hemminki, Kari (2008-09)
      Epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to sunlight is the primary etiologic agent for basal cell carcinoma. Formation of UV-induced DNA damage is believed to be a crucial event in the process leading to skin cancer. In this study, repair of photoproducts in DNA was followed in the skin of patients with basal cell carcinoma and control subjects. The subjects were exposed to 800 J/m(2) Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairag of solar-simulating radiation on buttock skin. Biopsies were taken at 0 hour, 24 hours, and 3 weeks after the exposure. Two cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, TT=C and TT=T, were measured using a sensitive (32)P-postlabeling assay. Initial levels of both TT=C and TT=T differed between individuals in both groups. The levels of TT=T in patients with basal cell carcinoma and controls were similar (9.9 +/- 4.0 and 9.2 +/- 2.9 products per 10(6) normal nucleotides), whereas the level of TT=C was significantly lower in controls than in patients with basal cell carcinoma (6.2 +/- 3.1 versus 10.9 +/- 4.5 products per 10(6) normal nucleotides). The fractions of TT=T remaining after 24 hours and 3 weeks were significantly higher in patients with basal cell carcinoma (72% and 11%) compared with controls (48% and 5%). A slower removal in patients with basal cell carcinoma than in controls was indicated also for TT=C (52% versus 42% remaining at 24 hours); however, the difference between groups was not significant. When including data from our previously reported small-scale study, the fraction of dimers remaining at 24 hours was significantly higher in patients with basal cell carcinoma for both TT=C and TT=T. The data suggest that patients with basal cell carcinoma have a reduced capacity to repair UV-induced DNA lesions.
    • Research on ethics in two large Human Biomonitoring projects ECNIS and NewGeneris: a bottom up approach.

      Dumez, Birgit; Van Damme, Karel; Casteleyn, Ludwine (2008)
      Assessment of ethical aspects and authorization by ethics committees have become a major constraint for health research including human subjects. Ethical reference values often are extrapolated from clinical settings, where emphasis lies on decisional autonomy and protection of individual's privacy. The question rises if this set of values used in clinical research can be considered as relevant references for HBM research, which is at the basis of public health surveillance. Current and future research activities using human biomarkers are facing new challenges and expectancies on sensitive socio-ethical issues. Reflection is needed on the necessity to balance individual rights against public interest. In addition, many HBM research programs require international collaboration. Domestic legislation is not always easily applicable in international projects. Also, there seem to be considerable inconsistencies in ethical assessments of similar research activities between different countries and even within one country. All this is causing delay and putting the researcher in situations in which it is unclear how to act in accordance with necessary legal requirements. Therefore, analysis of ethical practices and their consequences for HBM research is needed.This analysis will be performed by a bottom-up approach, based on a methodology for comparative analysis of determinants in ethical reasoning, allowing taking into account different social, cultural, political and historical traditions, in view of safeguarding common EU values. Based on information collected in real life complexity, paradigm cases and virtual case scenarios will be developed and discussed with relevant stakeholders to openly discuss possible obstacles and to identify options for improvement in regulation. The material collected will allow developing an ethical framework which may constitute the basis for a more harmonized and consistent socio-ethical and legal approach. This will not only increase the possibilities for comparison between data generated but may also allow for more equality in the protection of the rights of European citizens and establish trustful relationships between science and society, based on firmly rooted ethical values within the EU legislative framework.These considerations outline part of the research on legal, socio-ethical and communication aspects of HBM within the scope of ECNIS (NoE) and NewGeneris (IP).
    • Research on the socio-ethical impact of biomarker use and the communication processes in ECNIS NoE and NewGeneris IP.

      Dumez, Birgit; Van Damme, Karel; Casteleyn, Ludwine (Elsevier, 2007-05)
      Current research projects using human biomarkers in their search for better knowledge on the interaction between environment and human health are facing sensitive ethical issues. Researchers may be put in situations in which it is unclear how to act in accordance with all necessary legal requirements on ethical aspects of research. As a consequence, scientific opportunities and important developments of which many individuals will benefit, may be missed. Sound scientific research in the field of environment and health may benefit from a "rethinking" of current theoretical frameworks and procedures issuing from clinical medicine, putting emphasis on decisional autonomy and the protection of the individual and to a much lesser degree taking into account the concept of "public interest". The protection of individuals participating in studies in the field of environmental health calls, e.g., new communication strategies from recruitment to debriefing, at individual as well as at societal levels. Research on the socio ethical aspects on HBM within ECNIS and Newgeneris is situated at the interface of science, ethics and law and should be considered in the context of one final goal: contributing to guidelines for a harmonized socio-ethical and legal approach of human biomonitoring activities in the EU, including procedures for effective and appropriate communication both a the individual and at the collective level, resulting in a European research atmosphere in which scientific research related to development and use of human biomarkers is promoted, and in which a simultaneous protection of the rights and dignity of the study subjects is guaranteed. A harmonized socio-ethical and legal approach not only increases the possibilities for comparison between data generated but may also allow for more equality in the protection of the rights of each citizen of the European Union.
    • Research on the socio-ethical impact of biomarker use and the communication processes in ECNIS NoE and NewGeneris IP.

      Dumez, Birgit; Van Damme, Karel; Casteleyn, Ludwine (2007-05)
      Current research projects using human biomarkers in their search for better knowledge on the interaction between environment and human health are facing sensitive ethical issues. Researchers may be put in situations in which it is unclear how to act in accordance with all necessary legal requirements on ethical aspects of research. As a consequence, scientific opportunities and important developments of which many individuals will benefit, may be missed. Sound scientific research in the field of environment and health may benefit from a "rethinking" of current theoretical frameworks and procedures issuing from clinical medicine, putting emphasis on decisional autonomy and the protection of the individual and to a much lesser degree taking into account the concept of "public interest". The protection of individuals participating in studies in the field of environmental health calls, e.g., new communication strategies from recruitment to debriefing, at individual as well as at societal levels. Research on the socio ethical aspects on HBM within ECNIS and Newgeneris is situated at the interface of science, ethics and law and should be considered in the context of one final goal: contributing to guidelines for a harmonized socio-ethical and legal approach of human biomonitoring activities in the EU, including procedures for effective and appropriate communication both a the individual and at the collective level, resulting in a European research atmosphere in which scientific research related to development and use of human biomarkers is promoted, and in which a simultaneous protection of the rights and dignity of the study subjects is guaranteed. A harmonized socio-ethical and legal approach not only increases the possibilities for comparison between data generated but may also allow for more equality in the protection of the rights of each citizen of the European Union.
    • Revised assignment of absolute configuration of the cis- and trans-N6-deoxyadenosine adducts at C14 of (+/-)-11beta,12alpha-dihydroxy-13alpha,14alpha-epoxy-11,12,13,14-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene by stereoselective synthesis.

      Yagi, Haruhiko; Frank, Heinrich; Seidel, Albrecht; Jerina, Donald M. (2008-12)
      We have reassigned relative and absolute configurations by unambiguous stereoselective syntheses of the cis- (13s and 13R) and trans-N6-deoxyadenosine (dAdo) adduct diastereomers (14S and 14R) derived from (+/-)-11beta,12alpha-dihydroxy-13alpha,14alpha-epoxy-11,12,13,14-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P DE-2), previously reported by Li et al. [(1999) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 12, 758-767]. Two stereoselective methods, asymmetric aminohydroxylation of the (+/-)-trans-11,12-dihydrodiol (3) with 3',5'-di-O-(tert -butyldimethylsilyl)-2'-deoxyadenosine (4) and the highly stereoselective cis addition of 4 to (+/-)-DB[a,l]P DE-2 in hexafluoropropan-2-ol (HFP), were employed. Both afforded a 1:1 mixture of the cis-N6-dAdo adduct diastereomers, which were separated as triacetates (5S and 5R) in comparable yields (approximately 80%). The corresponding trans adduct diastereomers (10S and 10R) were obtained by coupling the aminotriol derived from trans opening of (+/-)-DB[a,l]P DE-2 with 6-fluoro-(2'-deoxy-3,5-di-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-beta-D-erythro-pentafuranosyl)purine (9) and subsequent acetylation in approximately 70% yield. The cis-5S and -5R and trans-10S and -10R were separately treated with 7% HF-pyridine followed by ammonolysis in NH3-saturated MeOH to give the dAdo adducts with all hydroxyl groups free (13S, 13R, 14S, and 14R). Comparison of the 1H NMR and CD spectra of these presently synthesized dAdo adducts with spectra of the previously reported compounds revealed that the interpretation of the 1H NMR and CD spectra and assignment of the relative stereochemistry (cis/trans) and absolute configuration made by Li et al. were at variance with our results. The above highly stereoselective syntheses of (+/-)-DB[a,l]P DE-2 adducted dAdo derivatives enabled efficient preparation of each of the four possible stereoisomeric 5'-dimethoxytrityl-3'-phosphoramidites for use in oligonucleotide synthesis.
    • Role of cAMP in mediating AHR signaling.

      Oesch-Bartlomowicz, Barbara; Oesch, Franz (2009-02-15)
      Regulation of the nuclear import of many transcription factors represents a step in gene regulation which is crucial for a number of cellular processes. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a basic helix-loop-helix protein of the PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) family of transcriptional regulators is a cytosol-associated and ligand-activated receptor. The environmental toxin dioxin binds with high affinity to AHR rendering it nuclear and leading to the activation of AHR sensitive genes. However, the fact, that the AHR mediates a large variety of physiological events without the involvement of any known exogenous ligand, including liver and vascular system development, maturation of the immune system, regulation of genes involved in cellular growth, cell differentiation and circadian rhythm, speaks for an important role of AHR in cell biology independent of the presence of an exogenous ligand. Different approaches were applied to study mechanism(s) which render AHR nuclear and design its function in absence of exogenous ligands. We found that AHR is sensitive to cAMP signaling mediated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) which fundamentally differs from AHR signaling mediated by the exogenous ligand dioxin. It has been shown that PKA mediated signaling can be confined by compartmentalization of signaling components in microdomains conferring specificity to signaling by the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP. Moreover, A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) and newly discovered cAMP receptors, Epac (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP), may give us a further chance to enter into new dimensions of cAMP signal transmissions that potentially may bring us closer to AHR physiology.
    • The role of glutathione in the regulation of nucleotide excision repair during oxidative stress.

      Langie, Sabine A.S.; Knaapen, Ad M.; Houben, Joyce M.J.; van Kempen, Frederik C.; de Hoon, Joep P.J.; Gottschalk, Ralph W.H.; Godschalk, Roger W.L.; van Schooten, Frederik J. (2007-02-05)
      Nucleotide excision repair (NER) mainly repairs bulky DNA adducts and helix distorting lesions, but is additionally considered to be a back-up system for base excision repair to remove oxidative stress induced DNA damage. Therefore, it can be speculated that NER is up-regulated or primed by oxidative stress. Exposure of human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) to non-toxic doses of 100muM H(2)O(2) indeed showed a 2 to 4.5-fold increase in expression of XPA, XPC, ERCC4, and ERCC5, whereas the expression of ERCC1 was 5-fold decreased. Phenotypical assessment of NER capacity (i.e. recognition and incision of benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adducts) showed a significant decrease to less than 50% after H(2)O(2) exposure, which paralleled the effects of H(2)O(2) on ERCC1 expression. To study the possible involvement of glutathione (GSH) in the regulation of NER, cells were pre-incubated with 0.5mM BSO, resulting in total GSH depletion and increased intracellular oxidative stress. In GSH-depleted cells, the down-regulation of ERCC1 expression by H(2)O(2) was completely abolished and the up-regulation of ERCC4 expression was potentiated from 2.5-fold to >10-fold. Similarly, the H(2)O(2)-induced decrease in NER capacity was absent in GSH-depleted cells. Overall, our data suggest that NER capacity as well as the expression of NER related genes can be modulated by oxidative stress. ERCC1 expression and NER capacity correlated strongly (R(2)=0.85, P<0.01) after oxidant exposure, indicating ERCC1 as a specific target for oxidative stress induced modification of NER.
    • Role of GSTT1 deletion in DNA oxidative damage by exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in humans.

      Garte, Seymour; Taioli, Emanuela; Popov, Todor; Kalina, Ivan; Sram, Radim; Farmer, Peter (2007-06-01)
      A useful approach for studies on the mechanisms of genetic variation in cancer susceptibility is to use intermediary biochemical endpoints with mechanistic relevance to the genes under study. We examined the effects of individual genotype at seven metabolic gene loci on a marker of oxidative DNA damage, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine, in people exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from three Central European cities. The GSTT1 homozygous deletion variant was associated with a significant protective effect for exposure to total PAHs and to eight specific PAHs, although the magnitude and significance of the effect varied among these compounds. Categorical sensitivity analysis was used to determine that the frequency of the GSTT1 deletion was significantly higher in people who proved to be more resistant to the DNA damaging effects of PAH exposure than in people who were the most sensitive. There is a growing literature on the protective effect of GSTT1 deletion in both disease and intermediary endpoints related to environmental carcinogenesis. The mechanism for this effect might be related to specific PAH substrate specificities, or could be related to other functions of GSTT1 gene in oxidative stress induced damage pathways.
    • Role of hepatic cytochromes P450 in bioactivation of the anticancer drug ellipticine: studies with the hepatic NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase null mouse.

      Stiborova, Marie; Arlt, Volker M.; Henderson, Colin J.; Wolf, C. Roland; Kotrbova, Vera; Moserova, Michaela; Hudecek, Jiri; Phillips, David H.; Frei, Eva (2008-02-01)
      Ellipticine is an antineoplastic agent, which forms covalent DNA adducts mediated by cytochromes P450 (CYP) and peroxidases. We evaluated the role of hepatic versus extra-hepatic metabolism of ellipticine, using the HRN (Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Reductase Null) mouse model, in which cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is deleted in hepatocytes, resulting in the loss of essentially all hepatic CYP function. HRN and wild-type (WT) mice were treated i.p. with 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight of ellipticine. Multiple ellipticine-DNA adducts detected by (32)P-postlabelling were observed in organs from both mouse strains. Highest total DNA binding levels were found in liver, followed by lung, kidney, urinary bladder, colon and spleen. Ellipticine-DNA adduct levels in the liver of HRN mice were up to 65% lower relative to WT mice, confirming the importance of CYP enzymes for the activation of ellipticine in livers, recently shown in vitro with human and rat hepatic microsomes. When hepatic microsomes of both mouse strains were incubated with ellipticine, ellipticine-DNA adduct levels with WT microsomes were up to 2.9-fold higher than with those from HRN mice. The ratios of ellipticine-DNA adducts in extra-hepatic organs between HRN and WT mice of up to 4.7 suggest that these organs can activate ellipticine and that more ellipticine is available in the circulation. These results and the DNA adduct patterns found in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that both CYP1A or 3A and peroxidases participate in activation of ellipticine to reactive species forming DNA adducts in the mouse model used in this study.
    • Rotating night shift work and mammographic density.

      Peplonska, Beata; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Sobala, Wojciech; Reszka, Edyta; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Lie, Jenny Anne; Kjuus, Helge; Ursin, Giske (2012-07)
      An increased risk of breast cancer has been observed in night shift workers. Exposure to artificial light at night and disruption of the endogenous circadian rhythm with suppression of the melatonin synthesis have been suggested mechanisms. We investigated the hypothesis that rotating night shift work is associated with mammographic density.
    • Rotating night shift work and polymorphism of genes important for the regulation of circadian rhythm.

      Reszka, Edyta; Peplonska, Beata; Wieczorek, Edyta; Sobala, Wojciech; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Lie, Jenny-Anne; Kjuus, Helge; Wasowicz, Wojciech (2013-03-01)
      People living in industrialized societies have developed specific working schedules during the day and at night, including permanent night shifts and rotating night shifts. The aim of this study was to examine the association between circadian polymorphisms and rotating night shift work.