• Appendix 2. Heterocyclic aromatic amines.

      The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 2007
    • Appendix 3. 1-Hydroxypyrene.

      The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 2007
    • Appendix 4. Oxidative damage to DNA.

      The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 2007
    • Application of OMICS technologies in occupational and environmental health research; current status and projections.

      Vlaanderen, J.; Moore, L. E.; Smith, M. T.; Lan, Q.; Zhang, L.; Skibola, C. F.; Rothman, N.; Vermeulen, R. (2010-02)
      OMICS technologies are relatively new biomarker discovery tools that can be applied to study large sets of biological molecules. Their application in human observational studies (HOS) has become feasible in recent years due to a spectacular increase in the sensitivity, resolution and throughput of OMICS-based assays. Although, the number of OMICS techniques is ever expanding, the five most developed OMICS technologies are genotyping, transcriptomics, epigenomics, proteomics and metabolomics. These techniques have been applied in HOS to various extents. However, their application in occupational environmental health (OEH) research has been limited. Here, we will discuss the opportunities these new techniques provide for OEH research. In addition we will address difficulties and limitations to the interpretation of the data that is generated by OMICS technologies. To illustrate the current status of the application of OMICS in OEH research, we will provide examples of studies that used OMICS technologies to investigate human health effects of two well-known toxicants, benzene and arsenic.
    • Aristolochic acid mutagenesis: molecular clues to the aetiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy-associated urothelial cancer.

      Arlt, Volker M.; Stiborova, Marie; vom Brocke, Jochen; Simoes, Maria L.; Lord, Graham M.; Nortier, Joelle L.; Hollstein, Monica; Phillips, David H.; Schmeiser, Heinz H. (2007-11)
      Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is found in certain rural areas of the Balkans and affects at least 25,000 inhabitants. Of the many hypotheses on BEN, the Aristolochia hypothesis has recently gained ground substantiated by the investigations on aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). On both clinical and morphological grounds, AAN is very similar to BEN. That exposure to aristolochic acid (AA) of individuals living in endemic areas through consumption of bread made with flour contaminated with seeds of Aristolochia clematitis is responsible for BEN is an old hypothesis, but one which is fully consistent with the unique epidemiologic features of BEN. Here, we propose an approach to investigate AA-induced mutagenesis in BEN that can provide molecular clues to the aetiology of its associated urothelial cancer. The molecular mechanism of AA-induced carcinogenesis demonstrates a strong association between DNA adduct formation, mutation pattern and tumour development. A clear link between urothelial tumours, p53 mutations and AA exposure should emerge as more tumour DNA from BEN patients from different endemic areas becomes available for mutation analysis. We predict that the observed p53 mutation spectrum will be dominated by AT --> TA transversion mutations as has already been demonstrated in the human p53 gene of immortalized cells after exposure to AAI and urothelial tumours from BEN patients in Croatia. Moreover, the detection of AA-specific DNA adducts in renal tissue of a number of BEN patients and individuals living in areas endemic for BEN in Croatia provides new evidence that chronic exposure to AA is a risk factor for BEN and its associated cancer.
    • Aromatic DNA adducts and polymorphisms in metabolic genes in healthy adults: findings from the EPIC-Spain cohort.

      Agudo, Antonio; Peluso, Marco; Sala, Nuria; Capella, Gabriel; Munnia, Armelle; Piro, Sara; Marin, Fatima; Ibanez, Raquel; Amiano, Pilar; Tormo, M. Jose; et al. (2009-06)
      Aromatic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arylamines and heterocyclic amines require metabolic activation to form metabolites able to bind to DNA, a process mediated by polymorphic enzymes. We measured aromatic DNA adducts in white blood cells by the (32)P-post-labelling assay in a sample of 296 healthy adults (147 men and 149 women) from five regions of Spain. We also analyzed functional polymorphisms in the metabolic genes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2 and SULT1A1. A significant increased level of DNA aromatic adducts was found related to the fast oxidation-hydrolysis phenotype defined by the polymorphism I462V in CYP1A1, the allele A in IVS1-154C>A of CYP1A2 and the combination Tyrosine-Arginine for Y113H and H139R of EPHX1. Geometric means (adducts per 10(-9) normal nucleotides) were 2.17, 4.04 and 6.30 for slow, normal and fast phenotypes, respectively (P-trend = 0.01). Slow acetylation by NAT2 was associated with a significant decrease in adduct level; subjects with slow alleles *5A and *7A/B had in average 1.56 x 10(-9)adducts, as compared with 5.60 for those with normal NAT2 activity (P-value = 0.01). No association was seen with polymorphisms of other metabolic genes such as GSTM1, GSTT1 or SULT1A1. We concluded that the metabolic pathways of oxidation, hydrolysis and acetylation are relevant to the formation of bulky DNA adducts. This could suggest a potential involvement of aromatic compounds in the formation of such adducts; however, given lack of specificity of the post-labeling assay, a firm conclusion cannot be drawn.
    • The aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent deregulation of cell cycle control induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rat liver epithelial cells.

      Andrysik, Zdenek; Vondracek, Jan; Machala, Miroslav; Krcmar, Pavel; Svihalkova-Sindlerova, Lenka; Kranz, Anne; Weiss, Carsten; Faust, Dagmar; Kozubík, Alois; Dietrich, Cornelia (2007-02-03)
      Disruption of cell proliferation control by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may contribute to their carcinogenicity. We investigated role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in disruption of contact inhibition in rat liver epithelial WB-F344 'stem-like' cells, induced by the weakly mutagenic benz[a]anthracene (BaA), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) and by the strongly mutagenic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). There were significant differences between the effects of BaA and BbF, and those of the strongly genotoxic BaP. Both BaA and BbF increased percentage of cells entering S-phase and cell numbers, associated with an increased expression of Cyclin A and Cyclin A/cdk2 complex activity. Their effects were significantly reduced in cells expressing a dominant-negative AhR mutant (dnAhR). Roscovitine, a chemical inhibitor of cdk2, abolished the induction of cell proliferation by BbF. However, neither BaA nor BbF modulated expression of the principal cdk inhibitor involved in maintenance of contact inhibition, p27(Kip1), or pRb phosphorylation. The strongly mutagenic BaP induced apoptosis, a decrease in total cell numbers and significantly higher percentage of cells entering S-phase than either BaA or BbF. Given that BaP induced high levels of Cyclin A/cdk2 activity, downregulation of p27(Kip1) and hyperphosphorylation of pRb, the accumulation of cells in S-phase was probably due to cell proliferation, although S-phase arrest due to blocked replication forks can not be excluded. Both types of effects of BaP were significantly attenuated in dnAhR cells. Transfection of WB-F344 cells with siRNA targeted against AhR decreased induction of Cyclin A induced by BbF or BaP, further supporting the role of AhR in proliferative effects of PAHs. This suggest that activation of AhR plays a significant role both in disruption of contact inhibition by weakly mutagenic PAHs and in genotoxic effects of BaP possibly leading to enhanced cell proliferation. Thus, PAHs may increase proliferative rate and the likelihood of fixation of mutations.
    • Assessment and reduction of comet assay variation in relation to DNA damage: studies from the European Comet Assay Validation Group.

      Moller, Peter; Moller, Lennart; Godschalk, Roger W. L.; Jones, George D. D. (2010-03)
      The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay has become a widely used method for the detection of DNA damage and repair in cells and tissues. Still, it has been difficult to compare results from different investigators because of differences in assay conditions and because the data are reported in different units. The European Comet Assay Validation Group (ECVAG) was established for the purpose of validation of the comet assay with respect to measures of DNA damage formation and its repair. The results from this inter-laboratory validation trail showed a large variation in measured level of DNA damage and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase-sensitive sites but the laboratories could detect concentration-dependent relationships in coded samples. Standardization of the results with reference standards decreased the inter-laboratory variation. The ECVAG trail indicates substantial reliability for the measurement of DNA damage by the comet assay but there is still a need for further validation to reduce both assay and inter-laboratory variation.
    • Assessment of cumulative evidence on genetic associations: interim guidelines.

      Ioannidis, John P.A; Boffetta, Paolo; Little, Julian; O'Brien, Thomas R.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vineis, Paolo; Balding, David J.; Chokkalingam, Anand; Dolan, Siobhan M.; Flanders, W Dana; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2008-02)
      Established guidelines for causal inference in epidemiological studies may be inappropriate for genetic associations. A consensus process was used to develop guidance criteria for assessing cumulative epidemiologic evidence in genetic associations. A proposed semi-quantitative index assigns three levels for the amount of evidence, extent of replication, and protection from bias, and also generates a composite assessment of 'strong', 'moderate' or 'weak' epidemiological credibility. In addition, we discuss how additional input and guidance can be derived from biological data. Future empirical research and consensus development are needed to develop an integrated model for combining epidemiological and biological evidence in the rapidly evolving field of investigation of genetic factors.
    • Association between 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine Excretion and Risk of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer: Nested Case-Control Study.

      Loft, Steffen; Olsen, Anja; Møller, Peter; Poulsen, Henrik E.; Tjønneland, Anne (2013-07)
      Oxidative stress may be important in carcinogenesis and a possible risk factor for breast cancer. The urinary excretion of oxidatively generated biomolecules, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), represents biomarkers of oxidative stress, reflecting the rate of global damage to DNA in steady state.
    • Association between GPx1 Pro198Leu polymorphism, GPx1 activity and plasma selenium concentration in humans.

      Jablonska, Ewa; Gromadzinska, J.; Reszka, Edyta; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Boffetta, P. (2009-09)
      BACKGROUND: Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) is an antioxidant selenoenzyme that protects the cells against reactive oxygen species. Its activity depends on the concentration of selenium (Se) which is present in the active centre of the enzyme. The genetic polymorphism of GPx1 encoding gene (GPx1) associated with the proline (Pro) to leucine (Leu) change at codon 198 is supposed to be functional. An in vitro study performed on human breast carcinoma cell line showed that GPx1Leu allele was associated with a lower responsiveness of the enzyme to Se added to the culture medium. Some authors observed a decrease in GPx1 activity associated with GPx1 Leu allele in humans; however, there were no findings on how GPx1 activity changes with Se concentration in individuals with different GPx1 genotypes. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess whether GPx1 activity that depends on the Se status may be influenced by GPx1 polymorphism through studying this relationship in the blood of healthy individuals. METHODS: The association between the Se status, GPx1 activity and GPx1 genotype was assessed in 405 individuals of Polish origin. GPx1 activity in red blood cells was measured by the spectrophotometric method by Paglia and Valentine, using t-butylhydroperoxide as the substrate. Plasma Se concentration was measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. GPx1 Pro198Leu polymorphism was determined with the Molecular Beacon Real-Time PCR assay. RESULTS: In the subjects examined, the mean plasma Se concentration was 54.4 +/- 14.2 mcg/L. The mean GPx1 activity was 15.1 +/- 4.7 U/g Hb. No difference regarding both the parameters was found between individuals with different GPx1 genotype. However, the association between GPx1 activity and Se concentration, analyzed separately for each genotype group, was not the same. The correlation coefficients amounted to r = 0.44 (p < 0.001) for Pro/Pro, r = 0.35 (p < 0.001) for Pro/Leu and r = 0.25 (p = 0.45) for Leu/Leu group, which indicates that the correlation strength was as follows: Pro/Pro > Pro/Leu > Leu/Leu. Notably, statistically significant difference in this relationship (analyzed as difference between correlation coefficients for linear trends) was found between genotypes Pro/Pro and Leu/Leu (p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study provide evidence for the hypothesis based on in vitro studies which assumes that GPx1 Pro198Leu polymorphism has a functional significance for the human organism and that this functionality is associated with a different response of GPx1 activity to Se. They also point to the importance of the genetic background in the assessment of the Se status with the use of selenoprotein biomarkers such as GPx1 activity.
    • Association between total number of deaths, diabetes mellitus, incident cancers, and haplotypes in chromosomal region 8q24 in a prospective study.

      Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Polidoro, Silvia; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Allione, Alessandra; Rosa, Fabio; Voglino, Floriana; Critelli, Rossana; Russo, Alessia; Vineis, Paolo; et al. (2012-03-15)
      The 8q24 region is a gene desert, although chromosomal aberrations and somatic amplification involving this region, including translocations involving the protooncogene c-MYC, have been frequently reported in people with cancer. To investigate the role of variants in 8q24 region, the authors analyzed data from a prospective study (n = 10,372 participants who were followed for 11 years) in which a large number of health events (>1,500) occurred (1993-1998). They genotyped all subjects for 5 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs672888, rs1447295, rs9642880, rs16901979, and rs6983267) that were identified in previous genome-wide scans. Although significant associations with individual single nucleotide polymorphisms were small in magnitude, the authors observed higher increases in the risks of different types of cancer with specific haplotypes, particularly when subjects were homozygous for the haplotype: for breast cancer and homozygotes for haplotype CAGCT, hazard ratio = 3.40, 95% confidence interval: 1.24, 9.21; for prostate cancer and grouped rare haplotypes, hazard ratio = 7.43, 95% confidence interval: 3.00, 18.37; and for brain cancer and homozygotes for haplotype CGGCT, hazard ratio = 13.48, 95% confidence interval: 3.00, 59.53. Significant associations were also observed between haplotypes and deaths from cardiovascular diseases and cerebrovascular diseases; the most stable association was between homozygotes for haplotypes CGTCG and CAGCT and total deaths in men (hazard ratio = 3.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.8, 6.9, and hazard ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3, 6.4, respectively). In conclusion, the authors have observed a strong pleiotropic effect of the 8q24 region in a large prospective study. This observation can shed light on the mechanisms underlying reported associations between 8q24 variants and disparate chronic diseases.
    • Association between transcriptional activity, local chromatin structure, and the efficiencies of both subpathways of nucleotide excision repair of melphalan adducts.

      Episkopou, Hara; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Sfikakis, Petros P.; Fousteri, Maria; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Mullenders, Leon H. F.; Souliotis, Vassilis L. (2009-05-15)
      The repair of melphalan-induced N-alkylpurine monoadducts and interstrand cross-links was examined in different repair backgrounds, focusing on four genes (beta-actin, p53, N-ras, and delta-globin) with dissimilar transcription activities. Adducts were found to be substrates for both global genome repair (GGR) and transcription-coupled repair (TCR), with TCR being less efficient than GGR. In nucleotide excision repair-deficient cells, adducts accumulated to similar levels in all four genes. The repair efficiency in different gene loci varied in a qualitatively and quantitatively similar way in both GGR-deficient and TCR-deficient backgrounds and correlated with transcriptional activity and local chromatin condensation. No strand-specific repair was found in GGR(+)/TCR(+) cells, implying that GGR dominated. Adducts were lost over two sharply demarcated phases: a rapid phase resulting in the removal within 1 hour of up to approximately 80% of the adducts, and a subsequent phase with t(1/2) approximately 36 to 48 hours. Following pretreatment of cells with alpha-amanitin, the rate of transcription, the state of chromatin condensation, and the repair efficiencies (both TCR and GGR) of the transcribed beta-actin, p53, and N-ras genes became similar to those of the nontranscribed delta-globin gene. In conclusion, a continuous, parallel variation of the state of transcription and local chromatin condensation, on one hand, and the rates of both GGR and TCR, on the other hand, have been shown.
    • The association of gastric cancer risk with plasma folate, cobalamin, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

      Vollset, Stein Emil; Igland, Jannicke; Jenab, Mazda; Fredriksen, Ase; Meyer, Klaus; Eussen, Simone; Gjessing, Hakon K.; Ueland, Per Magne; Pera, Guillem; Sala, Nuria; et al. (2007-11)
      Previous studies have shown inconsistent associations of folate intake and polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with gastric cancer risk. Our nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort is the first prospective study of blood folate levels and gastric cancer. Gastric cancer cases (n=247) and controls (n=631) were matched for study center, age, sex, and time of blood donation. Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene were determined, as were plasma concentrations of folate, cobalamin (vitamin B12), total homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid (cobalamin deficiency marker) in prediagnostic plasma. Risk measures were calculated with conditional logistic regression. Although no relations were observed between plasma folate or total homocysteine concentrations and gastric cancer, we observed a trend toward lower risk of gastric cancer with increasing cobalamin concentrations (odds ratio, 0.79 per SD increase in cobalamin; P=0.01). Further analyses showed that the inverse association between cobalamin and gastric cancer was confined to cancer cases with low pepsinogen A levels (marker of severe chronic atrophic gastritis) at the time of blood sampling. The 677 C-->T MTHFR polymorphism was not associated with gastric cancer, but we observed an increased risk with the variant genotype of the 1298 A-->C polymorphism (odds ratio, 1.47 for CC versus AA; P=0.04). In conclusion, we found no evidence of a role of folate in gastric cancer etiology. However, we observed increased gastric cancer risk at low cobalamin levels that was most likely due to compromised cobalamin status in atrophic gastritis preceding gastric cancer.
    • Beta-carotene metabolites enhance inflammation-induced oxidative DNA damage in lung epithelial cells.

      van Helden, Yvonne G.J.; Keijer, Jaap; Knaapen, Ad M.; Heil, Sandra G.; Briede, Jacob J.; Van Schooten, Frederik J.; Godschalk, Roger W.L. (2009-01-15)
      beta-Carotene (BC) intake has been shown to enhance lung cancer risk in smokers and asbestos-exposed subjects (according to the ATBC and CARET studies), but the mechanism behind this procarcinogenic effect of BC is unclear. Both smoking and asbestos exposure induce an influx of inflammatory neutrophils into the airways, which results in an increased production of reactive oxygen species and formation of promutagenic DNA lesions. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the effects of BC and its metabolites (BCM) on neutrophil-induced genotoxicity. We observed that the BCM vitamin A (Vit A) and retinoic acid (RA) inhibited the H(2)O(2)-utilizing enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO), which is released by neutrophils, thereby reducing H(2)O(2) conversion. Moreover, BC and BCM were able to increase (.)OH formation from H(2)O(2) in the Fenton reaction (determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy). Addition of Vit A and RA to lung epithelial cells that were co-incubated with activated neutrophils resulted in a significant increase in the level of oxidized purines assessed by the formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase-modified comet assay. These data indicate that BCM can enhance neutrophil-induced genotoxicity by inhibition of MPO in combination with subsequent increased formation of hydroxyl radicals.
    • Bioactive components in foods.

      Manson, Margaret M.; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Sotiroudis, Theodore G.; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Hayes, John D.; Kelleher, Michael O.; Eggleston, Ian M.; de Kok, Theo M.; van Breda, Simone G.; et al. (The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 2007-04)
    • Bioactivity of Medicinal Bolivian Andean plants. Effects on cell proliferation and related processes.

      Rodrigo, Gloria C. (Lund University, 2012, 2012-11-22)
      Colon cancer is common in both developed and developing countries, and is responsible for at least 600,000 deaths globally every year. It is therefore the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality. Extensive studies are being conducted worldwide to find more effective drugs that can be used in cancer treatment. In these studies, phytochemicals have proven to be good sources for drug discovery. In Bolivia, there is a long tradition of using plants for medicinal purposes. The objective of the present thesis was to study the effects of extracts and compounds from medicinal plants in Bolivia on the growth of colon cancer (Caco-2) cells. Firstly, a survey of many plant extracts and some isolated compounds for their antiproliferative activity was performed. Sixty-six extracts from thirty-two medicinal plants and 15 extracts from 8 food plants were evaluated for antiproliferative activity in Caco-2 cells. Extracts from 7 plant species showed antiproliferative activity but in most of the preparations tested no cytotoxic activity was observed at the concentrations used. Secondly, some assays including DNA replication, DNA degradation, oligonucleosomal formation, and caspase-3 activity were performed to understand the mechanism by which the compounds isolated affect cell proliferation and cell death. Curcuphenol, isolated from Baccharis genistelloides and Myrmekioderma styx, and damsin and coronopilin, isolated from Ambrosia arborescens, were found to inhibit cell proliferation and to induce cell death in colon cancer cells. Further studies are needed to find new anti-cancer compounds in medicinal plants in Bolivia.
    • Biological activities of natural and semi-synthetic pseudo-guaianolides: Inhibition of transcription factors.

      Villagomez, Rodrigo (Media-Tryck, Lund University, Sweden, 2014, 2014-06)
      Damsin (1) is a natural sesquiterpene lactone (SL) isolated from Ambrosia arborescens Mill., a plant used in the Andes as antiinflammatory medicine. This natural product is an inhibitor of NF-κB, a protein complex that controls the transcription of many genes in mammalian cells, and has a potential for standing model for the development of new anti-cancer lead structures. In order to improve the anti-cancer activity, the chemistry of 1 was explored and in the process, dozens of derivatives were prepared. Damsin (1) inhibited cell proliferation, DNA biosynthesis and formation of cytoplasmic DNA histone complex in Caco-2 cells and further studies using the luciferase reporter system showed that it also inhibited expressions of NF-κB and STAT3. Therefore, the NF-κB inhibitory capacity of some derivatives was evaluated and two analogues, 31 and 32, were found to be more potent. In order to have a preliminary evaluation method of the derivatives, we developed fast and cheap biochemical assay to study the effect of SLs in the binding capacity of NF-κB (heterodimer RelA/p50) to the DNA recognition target. In this assay the compounds 21, 22, 24, 25 and 26 had a high dissociation capacity of the complex NF-κB/DNA. Finally, four compounds were selected for MS characterization studies with recombinant NF-κB, the most selective compound was 26 (compared with 1) by selective alkylation of Cys-38 and Cys-120 in RelA. The Cystein-38 is crucial for the transcriptional activity of NF-κB.
    • Biologically relevant oxidants and terminology, classification and nomenclature of oxidatively generated damage to nucleobases and 2-deoxyribose in nucleic acids.

      Cadet, Jean; Loft, Steffen; Olinski, Ryszard; Evans, Mark D.; Bialkowski, Karol; Richard Wagner, J.; Dedon, Peter C.; Moller, Peter; Greenberg, Marc M.; Cooke, Marcus S. (2012-04)
      A broad scientific community is involved in investigations aimed at delineating the mechanisms of formation and cellular processing of oxidatively generated damage to nucleic acids. Perhaps as a consequence of this breadth of research expertise, there are nomenclature problems for several of the oxidized bases including 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua), a ubiquitous marker of almost every type of oxidative stress in cells. Efforts to standardize the nomenclature and abbreviations of the main DNA degradation products that arise from oxidative pathways are reported. Information is also provided on the main oxidative radicals, non-radical oxygen species, one-electron agents and enzymes involved in DNA degradation pathways as well in their targets and reactivity. A brief classification of oxidatively generated damage to DNA that may involve single modifications, tandem base modifications, intrastrand and interstrand cross-links together with DNA-protein cross-links and base adducts arising from the addition of lipid peroxides breakdown products is also included.
    • Biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and early effects.

      The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 2006
      The purpose of this review is to summarise the current situation regarding the types and uses of biomarkers of exposure and effect for the main classes of food-derived genotoxic carcinogens, and to consider some aspects of the intercomparison between these biomarkers. The biomarkers of exposure and early effects of carcinogens that have been most extensively developed are those for genotoxic agents and for compounds that generate hydroxyl radicals and other reactive radical species, and it is on these that this review is mostly concentrated.