• Harmonising measurements of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in cellular DNA and urine.

      Moller, Peter; Cooke, Marcus S.; Collins, Andrew; Olinski, Ryszard; Rozalski, Rafal; Loft, Steffen (2012-04)
      Levels of oxidatively damaged cellular DNA and urinary excretion of damaged 2'-deoxyribonuclosides are widely measured in biomonitoring studies examining the role of oxidative stress induced by environmental exposures, lifestyle factors and development of disease. This has promoted efforts to harmonise measurements of oxidised guanine nucleobases by the variety of analytical approaches for DNA and urinary levels of damage, in multi-laboratory trials that are centred in Europe. The large inter-laboratory variation reported of values of oxidatively damaged DNA is reduced by harmonising assay protocols. Recent attention on optimal conditions for the comet assay may lead to better understanding of the most critical steps in procedure, which generate variation in DNA damage levels between laboratories. Measurements of urinary excretion of oxidatively generated 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine also show large differences between different methods, where chromatographic techniques generally show more reliable results than antibody-based methods. In this case, standardising calibrants is aimed at improving within technique agreement.
    • Heterocyclic aromatic amine intake increases colorectal adenoma risk: findings from a prospective European cohort study.

      Rohrmann, Sabine; Hermann, Silke; Linseisen, Jakob (2009-05)
      BACKGROUND: Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs), which arise from cooking meat and fish at high temperatures, may increase the risk of colorectal adenomas. Conversely, flavonoids might counteract the negative effects of HCAs. OBJECTIVE: The association between dietary HCA intake and colorectal adenoma incidence was investigated in a prospective cohort study. DESIGN: At recruitment (1994-1998), detailed information on diet, anthropometric measures, lifestyle, and medication use was assessed in 25,540 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Heidelberg cohort study. Dietary HCA intake was estimated by using information from food-frequency questionnaires on meat consumption, applied cooking methods, and preferred degree of browning. Until June 2007, 516 verified incident colorectal adenomas were identified. Participants with negative colonoscopy (n = 3966) were also included in the analytic cohort. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between colorectal adenoma risk and intake of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-3,4,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx). RESULTS: In multivariate analyses, the intake of PhIP as the most abundant dietary HCA was associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma (relative risk: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.93; quartile 4 compared with quartile 1; P for trend = 0.002), but no statistically significant associations were observed for MeIQx and DiMeIQx intakes. In addition, adenoma risk also increased with the consumption of strongly or extremely browned meat (P for trend = 0.04). The association of PhIP intake with adenoma risk was most pronounced for small adenomas (P for trend = 0.01) and adenomas localized in the distal colon (P for trend = 0.002). CONCLUSION: The results of this first European cohort study support data from case-control studies of a positive association between HCA intake and colorectal adenoma risk.
    • A high intake of dietary fiber influences C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, but not glucose and lipid metabolism, in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

      Johansson-Persson, Anna; Ulmius, Matilda; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Karhu, Toni; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Onning, Gunilla (2013-02-07)
      PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate how a diet high in dietary fiber, with several fiber sources included, modulates glucose and lipid metabolism and the inflammatory response in humans. METHODS: Subjects (n = 25) aged 58.6 (1.1) years (mean and SD) with a BMI of 26.6 (0.5) kg/m(2) and a total cholesterol (TC) of 5.8 (0.1) mmol/L (mean and SEM) were given a high fiber (HF) and low fiber (LF) diet, in a randomized controlled 5-week crossover intervention, separated by a 3-week washout. The HF diet consisted of oat bran, rye bran, and sugar beet fiber incorporated into test food products; one bread roll, one ready meal, and two beverages consumed daily. Equivalent food products, without added fibers, were provided in the LF diet. RESULTS: Total dietary fiber intake was 48.0 g and 30.2 g per day for the HF and LF diet, respectively. Significant reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) was observed between the diets (P = 0.017) and a significant reduction in fibrinogen within the HF diet (P = 0.044). There were no significant effects in other measured circulating cytokines or in glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that a 5-week high dietary fiber intake of oat bran, rye bran, and sugar beet fiber might reduce the low-grade inflammatory response measured as CRP which could, together with reduced fibrinogen, help to prevent the risk of cardiovascular disease.
    • Higher leukocyte 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and lower plasma ascorbate in aging humans?

      Siomek, Agnieszka; Gackowski, Daniel; Rozalski, Rafal; Dziaman, Tomasz; Szpila, Anna; Guz, Jolanta; Olinski, Ryszard (2007-01)
      Is oxidative damage of DNA responsible for physiological changes associated with aging? The authors note a positive correlation between the age of human subjects with the level of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in leukocyte DNA. The levels of urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine and 8-oxodG followed the same pattern of correlation. Age-dependent decline in the concentration of plasma vitamin C was also evident. These interesting observations in humans point towards the need to scrutinize in detail the role of oxidative DNA damage and compromised antioxidant defense systems in age-related physiological disorders.
    • hOGG1(326), XRCC1(399) and XRCC3(241) polymorphisms influence micronucleus frequencies in human lymphocytes in vivo.

      Mateuca, Raluca A.; Roelants, Mathieu; Iarmarcovai, Gwenaelle; Aka, Peter V.; Godderis, Lode; Tremp, Annie; Bonassi, Stefano; Fenech, Michael; Berge-Lefranc, Jean-Louis; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline (2008-01)
      A pooled analysis of five biomonitoring studies was performed to assess the influence of hOGG1(326), XRCC1(399) and XRCC3(241) gene polymorphisms on micronuclei (MN) frequency in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, as measured by the ex vivo/in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Each study addressed a type of occupational exposure potentially able to induce DNA strand breakage (styrene, ionising radiation, cobalt/hard metal, welding fumes and inorganic arsenite compounds), and therefore MN, as a result of base excision repair and double-strand break repair deficiencies. The effect of genotype, age, exposure to genotoxic agents and smoking habit on MN induction was determined using Poisson regression analysis in 171 occupationally exposed male workers and in 132 non-exposed male referents. The analysis of genotype-genotype, genotype-smoking and genotype-exposure interactions by linear combinations of parameters showed significantly higher MN frequencies in the following subsets: (i) occupationally exposed workers carrying either the Thr/Thr or the Thr/Met XRCC3(241) genotypes compared to their referent counterparts (P < 0.001) and (ii) carriers of the Met/Met XRCC3(241) genotype compared to Thr/Thr XRCC3(241) carriers, as far as they are non-exposed and bear the variant (Ser/Cys or Cys/Cys) hOGG1(326) genotype (P < 0.01). Significantly lower MN frequencies were observed in carriers of the variant hOGG1(326) genotype compared to Ser/Ser hOGG1(326) carriers in the subgroup of non-smokers with Thr/Thr XRCC3(241) genotype (P < 0.01). Stratified analysis by occupational exposure showed a significant MN increase with smoking in occupationally exposed carriers of the Arg/Gln XRCC1(399)genotype (P < 0.001). In contrast, a significant MN decrease with smoking was observed in referents carrying the Ser/Ser hOGG1(326) genotype (P < 0.01). These findings provide evidence that the combination of different DNA repair genes and their interaction with environmental genotoxic agents may modulate MN induction. Understanding the complexity of the relationships between exposure, DNA repair and MN frequencies require larger scale studies and complementary biomarkers.
    • Human and Methodological Sources of Variability in the Measurement of Urinary 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine.

      Barregard, Lars; Moller, Peter; Henriksen, Trine; Mistry, Vilas; Koppen, Gudrun; Rossner, Pavel; Sram, Radim J.; Weimann, Allan; Poulsen, Henrik E.; Nataf, Robert; et al. (2013-01-31)
      Abstract Aims: Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) is a widely used biomarker of oxidative stress. However, variability between chromatographic and ELISA methods hampers interpretation of data, and this variability may increase should urine composition differ between individuals, leading to assay interference. Furthermore, optimal urine sampling conditions are not well defined. We performed inter-laboratory comparisons of 8-oxodG measurement between mass spectrometric-, electrochemical- and ELISA-based methods, using common within-technique calibrants to analyze 8-oxodG-spiked phosphate-buffered saline and urine samples. We also investigated human subject- and sample collection-related variables, as potential sources of variability. Results: Chromatographic assays showed high agreement across urines from different subjects, whereas ELISAs showed far more inter-laboratory variation and generally overestimated levels, compared to the chromatographic assays. Excretion rates in timed 'spot' samples showed strong correlations with 24 h excretion (the 'gold' standard) of urinary 8-oxodG (r(p) 0.67-0.90), although the associations were weaker for 8-oxodG adjusted for creatinine or specific gravity (SG). The within-individual excretion of 8-oxodG varied only moderately between days (CV 17% for 24 h excretion and 20% for first void, creatinine-corrected samples). Innovation: This is the first comprehensive study of both human and methodological factors influencing 8-oxodG measurement, providing key information for future studies with this important biomarker. Conclusion: ELISA variability is greater than chromatographic assay variability, and cannot determine absolute levels of 8-oxodG. Use of standardized calibrants greatly improves intra-technique agreement and, for the chromatographic assays, importantly allows integration of results for pooled analyses. If 24 h samples are not feasible, creatinine- or SG-adjusted first morning samples are recommended.
    • Human biomonitoring in Flanders: some aspects related to study design, future, communication and ethics.

      Hond, Elly Den; Chovanova, Hana; Dumez, Birgit; Keune, Hans; Schoeters, Greet; Teughels, Caroline; Van Campenhout, Karen (2009-06-16)
      Flanders is one of the few places in Europe with a legal basis to perform human biomonitoring (HBM). The HBM study is commissioned, steered and funded by the Flemish government and is carried out by the Center of Expertise for Environment and Health. This research consortium includes scientists from all Flemish universities and two Flemish research institutes. The main purpose of the Flemish HBM program is to establish a surveillance network to make it possible to measure environmental pollution in the population and to investigate the relation between exposure and early health effects. In the first campaign (2001-2006) the question was whether living in different areas in Flanders resulted in a different exposure to environmental pollution. To make the translation of the HBM results into policy measures, the phased action plan was developed. The second cycle of the Flemish HBM programme (2007-2011) is built on two pillars. First, reference values for the Flemish population will be obtained in a representative population sample for a broad series of pollutants. Second, targeted HBM will be performed in specific groups with a concern for environmental pollution pressure, the so-called hot spots. In both parts of the project, emphasis is placed on open and transparent communication and relevant interaction between scientists, policy makers, authorities, stakeholders and the public through a participative process. HBM requires the collaboration of volunteers to donate blood, urine or other bodily tissues, and thus raises inevitable ethical questions. Some aspects showing that communication is at the heart of ethics are presented, as well as some difficulties from within the practices that arise in transnational research context.
    • Identification through microarray gene expression analysis of cellular responses to benzo(a)pyrene and its diol-epoxide that are dependent or independent of p53.

      Hockley, Sarah L.; Arlt, Volker M.; Jahnke, Gunnar; Hartwig, Andrea; Giddings, Ian; Phillips, David H. (2008-01)
      Human colon carcinoma cells (HCT116) differing in p53 status were exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or anti-benzo(a)pyrene-trans-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) and their gene expression responses compared by complementary DNA microarray technology. Exposure of cells to BPDE for up to 24 h resulted in gene expression profiles more distinguishable by duration of exposure than by p53 status, although a subset of genes were identified that had significantly different expression in p53 wild-type (WT) cells relative to p53-null cells. Apoptotic signalling genes were up-regulated in p53-WT cells but not in p53-null cells and, consistent with this, reduced viability and caspase activity were also p53 dependent. BPDE modulated cell cycle and histone genes in both cell lines and, in agreement with this, both cell lines accumulated in S phase. In p53-WT cells, G(2) arrest was also evident, which was associated with accumulation of CDKN1A. Regardless of p53 status, exposure to BaP for up to 48 h had subtle effects on gene transcription and had no influence on cell viability or cell cycle. Interestingly, DNA adduct formation after BaP, but not BPDE, exposure was p53 dependent with 10-fold lower levels detected in p53-null cells. Other cell lines were investigated for BaP-DNA adduct formation and in these the effect of p53 knockdown was also to reduce adduct formation. Taken together, these results give further insight into the role of p53 in the response of human cells to BaP and BPDE and suggest that loss of this tumour suppressor can influence the metabolic activation of BaP.
    • Immunologic profile of excessive body weight.

      Azar Sharabiani, Mansour Taghavi; Vermeulen, Roel; Scoccianti, Chiara; Hosnijeh, Fatemeh Saberi; Minelli, Liliana; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Chiodini, Paolo; et al. (2011-05)
      The purpose of this paper is to identify immunologic hallmarks of excessive bodyweight. The analysis is based on 176 adults (106 women, 70 men) who participated in a nested case-control study in Italy. All participants were healthy at the time of blood collection and aged between 36 and 75 years. We employed multivariate analysis of variance and a nonparametric Bayesian additive regression tree approach along with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to determine the immunologic signature of excessive body weight (i.e., obesity and overweight). Interleukin 8 (IL-8), IL-10, interferon γ, and inducible protein 10 were shown to be predictive of excessive body weight with an area under the ROC curve of 71% (p < 0.0002). We propose that by using this profile-based approach to define immunologic signatures, it might be possible to identify unique immunologic hallmarks of specific types of obesity.
    • The impact of saturable metabolism on exposure-response relations in 2 studies of benzene-induced leukemia.

      Vlaanderen, Jelle; Portengen, Lutzen; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Glass, Deborah C.; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel (2011-09-01)
      Enzymatic saturation of metabolic pathways is one factor that potentially contributes to the nonlinear exposure-response relations that are frequently reported in occupational epidemiologic studies. The authors propose an approach to explore the contribution of saturable metabolism to previously reported exposure-response relations by integrating predictive models of relevant biomarkers of exposure into the epidemiologic analysis. The approach is demonstrated with 2 studies of leukemia in benzene-exposed workers, one conducted in the Australian petroleum industry (1981-1999) and one conducted in a US rubber hydrochloride production factory in Ohio (1940-1996). The studies differed greatly in their magnitudes and durations of exposure. Substitution of biomarker levels for external estimates of benzene exposure reduced the fold difference of the log relative risk of leukemia per unit of cumulative exposure between the 2 studies by 11%-44%. Nevertheless, a considerable difference in the log relative risk per unit of cumulative exposure remained between the 2 studies, suggesting that exposure misclassification, differences in study design, and potential confounding factors also contributed to the heterogeneity in risk estimates.
    • Implications of gene-drug interactions in smoking cessation for improving the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases.

      Quaak, Marieke; van Schayck, Constant P.; Knaapen, Ad M.; van Schooten, Frederik J. (2009-07-10)
      Tobacco smoking continues to be the major preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Recent research strongly suggests that genetic background is associated with several aspects of smoking (e.g. initiation, maintenance, cessation, number of cigarettes smoked, indicators of nicotine dependence (ND) and nicotine withdrawal). Variations in two broad classes of genes have been shown to influence smoking: (1) genes that may influence the response to nicotine (e.g. nicotine metabolism, nicotinic receptors) and (2) genes that may predispose to addictive behaviour via their effects on key neurotransmitter pathways (e.g. dopamine, serotonin and opioid). Since these genetic variants might also influence the response to smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, smoking cessation rates might be increased by determining which treatment would be most effective based on the smoker's genetic background. This is expected to result in a more efficient use of smoking cessation therapies, increased cessation rates and ultimately, in reduced deaths from smoking. Until now, most research on the influence of genetic variation on smoking cessation pharmacotherapy has been directed to the two most widely accepted and licensed forms of smoking cessation therapy: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and the antidepressant bupropion. Overall, genotypes associated with increased dopamine availability seem to predict a better response to bupropion, while smokers with genotypes associated with reduced dopamine levels probably achieve better quit rates with NRT. A decreased metabolism for the drug used (e.g. bupropion or NRT), results in increased cessation rates as well. Furthermore, smokers with reduced dopaminergic and nicotinic receptor activity variants may experience greater benefit from nicotine spray, while smokers with increased activity variants in the opioid receptor may have greater success with transdermal patches. Thus it seems that genetic information may give directions in determining which treatment would be most effective for an individual smoker. However, several challenges will still have to be overcome before genetically tailored smoking cessation therapy can be implemented in standard clinical practice.
    • In vitro mammalian metabolism of the mitosis inhibitor zoxamide and the relationship to its in vitro toxicity.

      Oesch, F.; Metzler, M.; Fabian, E.; Kamp, H.; Bernshausen, T.; Damm, G.; Triebel, S.; Dohmer, J.; Landsiedel, R.; Van Ravenzwaay, B. (2010-01)
      The in vitro mammalian metabolism of the fungicide zoxamide is related to its in vitro mammalian toxicity. After incubation of zoxamide with rat liver microsomes leading to practically 100% metabolism (mostly hydroxylated zoxamide), the cytotoxicity (methyl thiazole tetrazolium (MTT) test) and the mitosis-inhibiting potential (shown by cell count and by cell cycle analysis) for V79 were not distinguishable from those of zoxamide, demonstrating that the hydroxylation of zoxamide did not change the cytotoxicity or mitosis-inhibiting potential as determined by these assays. After incubation of zoxamide with rat liver S9 predominantly leading to conjugation with glutathione, and after incubation of zoxamide with rat liver slices predominantly leading to the glucuronide of the hydroxylated zoxamide, these activities were eliminated demonstrating that the glutathione conjugate and the glucuronide had lost the activities in these assays due either to no intrinsic potential of these conjugates or to their inability to penetrate the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. It is concluded that the metabolic hydroxylation of zoxamide did not change its activity in the assays used for investigating its influence on cell proliferation, cell cycle and cytotoxicity, while the formation of conjugates with glutathione or glucuronic acid led to the apparent loss of these activities. Thus, with zoxamide as a prototype, it was shown that, in principle, mammalian metabolism and its relationship to mammalian detoxication of fungicidal mitosis inhibitors may be reasonably anticipated from in vitro studies. In addition, the results provide a rational for the observed absence of typically mitosis inhibition-associated toxicities of zoxamide in mammals in vivo.
    • Indoor particles affect vascular function in the aged: an air filtration-based intervention study.

      Brauner, Elvira Vaclavik; Forchhammer, Lykke; Moller, Peter; Barregard, Lars; Gunnarsen, Lars; Afshari, Alireza; Wahlin, Peter; Glasius, Marianne; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Basu, Samar; et al. (2008-02-15)
      RATIONALE: Exposure to particulate matter is associated with risk of cardiovascular events, possibly through endothelial dysfunction, and indoor air may be most important. OBJECTIVES: We investigated effects of controlled exposure to indoor air particles on microvascular function (MVF) as the primary endpoint and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress as secondary endpoints in a healthy elderly population. METHODS: A total of 21 nonsmoking couples participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study with two consecutive 48-hour exposures to either particle-filtered or nonfiltered air (2,533-4,058 and 7,718-12,988 particles/cm(3), respectively) in their homes. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: MVF was assessed noninvasively by measuring digital peripheral artery tone after arm ischemia. Secondary endpoints included hemoglobin, red blood cells, platelet count, coagulation factors, P-selectin, plasma amyloid A, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, protein oxidation measured as 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde in plasma, urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha), and blood pressure. Indoor air filtration significantly improved MVF by 8.1% (95% confidence interval, 0.4-16.3%), and the particulate matter (diameter < 2.5 mum) mass of the indoor particles was more important than the total number concentration (10-700 nm) for these effects. MVF was significantly associated with personal exposure to iron, potassium, copper, zinc, arsenic, and lead in the fine fraction. After Bonferroni correction, none of the secondary biomarkers changed significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction of particle exposure by filtration of recirculated indoor air for only 48 hours improved MVF in healthy elderly citizens, suggesting that this may be a feasible way of reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.
    • Influence of aryl hydrocarbon- (Ah) receptor and genotoxins on DNA repair gene expression and cell survival of mouse hepatoma cells.

      Schreck, Ilona; Chudziak, Doreen; Schneider, Sandra; Seidel, Albrecht; Platt, Karl L.; Oesch, Franz; Weiss, Carsten (2009-05-17)
      The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates toxicity of a variety of environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. However, the underlying mechanisms and genetic programmes regulated by AhR to cause adverse effects but also to counteract poisoning are still poorly understood. Here we analysed the effects of two AhR ligands, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a DNA damaging tumour initiator and promotor and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a pure tumour promoter, on cell survival and on nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene expression. NER deals with so called "bulky" DNA adducts including those generated by enzymatically activated B[a]P. Therefore, the hypothesis that AhR may enhance NER gene expression to trigger DNA repair in the presence of genotoxic AhR ligands was tested. Furthermore, we investigated a potential cytoprotective effect of AhR activation by the non-genotoxic ligand TCDD against cell death induced by various genotoxins. Finally, the actions of genotoxins themselves on NER gene expression were studied. As a cell culture model we used mouse hepatoma cells (Hepa-c7) proficient for AhR and its partner protein ARNT as well as subclones deficient in AhR (Hepa-c12) or ARNT (Hepa-c4) to study involvement of AhR and ARNT in response to B[a]P and TCDD. Indeed, the mRNA levels of the two NER genes XP-C and DNA polymerase kappa were increased by B[a]P and TCDD, however, this was not accompanied by an increase in the amount of the respective proteins. Pretreatment of cells with TCDD did not reduce cytotoxicity induced by various genotoxins. Thus, in Hepa-c7 cells AhR has no major effects on the expression of these crucial NER proteins and does not prevent genotoxin-provoked cell death. As expected, the genotoxins B[a]P and cis-platin led to p53 accumulation and induction of its target p21. Interestingly, however, NER gene expression was not enhanced but rather decreased. As two NER genes, XP-C and DNA damage binding protein ddb2, are up-regulated by p53 and ultraviolet radiation in human cells these findings suggest cell type, species or lesion specific actions of p53 on DNA repair gene expression. Importantly, in cells with damaged DNA up-regulation of p53 may not suffice to enhance DNA repair gene expression.
    • The influence of diesel exhaust on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced DNA damage, gene expression, and tumor initiation in Sencar mice in vivo.

      Courter, Lauren A.; Luch, Andreas; Musafia-Jeknic, Tamara; Arlt, Volker M.; Fischer, Kay; Bildfell, Robert; Pereira, Cliff; Phillips, David H.; Poirier, Miriam C.; Baird, William M. (2008-06-28)
      The carcinogenic effects of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are well established. However, their potency within an environmental complex mixture is uncertain. We evaluated the influence of diesel exhaust particulate matter on PAH-induced cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity, PAH-DNA adduct formation, expression of certain candidate genes and the frequency of tumor initiation in the two-stage Sencar mouse model. To this end, we monitored the effects of treatment of mice with diesel exhaust, benzo[a]pyrene (BP), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP), or a combination of diesel exhaust with either carcinogenic PAH. The applied diesel particulate matter (SRM(1975)) altered the tumor initiating potency of DBP: a statistically significant decrease in overall tumor and carcinoma burden was observed following 25 weeks of promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), compared with DBP exposure alone. From those mice that were treated at the beginning of the observation period with 2 nmol DBP all survivors developed tumors (9 out of 9 animals, 100%). Among all tumors counted at the end, nine carcinomas were detected and an overall tumor incidence of 2.6 tumors per tumor-bearing animal (TBA) was determined. By contrast, co-treatment of DBP with 50mg SRM(1975) led to a tumor rate of only 66% (19 out of 29 animals), occurrence of only three carcinomas in 29 animals and an overall rate of 2.1 tumors per TBA (P=0.04). In contrast to the results with DBP, the tumor incidence induced by 200 nmol BP was found slightly increased when co-treatment with SRM(1975) occurred (71% vs. 85% after 25 weeks). Despite this difference in tumor incidence, the numbers of carcinomas and tumors per TBA did not differ statistically significant between both treatment groups possibly due to the small size of the BP treatment group. Since bioactivation of DBP, but not BP, predominantly depends on CYP1B1 enzyme activity, SRM(1975) affected PAH-induced carcinogenesis in an antagonistic manner when CYP1B1-mediated bioactivation was required. The explanation most likely lies in the much stronger inhibitory effects of certain PAHs present in diesel exhaust on CYP1B1 compared to CYP1A1. In the present study we also found molecular markers such as highly elevated AKR1C21 and TNFRSF21 gene expression levels in tumor tissue derived from animals co-treated with SRM(1975) plus DBP. Therefore we validate microarray data as a source to uncover transcriptional signatures that may provide insights into molecular pathways affected following exposure to environmental complex mixtures such as diesel exhaust particulates.
    • Inhibition by vitamin C of apoptosis induced by N-nitrosamines in HepG2 and HL-60 cells.

      Arranz, Nuria; Haza, Ana I.; Garcia, Almudena; Delgado, Ma Eugenia; Rafter, Joseph; Morales, Paloma (2008-08)
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin C towards N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR)- and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma (HepG2) and leukemia (HL-60) cell lines using flow cytometry analysis and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling assay (TUNEL). None of the vitamin C concentrations tested (1-100 microM) caused cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. However, there were significant losses of HL-60 cells viability, measured by MTT assay, 72 h after treatment with 50 and 100 microM vitamin C (29 and 46%, respectively). Moreover, an increase of lactate dehydrogenase release was significant with 50 microM at 72 h (28%) and with 100 microM of vitamin C at 48 and 72 h (27 and 36%, respectively). Also, the percentage of apoptotic HL-60 cells found in TUNEL assay increased to 21% when they were treated with 100 microM vitamin C for 72 h. Thus, in subsequent simultaneous treatments with NPYR (30 and 50 mM) or NDMA (27 and 68 mM) and vitamin C, concentrations of 5-50 microM vitamin C were used. Our results revealed that vitamin C, at all concentrations and times tested, reduced the apoptosis induced by NPYR and NDMA in both cell lines, showing a similar effect in HepG2 and HL-60 cells towards NPYR (50 mM)--65 and 63% of reduction, respectively--whereas towards NDMA (27 mM) the inhibition was higher in HL-60 than in HepG2 cells--75 and 57%, respectively. Therefore, our findings suggest that inhibition of apoptosis may be one of the mechanisms by which vitamin C exerts its protective effect.
    • Intake of fried foods is associated with obesity in the cohort of Spanish adults from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

      Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Fornes, Nelida Schmid; Banegas, Jose R.; Etxezarreta, Pilar Amiano; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Iraeta, Miren Dorronsoro; Larranaga, Nerea Larranaga; et al. (2007-07)
      BACKGROUND: Consumption of fried food has been suggested to promote obesity, but this association has seldom been studied. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the association of energy intake from fried food with general and central obesity in Spain, a Mediterranean country where frying with oil is a traditional cooking procedure. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 33 542 Spanish persons aged 29-69 y who were participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition between 1992 and 1996. Dietary intake was assessed by a diet history questionnaire. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured by trained interviewers. Analyses were performed with logistic regression and were adjusted for total energy intake and other confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of general obesity [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) >or= 30] was 27.6% in men and 27.7% in women. Respective figures for central obesity (waist circumference >or= 102 cm in men and >or= 88 cm in women) were 34.5% and 42.6%. The average proportion of energy intake from fried food was 15.6% in men and 12.6% in women. The adjusted odds ratios for general obesity in the highest versus the lowest quintile of fried food intake were 1.26 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.45; P for trend < 0.001) in men and 1.25 (1.11, 1.41; P for trend < 0.001) in women. The corresponding values for central obesity were 1.17 (1.02, 1.34; P for trend < 0.003) in men and 1.27 (1.13, 1.42; P for trend < 0.001) in women. CONCLUSION: Fried food was positively associated with general and central obesity only among subjects in the highest quintile of energy intake from fried food.
    • Intake of fruits and vegetables and polymorphisms in DNA repair genes in bladder cancer.

      Sacerdote, Carlotta; Matullo, Giuseppe; Polidoro, Silvia; Gamberini, Sara; Piazza, Alberto; Karagas, Margaret R.; Rolle, Luigi; De Stefanis, Paolo; Casetta, Giovanni; Morabito, Francesco; et al. (2007-07)
      The objective is to investigate the relationships between fruit and vegetable intake, DNA repair gene polymorphisms and the risk of bladder cancer. We have analyzed a hospital-based case-control study of 266 individuals with incident, histologically confirmed bladder cancer diagnosed between 1994 and 2003. Controls (n = 193) were patients treated for benign diseases recruited daily in a random fashion from the same hospital as the cases. All cases and controls were interviewed face-to-face for major risk factors, along fruit and vegetable consumption. Odds ratios (ORs) for fruit and vegetable intake and DNA repair gene polymorphisms were adjusted for age and smoking status, using unconditional logistic regression. A statistically significant decreased risk was observed for fruit and vegetable intake above median (versus below the median) [unadjusted OR 0.61, confidence interval (CI) 95% 0.50-0.96 and OR 0.54, CI 95% 0.39-0.80, respectively]; the decreased risk persisted after adjustment for age and cigarette smoking (OR 0.73, CI 95% 0.49-1.01 and OR 0.86, CI 95% 0.56-1.08, respectively). The fruits and vegetables associated with decreased risks included leafy green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, apples and citrus fruits. We did not find any interactions between DNA repair gene polymorphisms and fruit and vegetable intake. This study found a reduced risk associated with fruit and vegetable intake. No interaction was observed between fruit and vegetable consumption and DNA repair gene polymorphisms.
    • Intake of heterocyclic aromatic amines from meat in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort.

      Rohrmann, Sabine; Zoller, Dorothee; Hermann, Silke; Linseisen, Jakob (2007-12)
      It was the aim of the present study to estimate the intake of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA) from meat, which have been associated with cancer risk in several epidemiological studies, of 21 462 subjects who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) in Heidelberg. This was accomplished by using a detailed dietary questionnaire that assessed meat consumption, cooking methods, and degree of browning of the respective food items. Median total HCA intake from meat was 31 ng/d (mean 69 ng/d), which was lower than results observed in previous studies. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine was the most common HCA in this cohort (median 17; mean 48 ng/d). The present study offers the opportunity of a detailed examination of the associations between meat cooking as well as HCA intake from meat and cancer risk in a prospective way.