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Higher leukocyte 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and lower plasma ascorbate in aging humans?Is oxidative damage of DNA responsible for physiological changes associated with aging? The authors note a positive correlation between the age of human subjects with the level of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in leukocyte DNA. The levels of urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine and 8-oxodG followed the same pattern of correlation. Age-dependent decline in the concentration of plasma vitamin C was also evident. These interesting observations in humans point towards the need to scrutinize in detail the role of oxidative DNA damage and compromised antioxidant defense systems in age-related physiological disorders.
Human and Methodological Sources of Variability in the Measurement of Urinary 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine.Abstract Aims: Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) is a widely used biomarker of oxidative stress. However, variability between chromatographic and ELISA methods hampers interpretation of data, and this variability may increase should urine composition differ between individuals, leading to assay interference. Furthermore, optimal urine sampling conditions are not well defined. We performed inter-laboratory comparisons of 8-oxodG measurement between mass spectrometric-, electrochemical- and ELISA-based methods, using common within-technique calibrants to analyze 8-oxodG-spiked phosphate-buffered saline and urine samples. We also investigated human subject- and sample collection-related variables, as potential sources of variability. Results: Chromatographic assays showed high agreement across urines from different subjects, whereas ELISAs showed far more inter-laboratory variation and generally overestimated levels, compared to the chromatographic assays. Excretion rates in timed 'spot' samples showed strong correlations with 24 h excretion (the 'gold' standard) of urinary 8-oxodG (r(p) 0.67-0.90), although the associations were weaker for 8-oxodG adjusted for creatinine or specific gravity (SG). The within-individual excretion of 8-oxodG varied only moderately between days (CV 17% for 24 h excretion and 20% for first void, creatinine-corrected samples). Innovation: This is the first comprehensive study of both human and methodological factors influencing 8-oxodG measurement, providing key information for future studies with this important biomarker. Conclusion: ELISA variability is greater than chromatographic assay variability, and cannot determine absolute levels of 8-oxodG. Use of standardized calibrants greatly improves intra-technique agreement and, for the chromatographic assays, importantly allows integration of results for pooled analyses. If 24 h samples are not feasible, creatinine- or SG-adjusted first morning samples are recommended.
Urinary measurement of 8-OxodG, 8-OxoGua, and 5HMUra: a noninvasive assessment of oxidative damage to DNA.Numerous DNA repair pathways exist to prevent the persistence of damage, and are integral to the maintenance of genome stability, and hence prevention of disease. Excised lesions arising from repair may ultimately appear in the urine where their measurement has been acknowledged to be reflective of overall oxidative stress. The development of reliable assays to measure urinary DNA lesions, such as HPLC prepurification followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, offers the potential to assess whole body oxidative DNA damage. However, some studies suggest a possibility that confounding factors may contribute to urinary levels of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2 -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). This article considers several possible sources of urinary lesions: (a) the repair of oxidatively damaged DNA; (b) a possible dietary influence; and (c) cell death. The authors conclude that data from their laboratories, along with a number of literature reports, form an argument against a contribution from cell death and diet. In the absence of these confounding factors, urinary measurements may be attributed entirely to the repair of DNA damage and suggests their possible use in studying associations between DNA repair and disease.