• DNA damage and acute toxicity caused by the urban air pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone in rats: characterization of DNA adducts in eight different tissues and organs with synthesized standards.

      Nagy, Eszter; Adachi, Shuichi; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Zeisig, Magnus; Moller, Lennart (2006-08)
      3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is an urban air pollutant and rat lung carcinogen that is among the most potent mutagens yet tested in the Salmonella reversion assay. In the present study, 1 mg 3-NBA was administered orally to female F344 rats and DNA adduct formation was examined in liver, lung, kidney and five sections of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract at 6 hr, and 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 days after administration. The DNA adduct patterns, analyzed by (32)P-postlabelling followed by HPLC separation, were similar in all tissues and organs. Five of the adduct peaks cochromatographed with synthesized DNA adduct standards. Three of these unequivocally determined standards, dGp-C8-N-ABA, dGp-N2-C2-ABA, and dAp-N6-C2-ABA, were of the nonacetylated type, suggesting that at least part of the pathway for activation of 3-NBA proceeds through O-acetylation of the hydroxylamine intermediate. The two other DNA adduct standards, dGp-C8-C2-N-Ac-ABA, and dGp-N2-C2-N-Ac-ABA, were of the acetylated type, but there was some ambiguity in the characterization of these DNA adducts, since they varied inconsistently between samples and they also aligned with peaks found in controls. At 6 hr after treatment, the level of DNA adducts was highest in glandular stomach (relative adduct labeling (RAL), approximately 70 adducts/10(8) normal nucleotides (NN)); adduct levels in this organ decreased at 24 hr, but increased afterwards. DNA adduct levels in the majority of organs were characterized by an early increase (from 6 hr to 3 days), which was followed by a decrease at 5 days and a maximum level 10 days after administration (RAL approximately 120 adducts/10(8) NN for the lung, kidney and glandular stomach, approximately 80 adducts/10(8) NN for the forestomach and ceacum, and approximately 40 adducts/10(8) NN for the liver, small intestine, and colon). This pattern was consistent with pathological observations during autopsy showing high levels of tissue damage in the GI tract; the tissue damage included hemorrhages, loss of villous surface structure in the small intestine, as well as intestine fragility and oedema of the adipose tissue around the GI-tract. Tissue damage decreased and DNA adduct levels increased at 10 days after administration. These observations suggest that 3-NBA not only exerts acute toxic effects, but that the bioavailability is affected by storage in tissues and later becomes available, resulting in the increased DNA adduct levels at the later time points of collection.
    • DNA damage in rats after a single oral exposure to diesel exhaust particles.

      Danielsen, Pernille Hogh; Risom, Lotte; Wallin, Hakan; Autrup, Herman; Vogel, Ulla; Loft, Steffen; Moller, Peter (2008-01-01)
      The gastrointestinal route of exposure to particulate matter is important because particles are ingested via contaminated foods and inhaled particles are swallowed when removed from the airways by the mucociliary clearance system. We investigated the effect of an intragastric administration by oral gavage of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in terms of DNA damage, oxidative stress and DNA repair in colon epithelial cells, liver, and lung of rats. Eight rats per group were exposed to Standard Reference Material 2975 at 0.064 or 0.64 mg/kg bodyweight for 6 and 24 h. Increased levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine lesions were observed at the highest dose after 6 and 24 h in all three organs. 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine is repaired by oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1); upregulation of this repair system was observed as elevated pulmonary OGG1 mRNA levels after 24 h at both doses of DEP, but not in the colon and liver. A general response of the antioxidant defence system is further indicated by elevated levels of heme oxygenase 1 mRNA in the liver and lung 24 h after administration. The level of bulky DNA adducts was increased in liver and lung at both doses after 6 and 24h (DNA adducts in colon epithelium were not investigated). In summary, DEP administered via the gastrointestinal tract at low doses relative to ambient exposure generates DNA damage and increase the expression of defence mechanisms in organs such as the lung and liver. The oral exposure route should be taken into account in risk assessment of particulate matter.