• Association between total number of deaths, diabetes mellitus, incident cancers, and haplotypes in chromosomal region 8q24 in a prospective study.

      Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Polidoro, Silvia; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Allione, Alessandra; Rosa, Fabio; Voglino, Floriana; Critelli, Rossana; Russo, Alessia; Vineis, Paolo; et al. (2012-03-15)
      The 8q24 region is a gene desert, although chromosomal aberrations and somatic amplification involving this region, including translocations involving the protooncogene c-MYC, have been frequently reported in people with cancer. To investigate the role of variants in 8q24 region, the authors analyzed data from a prospective study (n = 10,372 participants who were followed for 11 years) in which a large number of health events (>1,500) occurred (1993-1998). They genotyped all subjects for 5 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs672888, rs1447295, rs9642880, rs16901979, and rs6983267) that were identified in previous genome-wide scans. Although significant associations with individual single nucleotide polymorphisms were small in magnitude, the authors observed higher increases in the risks of different types of cancer with specific haplotypes, particularly when subjects were homozygous for the haplotype: for breast cancer and homozygotes for haplotype CAGCT, hazard ratio = 3.40, 95% confidence interval: 1.24, 9.21; for prostate cancer and grouped rare haplotypes, hazard ratio = 7.43, 95% confidence interval: 3.00, 18.37; and for brain cancer and homozygotes for haplotype CGGCT, hazard ratio = 13.48, 95% confidence interval: 3.00, 59.53. Significant associations were also observed between haplotypes and deaths from cardiovascular diseases and cerebrovascular diseases; the most stable association was between homozygotes for haplotypes CGTCG and CAGCT and total deaths in men (hazard ratio = 3.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.8, 6.9, and hazard ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3, 6.4, respectively). In conclusion, the authors have observed a strong pleiotropic effect of the 8q24 region in a large prospective study. This observation can shed light on the mechanisms underlying reported associations between 8q24 variants and disparate chronic diseases.
    • The impact of saturable metabolism on exposure-response relations in 2 studies of benzene-induced leukemia.

      Vlaanderen, Jelle; Portengen, Lutzen; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Glass, Deborah C.; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel (2011-09-01)
      Enzymatic saturation of metabolic pathways is one factor that potentially contributes to the nonlinear exposure-response relations that are frequently reported in occupational epidemiologic studies. The authors propose an approach to explore the contribution of saturable metabolism to previously reported exposure-response relations by integrating predictive models of relevant biomarkers of exposure into the epidemiologic analysis. The approach is demonstrated with 2 studies of leukemia in benzene-exposed workers, one conducted in the Australian petroleum industry (1981-1999) and one conducted in a US rubber hydrochloride production factory in Ohio (1940-1996). The studies differed greatly in their magnitudes and durations of exposure. Substitution of biomarker levels for external estimates of benzene exposure reduced the fold difference of the log relative risk of leukemia per unit of cumulative exposure between the 2 studies by 11%-44%. Nevertheless, a considerable difference in the log relative risk per unit of cumulative exposure remained between the 2 studies, suggesting that exposure misclassification, differences in study design, and potential confounding factors also contributed to the heterogeneity in risk estimates.
    • Meta- and pooled analyses of the cytochrome P-450 1B1 Val432Leu polymorphism and breast cancer: a HuGE-GSEC review.

      Paracchini, Valentina; Raimondi, Sara; Gram, Inger T.; Kang, Daehee; Kocabas, Neslihan A.; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Li, Donghui; Parl, Fritz F.; Rylander-Rudqvist, Tove; Soucek, Pavel; et al. (2007-01-15)
      The association between the cytochrome P-450 1B1 (CYP1B1) Val432Leu polymorphism and breast cancer was assessed through a meta-analysis of all published case-control studies and a pooled analysis of both published and unpublished case-control studies from the Genetic Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens (GSEC) database ( www.upci.upmc.edu/research/ccps/ccontrol/g_intro.html ). GSEC is a collaborative project that gathers information on studies of metabolic gene polymorphisms and cancer. Thirteen articles were included in the meta-analysis (14,331 subjects; 7,514 cases, 6,817 controls); nine data sets were included in the pooled analysis (6,842 subjects; 3,391 cases, 3,451 controls). A summary meta- or pooled estimate of the association between the CYP1B1 Val432Leu polymorphism and breast cancer could not be calculated because of statistically significant heterogeneity in the point estimates among studies. No association between the CYP1B1 Val432Leu polymorphism and breast cancer was observed in Asians (for Val/Val and Val/Leu combined, odds ratio (OR) = 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8, 1.2). An inverse association was observed in populations of mixed/African origin (OR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7, 0.9). The pooled analysis suggested a possible association in Caucasians (for Val/Val and Val/Leu combined, OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1), with effect modification across age categories. The observed effect of age on the association in Caucasians indicates that further studies are needed on the role of CYP1B1 Val432Leu in estrogen metabolism according to age, ethnicity, and menopausal status.
    • Meta- and pooled analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk: a huge-GSEC review.

      Boccia, Stefania; Hung, Rayjean; Ricciardi, Gualtiero; Gianfagna, Francesco; Ebert, Matthias P.A.; Fang, Jing-Yuan; Gao, Chang-Ming; Gotze, Tobias; Graziano, Francesco; Lacasana-Navarro, Marina; et al. (2008-03-01)
      Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of folate, whose role in gastric carcinogenesis is controversial. The authors performed a meta-analysis and individual data pooled analysis of case-control studies that examined the association between C677T and A1298C polymorphisms (the former being associated with low folate serum levels) and gastric cancer (meta-analyses: 16 studies, 2,727 cases and 4,640 controls for C677T and seven studies, 1,223 cases and 2,015 controls for A1298C; pooled analyses: nine studies, 1,540 cases and 2,577 controls for C677T and five studies, 1,146 cases and 1,549 controls for A1298C). An increased risk was found for MTHFR 677 TT in the meta-analysis (odds ratio (OR) = 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31, 1.77) and pooled analysis (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.95). No association resulted for MTHFR 1298 CC (meta-OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.35; pooled OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.69, 1.34). Results from the pooled analysis of four studies on C677T stratified according to folate levels showed an increased risk for individuals with low (OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.13, 3.72) versus high (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.67) folate levels. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis that folate plays a role in gastric carcinogenesis.
    • Meta- and pooled analysis of GSTT1 and lung cancer: a HuGE-GSEC review.

      Raimondi, S.; Paracchini, V.; Autrup, H.; Barros-Dios, J.M.; Benhamou, S.; Boffetta, P.; Cote, M.L.; Dialyna, I.A.; Dolzan, V.; Filiberti, R.; et al. (2006-12-01)
      Lung cancer is the most common malignancy in the Western world, and the main risk factor is tobacco smoking. Polymorphisms in metabolic genes may modulate the risk associated with environmental factors. The glutathione S-transferase theta 1 gene (GSTT1) is a particularly attractive candidate for lung cancer susceptibility because of its involvement in the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in tobacco smoke and of other chemicals, pesticides, and industrial solvents. The frequency of the GSTT1 null genotype is lower among Caucasians (10-20%) than among Asians (50-60%). The authors present a meta- and a pooled analysis of case-control, genotype-based studies that examined the association between GSTT1 and lung cancer (34 studies, 7,629 cases and 10,087 controls for the meta-analysis; 34 studies, 7,044 cases and 10,000 controls for the pooled analysis). No association was observed between GSTT1 deletion and lung cancer for Caucasians (odds ratio (OR) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 1.12); for Asians, a positive association was found (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.49). In the pooled analysis, the odds ratios were not significant for either Asians (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.13) or Caucasians (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.21). No significant interaction was observed between GSTT1 and smoking on lung cancer, whereas GSTT1 appeared to modulate occupational-related lung cancer.
    • Pooled analysis and meta-analysis of the glutathione S-transferase P1 Ile 105Val polymorphism and bladder cancer: a HuGE-GSEC review.

      Kellen, Eliane; Hemelt, Marjolein; Broberg, Karin; Golka, Klaus; Kristensen, Vessela Nedelcheva; Hung, Rayjean J.; Matullo, Giuseppe; Mittal, Rama D.; Porru, Stefano; Povey, Andrew; et al. (2007-06-01)
      The glutathione S-transferase P1 genotype (GSTP1) is involved in the inactivation of cigarette smoke carcinogens, and sequence variation in the gene may alter bladder cancer susceptibility. To examine the association between GSTP1Ile 105Val and bladder cancer, the authors undertook a meta- and pooled analysis. Summary crude and adjusted odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were pooled by using a random-effects model. In the meta-analysis (16 studies, 4,273 cases and 5,081 controls), the unadjusted summary odds ratios for GSTP1 Ile/Val and Val/Val compared with GSTP1 Ile/Ile were 1.54 (95% confidence interval: 1.21, 1.99; p < 0.001) and 2.17 (95% confidence interval: 1.27, 3.71; p = 0.005). The association appeared to be the strongest in Asian countries. When the analysis was limited to European descendents (nine studies), the summary odds ratio decreased (odds ratio = 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.52) (Q = 17.50; p = 0.02). All relevant data previously contributed to the International Study on Genetic Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens were pooled (eight studies, 1,305 cases and 1,558 controls). The summary odds ratios were similar to the ones from the meta-analysis. Case-only analyses did not detect an interaction between the GSTP1 genotype and smoking status (never/ever). GSTP1 Ile 105Val appears to be associated with a modest increase in the risk of bladder cancer.