• Validation of biomarkers for the study of environmental carcinogens: a review.

      Gallo, Valentina; Khan, Aneire; Gonzales, Carlos; Phillips, David H.; Schoket, Bernadette; Gyorffy, Erika; Anna, Livia; Kovacs, Katalin; Moller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; et al. (2008-08)
      There is a need for validation of biomarkers. Our aim is to review published work on the validation of selected biomarkers: bulky DNA adducts, N-nitroso compounds, 1-hydroxypyrene, and oxidative damage to DNA. A systematic literature search in PubMed was performed. Information on the variability and reliability of the laboratory tests used for biomarkers measurements was collected. For the evaluation of the evidence on validation we referred to the ACCE criteria. Little is known about intraindividual variation of DNA adduct measurements, but measurements have a good repeatability irrespective of the technique used for their identification; reproducibility improved after the correction for a laboratory factor. A high-sensitivity method is available for the measurement of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. There is consensus on validation of biomarkers of oxidative damage DNA based on the comet assay and chromatographic measurement in blood while urinary measurements by chromatographic assays are well validated, and ELISA-based assays appear to lack specificity. Immunoassays for the quantification of adducts of N-nitroso compounds are useful for large epidemiological studies, given their sensitivity, the small amount of DNA required and their potential for rapid and high-throughput analysis.
    • Validation of biomarkers: application to examples.

      Gallo, Valentina; Phillips, David; Rohrman, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Kovacs, Katalin; Gyorffy, Erika; Anna, Livia; Schoket, Bernadette; Loft, Steffen; Moller, Peter; et al. (The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 2007)
    • Validation of the nucleotide excision repair comet assay on cryopreserved PBMCs to measure inter-individual variation in DNA repair capacity.

      Allione, Alessandra; Russo, Alessia; Ricceri, Fulvio; Vande Loock, Kim; Guarrera, Simonetta; Voglino, Floriana; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Matullo, Giuseppe (2013-01)
      Inter-individual susceptibility to mutagens/carcinogens can be assessed by either genotyping DNA repair genes in different pathways or phenotyping DNA repair capacity (DRC) at the molecular or cellular level. Due to the large number of known DNA repair genes, and the interactions between repair pathways, phenotyping is becoming the preferred approach to measure DRC, and reliable assays are therefore increasingly needed. The use of a cellular phenotype comet assay for the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway using benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) has been described in previous papers, but no thorough evaluation of its applicability in large genotype-phenotype studies has been presented. Our aim was to evaluate the possibility of using cryopreserved instead of fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to evaluate intra- and inter-assay variation, and inter-individual variation, for the aphidicolin (APC)-block NER comet assay. Moreover, we measured the variation for the designated internal standard (K562 erythroleukaemia cell line) and we evaluated the feasibility to use lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) as surrogate of PBMCs. Our results showed a low intra-assay [coefficient of variation (CV) 19.9%] and inter-assay (CV 32.3%) variation, with a good inter-individual variation (122 subjects, mean ± standard deviation 7.38 ± 4.99; range 0.66-26.14; CV 67.63%). A significant correlation between results derived from cryopreserved and fresh PBMCs from the same individuals was found (10 subjects, r = 0.62, P = 0.05). Results from LCLs and cryopreserved PBMCs from the same subjects showed an inverse significant correlation (10 subjects, r = -0.712, P = 0.02). K562 cells as internal standard showed low intra-assay variation. In the present study the APC-block NER comet assay on cryopreserved PBMCs seemed to be a reliable method to measure DRC variation in epidemiological studies; LCLs were not a good surrogate in this assay.
    • Variation in assessment of oxidatively damaged DNA in mononuclear blood cells by the comet assay with visual scoring.

      Forchhammer, Lykke; Brauner, Elvira Vaclavik; Folkmann, Janne Kjaersgaard; Danielsen, Pernille Hogh; Nielsen, Claus; Jensen, Annie; Loft, Steffen; Friis, Gitte; Moller, Peter (2008-05)
      The comet assay is popular for assessments of genotoxicity, but the comparison of results between studies is challenging because of differences in experimental procedures and reports of DNA damage in different units. We investigated the variation of DNA damage in mononuclear blood cells (MNBCs) measured by the comet assay with focus on the variation related to alkaline unwinding and electrophoresis time, number of cells scored, as well as the putative benefits of transforming the primary end points to common units by the use of reference standards and calibration curves. Eight experienced investigators scored pre-made slides of nuclei differently, but each investigator scored constantly over time. Scoring of 200 nuclei per treatment was associated with the lowest residual variation. Alkaline unwinding for 20 or 40 min and electrophoresis for 20 or 30 min yielded different dose-response relationships of cells exposed to gamma-radiation and it was possible to reduce the variation in oxidized purines in MNBCs from humans by adjusting the level of lesions with protocol-specific calibration curves. However, there was a difference in the level of DNA damage measured by different investigators and this variation could not be reduced by use of investigator-specific calibration curves. The mean numbers of lesions per 10(6) bp in MNBCs from seven humans were 0.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14-0.33] and 0.31 (95% CI: 0.20-0.55) for strand breaks (SBs) and oxidized guanines, respectively. In conclusion, our results indicate that inter-investigator difference in scoring is a strong determinant of DNA damage levels measured by the comet assay.
    • Variation in PAH-related DNA adduct levels among non-smokers: The role of multiple genetic polymorphisms and nucleotide excision repair phenotype.

      Etemadi, Arash; Islami, Farhad; Phillips, David H.; Godschalk, Roger; Golozar, Asieh; Kamangar, Farin; Malekshah, Akbar Fazel-Tabar; Pourshams, Akram; Elahi, Seerat; Ghojaghi, Farhad; et al. (2012-11-23)
      Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) likely play a role in many cancers even in never-smokers. We tried to find a model to explain the relationship between variation in PAH-related DNA adduct levels among people with similar exposures, multiple genetic polymorphisms in genes related to metabolic and repair pathways, and nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity. In 111 randomly selected female never-smokers from the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran, we evaluated 21 SNPs in 14 genes related to xenobiotic metabolism and 12 SNPs in eight DNA repair genes. NER capacity was evaluated by a modified comet assay, and aromatic DNA adduct levels were measured in blood by32P-postlabeling. Multivariable regression models were compared by Akaike's information criterion (AIC). Aromatic DNA adduct levels ranged between 1.7 and 18.6 per 10(8) nucleotides (mean: 5.8 ± 3.1). DNA adduct level was significantly lower in homozygotes for NAT2 slow alleles and ERCC5 non-risk-allele genotype, and was higher in the MPO homozygote risk-allele genotype. The sum of risk alleles in these genes significantly correlated with the log-adduct level (r = 0.4, p < 0.001). Compared with the environmental model, adding Phase I SNPs and NER capacity provided the best fit, and could explain 17% more of the variation in adduct levels. NER capacity was affected by polymorphisms in the MTHFR and ERCC1 genes. Female non-smokers in this population had PAH-related DNA adduct levels three to four times higher than smokers and occupationally-exposed groups in previous studies, with large inter-individual variation which could best be explained by a combination of Phase I genes and NER capacity.
    • Variation in the measurement of DNA damage by comet assay measured by the ECVAG inter-laboratory validation trial.

      Forchhammer, Lykke; Johansson, Clara; Loft, Steffen; Moller, Lennart; Godschalk, Roger W. L.; Langie, Sabine A. S.; Jones, George D. D.; Kwok, Rachel W. L.; Collins, Andrew R.; Azqueta, Amaya; et al. (2010-03)
      The comet assay has become a popular method for the assessment of DNA damage in biomonitoring studies and genetic toxicology. However, few studies have addressed the issue of the noted inter-laboratory variability of DNA damage measured by the comet assay. In this study, 12 laboratories analysed the level of DNA damage in monocyte-derived THP-1 cells by either visual classification or computer-aided image analysis of pre-made slides, coded cryopreserved samples of cells and reference standard cells (calibration curve samples). The reference standard samples were irradiated with ionizing radiation (0-10 Gy) and used to construct a calibration curve to calculate the number of lesions per 10(6) base pair. All laboratories detected dose-response relationships in the coded samples irradiated with ionizing radiation (1.5-7 Gy), but there were overt differences in the level of DNA damage reported by the different laboratories as evidenced by an inter-laboratory coefficient of variation (CV) of 47%. Adjustment of the primary comet assay end points by a calibration curve prepared in each laboratory reduced the CV to 28%, a statistically significant reduction (P < 0.05, Levene's test). A large fraction of the inter-laboratory variation originated from differences in image analysis, whereas the intra-laboratory variation was considerably smaller than the variation between laboratories. In summary, adjustment of primary comet assay results by reference standards reduces inter-laboratory variation in the level of DNA damage measured by the alkaline version of the comet assay.
    • Vitamin A and C compounds permitted in supplements differ in their abilities to affect cell viability, DNA and the DNA nucleoside deoxyguanosine.

      Bergstrom, Therese; Bergman, Jan; Moller, Lennart (2011-11)
      In accordance with the European Parliament and Council's directive, vitamin A and C supplements can include any of four (vitamin A) or five (vitamin C) specified compounds. This study focuses on these compounds and compares their abilities to affect the DNA and viability of cells in culture, but also their potencies to chemically oxidise the DNA nucleoside deoxyguanosine (dG). To study the vitamins' strict chemical oxidation potencies, dG was exposed to vitamin solution and the amount of the oxidation product 8'-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formed was estimated using a high-performance liquid chromatography system with electrochemical and ultraviolet detection. The vitamin's ability to cause DNA damage to promyelocytic leukaemia cells (HL-60), as detected by strand breaks, alkaline labile sites and formamido pyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites was, after vitamin exposure, measured using the comet assay and cytotoxicity was estimated using trypan blue staining. The results highlight that vitamin A and C compounds found in supplements do have different properties, chemically as well as in a cellular system. Among the vitamin C compounds, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate stood out causing both oxidation to dG and cytotoxicity to cells. The vitamin A compounds retinol, retinyl acetate and retinal (a breakdown product found in vivo) caused oxidation of dG, while retinal was the only compound causing cytotoxicity, giving rise to an almost complete cell death. β-carotene caused, as the only vitamin compound, a small increase in FPG-sensitive sites. It is concluded that even though the compounds are found under the same name (vitamin A or C), they do have different properties linked to oxidation, cytotoxicity and DNA damage.
    • Vitamins and selenium.

      Dragsted, Lars O.; Loft, Steffen; Moller, Peter; Cook, Marcus S.; Rozalski, Rafal; Olinski, Ryszard; Linseisen, Jakob; Abbas, Sascha; Akesson, Bjorn; Bruzelius, Katharina; et al. (The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 2007-04)
    • Vitamins at physiological levels cause oxidation to the DNA nucleoside deoxyguanosine and to DNA--alone or in synergism with metals.

      Bergstrom, Therese; Ersson, Clara; Bergman, Jan; Moller, Lennart (2012-03-30)
      Vitamins with antioxidant properties have the ability to act as pro-oxidants, inducing oxidative damage and oxidative stress as opposed to preventing it. While vitamin supplements are commonly consumed, the scientific evidence for their health beneficial effects is inconclusive. In fact, even harmful effects have been reported. The present study aimed to investigate and compare pro-oxidant properties of different antioxidants and vitamins commonly found in dietary supplements, at concentrations of physiological relevance, alone or in combination with metals also found in supplements. Focus was on damages related to DNA. The vitamins' chemical oxidation potencies were studied by measuring the amount of the oxidation product 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formed from the DNA nucleoside deoxyguanosine (dG) after vitamin exposure, using a high-performance liquid chromatography system with electrochemical and ultraviolet detection. To study the vitamins' ability to cause DNA damage to cultured cells, promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) were exposed to vitamins, and strand breaks, alkali-labile sites and oxidative DNA lesions, i.e. formamido pyrimidine DNA glycosylase-sensitive sites, were detected using the comet assay. Vitamins A and C chemically induced oxidation of dG, alone and in synergism with iron or copper, whereas only vitamin C and copper induced DNA damage in cultured cells. Contrary, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and B12, β-carotene, folic acid, α-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol or γ-tocopherol did not induce oxidative damage to dG, while lycopene induced a weak dose-response increase. Taken together, vitamin C and copper stood out with the strongest oxidative potency, which is of potential concern since both substances are commonly found in multivitamins.
    • Vitamins B2 and B6 and genetic polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism as risk factors for gastric adenocarcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

      Eussen, Simone J. P. M.; Vollset, Stein Emil; Hustad, Steinar; Midttun, Oivind; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Ase; Ueland, Per Magne; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Ferrari, Pietro; et al. (2010-01)
      B vitamins and polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in one-carbon metabolism may affect DNA synthesis and methylation and thereby be implicated in carcinogenesis. Previous data on vitamins B2 and B6 and genetic polymorphisms other than those involving MTHFR as risk factors for gastric cancer (GC) are sparse and inconsistent. In this case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, cases (n = 235) and controls (n = 601) were matched for study center, age, sex, and time of blood sampling. B2 and B6 species were measured in plasma, and the sum of riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide was used as the main exposure variable for vitamin B2 status, whereas the sum of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, pyridoxal, and 4-pyridoxic acid was used to define vitamin B6 status. In addition, we determined eight polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism. Relative risks for GC risk were calculated with conditional logistic regression, adjusted for Helicobacter pylori infection status and smoking status. Adjusted relative risks per quartile (95% confidence interval, P(trend)) were 0.85 (0.72-1.01, 0.06) for vitamin B2 and 0.78 (0.65-0.93, <0.01) for vitamin B6. Both relations were stronger in individuals with severe chronic atrophic gastritis. The polymorphisms were not associated with GC risk and did not modify the observed vitamin-cancer associations. In summary, results from this large European cohort study showed an inverse association between vitamin B2 and GC risk, which is borderline significant, and a significant inverse association between vitamin B6 and GC risk.