• TCDD deregulates contact inhibition in rat liver oval cells via Ah receptor, JunD and cyclin A.

      Weiss, C.; Faust, D.; Schreck, I.; Ruff, A.; Farwerck, T.; Melenberg, A.; Schneider, S.; Oesch-Bartlomowicz, B.; Zatloukalova, J.; Vondracek, J.; et al. (2008-04-03)
      The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor involved in physiological processes, but also mediates most, if not all, toxic responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Activation of the AhR by TCDD leads to its dimerization with aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT) and transcriptional activation of several phase I and II metabolizing enzymes. However, this classical signalling pathway so far failed to explain the pleiotropic hazardous effects of TCDD, such as developmental toxicity and tumour promotion. Thus, there is an urgent need to define genetic programmes orchestrated by AhR to unravel its role in physiology and toxicology. Here we show that TCDD treatment of rat liver oval cells leads to induction of the transcription factor JunD, resulting in transcriptional upregulation of the proto-oncogene cyclin A which finally triggers a release from contact inhibition. Ectopic expression of cyclin A in confluent cultures overcomes G(1) arrest, indicating that increased cyclin A levels are indeed sufficient to bypass contact inhibition. Functional interference with AhR-, but not with ARNT, abolished TCDD-induced increase in JunD and cyclin A and prevented loss of contact inhibition. In summary, we have discovered a novel AhR-dependent and probably ARNT-independent signalling pathway involving JunD and cyclin A, which mediates TCDD-induced deregulation of cell cycle control.
    • A technical mixture of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (BDE47) and brominated furans triggers aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated gene expression and toxicity.

      Wahl, M.; Lahni, B.; Guenther, R.; Kuch, B.; Yang, L.; Straehle, U.; Strack, S.; Weiss, C. (2008-09)
      Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are found as ubiquitous contaminants in the environment, e.g., in sediments and biota as well as in human blood samples and mother's milk. PBDEs are neuro- and developmental toxins, disturb the endocrine system and some are even carcinogenic. Structural similarities of PBDEs with dioxin-like compounds, e.g., 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzodioxin (TCDD), have raised concern about a possible "dioxin-like" action of PBDEs. TCDD exerts its toxicity via binding to and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). AhR ligands are in contrast to PBDEs usually coplanar compounds. Thus, PBDEs are not likely to be strong AhR agonists. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the most abundant PBDE congener, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (BDE47), on AhR activity and signaling. Initially, we measured cytochrome P450 1A1 (Cyp1A1) induction as a readout for AhR activation by BDE47. Low grade purified BDE47 increased CYP1A1 levels in transformed and primary rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma cells. Chemical analysis of the BDE47 sample identified trace contaminations with brominated furans such as 2,3,7,8-tetrabromo dibenzodioxin (TBDF), which most likely were responsible for the observed activation of AhR. Subsequently, the BDE47 mixture was studied for its effect on AhR mediated toxicity and global gene expression. Indeed, in rat hepatoma cells and in zebrafish embryos the BDE47 mixture provoked changes in gene expression and toxicity similar to known AhR agonists. In addition to the dioxin-like actions, the BDE47 sample enhanced Cyp2B and Cyp3A expression suggesting that commercial PBDE mixtures, which also often contain brominated furans, may disturb cellular homeostasis at multiple levels.
    • Test Researchers

      Julianowska, Anna (Nofer, 2008)
    • Time- and concentration-dependent changes in gene expression induced by benzo(a)pyrene in two human cell lines, MCF-7 and HepG2.

      Hockley, Sarah L.; Arlt, Volker M.; Brewer, Daniel; Giddings, Ian; Phillips, David H. (2006)
      BACKGROUND: The multi-step process of carcinogenesis can be more fully understood by characterizing gene expression changes induced in cells by carcinogens. In this study, expression microarrays were used to monitor the activity of 18,224 cDNA clones in MCF-7 and HepG2 cells exposed to the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or its non-carcinogenic isomer benzo(e)pyrene (BeP). Time and concentration gene expression effects of BaP exposure have been assessed and linked to other measures of cellular stress to aid in the identification of novel genes/pathways involved in the cellular response to genotoxic carcinogens. RESULTS: BaP (0.25-5.0 muM; 6-48 h exposure) modulated 202 clones in MCF-7 cells and 127 in HepG2 cells, including 27 that were altered in both. In contrast, BeP did not induce consistent gene expression changes at the same concentrations. Significant time- and concentration-dependent responses to BaP were seen in both cell lines. Expression changes observed in both cell lines included genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism (e.g., CYP1B1, NQO1, MGST1, AKR1C1, AKR1C3,CPM), cell cycle regulation (e.g., CDKN1A), apoptosis/anti-apoptosis (e.g., BAX, IER3), chromatin assembly (e.g., histone genes), and oxidative stress response (e.g., TXNRD1). RTqPCR was used to validate microarray data. Phenotypic anchoring of the expression data to DNA adduct levels detected by 32P-postlabelling, cell cycle data and p53 protein expression identified a number of genes that are linked to these biological outcomes, thereby strengthening the identification of target genes. The overall response to BaP consisted of up-regulation of tumour suppressor genes and down-regulation of oncogenes promoting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Anti-apoptotic signalling that may increase cell survival and promote tumourigenesis was also evident. CONCLUSION: This study has further characterised the gene expression response of human cells after genotoxic insult, induced after exposure to concentrations of BaP that result in minimal cytotoxicity. We have demonstrated that investigating the time and concentration effect of a carcinogen on gene expression related to other biological end-points gives greater insight into cellular responses to such compounds and strengthens the identification of target genes.
    • Toenails: an easily accessible and long-term stable source of DNA for genetic analyses in large-scale epidemiological studies.

      van Breda, Simone G.; Hogervorst, Janneke G.; Schouten, Leo J.; Knaapen, Ad M.; van Delft, Joost H.; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; van Schooten, Frederik J.; van den Brandt, Piet A. (2007-06)
    • Total antioxidant capacity and content of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds in canihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule): an Andean pseudocereal.

      Penarrieta, J. Mauricio; Alvarado, J. Antonio; Akesson, Bjorn; Bergenstahl, Bjorn (2008-06)
      Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenolic compounds (TPH), total flavonoids (TF) and individual phenolic compounds were determined in canihua collected at approx. 3850 m altitude. The TAC values varied among samples from 2.7 to 44.7 by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method and from 1.8 to 41 by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) method expressed as micromol of Trolox equivalents/g dw. The content of TPH was 12.4-71.2 micromol gallic acid equivalents/g dw and that of the TF ranged between 2.2 and 11.4 micromol of catechin equivalents/g dw. The data obtained by the four methods showed several significant correlations. Prior to analysis by HPLC, the samples were subjected to acid hydrolysis and in the water-soluble extracts this led to an up to 20-fold increase in the TAC values in comparison with the values of the nonhydrolysed samples. HPLC analysis showed the presence of eight major compounds identified as catechin gallate, catechin, vanillic acid, kaempferol, ferulic acid, quercetin, resorcinol and 4-methylresorcinol. Their estimated contribution to the TAC value (FRAP method) indicated that resorcinols contributed most of the antioxidant capacity of the water-soluble extract. The results show that canihua is a potential source of natural antioxidant compounds and other bioactive compounds which can be important for human health.
    • Total Antioxidant Capacity and Content of Phenolic Compounds in Wild Strawberries (Fragaria vesca) Collected in Bolivia

      Penarrieta, J. Mauricio; Alvarado, J. Antonio; Bergenstahl, Bjorn; Akesson, Bjorn (2009)
      To study the composition of wild strawberries grown at high altitude, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and individual phenolic compounds were measured in wild strawberries (Fragaria vesca) collected between 2,650 and 3,300 m above sea level in Bolivia. Total antioxidant capacity, as assessed by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power and 2,2' -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzotiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) methods, was in the range 16-39 μmol of Trolox equivalents/g fw by both methods. The total phenolic content was 9.7-21 μmol gallic acid equivalents/g fw, and the flavonoid content ranged between 2.8 and 4.9 μmol of catechin equivalents/g fw. The data obtained by the four methods showed several significant linear correlations confirming that flavonoids and other phenolic compounds contributed significantly to the total antioxidant capacity values. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography analysis of extracts subjected to acid hydrolysis showed the presence of seven major fractions, tentatively identified as ellagic acid, cyanidin, pelargonidin, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid derivatives, and catechin derivatives. The data indicated that wild strawberries have a somewhat higher total antioxidant capacity content in comparison with that reported for cultivated strawberries. No obvious difference to the composition reported for wild strawberries grown at low altitude could be found. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Toward consensus in the analysis of urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine as a noninvasive biomarker of oxidative stress.

      Evans, Mark D.; Olinski, Ryszard; Loft, Steffen; Cooke, Marcus S. (2010-04)
      Of the DNA-derived biomarkers of oxidative stress, urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) is the most frequently measured. However, there is significant discrepancy between chromatographic and immunoassay approaches, and intratechnique agreement among all available chromatography-based assays and ELISAs is yet to be established. This is a significant obstacle to their use in large molecular epidemiological studies. To evaluate the accuracy of intra/intertechnique and interlaboratory measurements, samples of phosphate buffered saline and urine, spiked with different concentrations of 8-oxoG, together with a series of urine samples from healthy individuals were distributed to ESCULA members. All laboratories received identical samples, including 2 negative controls that contained no added 8-oxodG. Data were returned from 17 laboratories, representing 20 methods, broadly classified as mass spectrometric (MS), electrochemical detection (EC), or enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Overall, there was good within-technique agreement, with the majority of laboratories' results lying within 1 sd of their consensus mean. However, ELISA showed more within-technique variation than did the chromatographic techniques and, for the urine samples, reported higher values. Bland-Altman plots revealed good agreement between MS and EC methods but concentration-dependent deviation for ELISA. All methods ranked urine samples according to concentration similarly. Creatinine levels are routinely used as a correction factor for urine concentration, and therefore we also conducted an interlaboratory comparison of methods for urinary creatinine determination, in which the vast majority of values lay within 1 sd of the consensus value, irrespective of the analysis procedure. This study reveals greater consensus than previously expected, although concern remains over ELISA.-ESCULA [European Standards Committee on Urinary (DNA) Lesion Analysis], Evans, M. D., Olinski, R., Loft, S., Cooke, M. S. Toward consensus in the analysis of urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine as a noninvasive biomarker of oxidative stress.
    • TP53 mutaciok es aromas DNS addukt szintek osszefuggesei tudorakban. (in Hungarian)

      Anna, Livia; Reetta, Holmila; Kovacs, Katalin; Gyorffy, Erika; Gyori, Zoltan; Segesdi, Judit; Minarovits, Janos; Soltesz, Ibolya; Kostic, Szilard; Csekeo, Attila; et al. (2011-11)
    • Transcription factor Nrf2 mediates an adaptive response to sulforaphane that protects fibroblasts in vitro against the cytotoxic effects of electrophiles, peroxides and redox-cycling agents.

      Higgins, Larry G.; Kelleher, Michael O.; Eggleston, Ian M.; Itoh, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hayes, John D. (2009-06-15)
      Sulforaphane can stimulate cellular adaptation to redox stressors through transcription factor Nrf2. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as a model, we show herein that the normal homeostatic level of glutathione in Nrf2(-/-) MEFs was only 20% of that in their wild-type counterparts. Furthermore, the rate of glutathione synthesis following its acute depletion upon treatment with 3 micromol/l sulforaphane was very substantially lower in Nrf2(-/-) MEFs than in wild-type cells, and the rebound leading to a approximately 1.9-fold increase in glutathione that occurred 12-24 h after Nrf2(+/+) MEFs were treated with sulforaphane was not observed in Nrf2(-/-) fibroblasts. Wild-type MEFs that had been pre-treated for 24 h with 3 micromol/l sulforaphane exhibited between 1.4- and 3.2-fold resistance against thiol-reactive electrophiles, including isothiocyanates, alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (e.g. acrolein), aryl halides and alkene epoxides. Pre-treatment of Nrf2(+/+) MEFs with sulforaphane also protected against hydroperoxides (e.g. cumene hydroperoxide, CuOOH), free radical-generating compounds (e.g. menadione), and genotoxic electrophiles (e.g. chlorambucil). By contrast, Nrf2(-/-) MEFs were typically approximately 50% less tolerant of these agents than wild-type fibroblasts, and sulforaphane pre-treatment did not protect the mutant cells against xenobiotics. To test whether Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of glutathione represents the major cytoprotective mechanism stimulated by sulforaphane, 5 micromol/l buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) was used to inhibit glutathione synthesis. In Nrf2(+/+) MEFs pre-treated with sulforaphane, BSO diminished intrinsic resistance and abolished inducible resistance to acrolein, CuOOH and chlorambucil, but not menadione. Thus Nrf2-dependent up-regulation of GSH is the principal mechanism by which sulforaphane pre-treatment induced resistance to acrolein, CuOOH and chlorambucil, but not menadione.
    • Transplacental transfer of acrylamide and glycidamide are comparable to that of antipyrine in perfused human placenta.

      Annola, Kirsi; Karttunen, Vesa; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Myllynen, Paivi; Segerback, Dan; Heinonen, Seppo; Vahakangas, Kirsi (2008-11-10)
      Most drugs can penetrate the placenta but there are only a few studies on placental transfer of environmental toxic compounds. In this study, we used dual recirculating human placental perfusion to determine the transfer rate through the placenta of a neurotoxic and carcinogenic compound found in food, acrylamide and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide. Putative acrylamide metabolism into glycidamide during the 4-h perfusions and acrylamide-derived DNA adducts in placental DNA after perfusions were also analyzed. Placentas were collected immediately after delivery and kept physiologically functional as confirmed by antipyrine kinetics, glucose consumption and leak from fetal to maternal circulation. Acrylamide (5 or 10 microg/ml) or glycidamide (5 microg/ml), both with antipyrine (100 microg/ml), was added to maternal circulation. Acrylamide and glycidamide were analyzed in the perfusion medium by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Acrylamide and glycidamide crossed the placenta from maternal to fetal circulation with similar kinetics to antipyrine, suggesting fetal exposure if the mother is exposed. The concentrations in maternal and fetal circulations equilibrated within 2h for both studied compounds and with both concentrations. Acrylamide metabolism into glycidamide was not detected during the 4-h perfusions. Moreover, DNA adducts were undetectable in the placentas after perfusions. However, fetuses may be exposed to glycidamide after maternal metabolism. Although not found in placental tissue after 4h of perfusion, it is possible that glycidamide adducts are formed in fetal DNA.
    • Transplacental transfer of nitrosodimethylamine in perfused human placenta.

      Annola, K.; Heikkinen, A.T.; Partanen, H.; Woodhouse, H.; Segerback, D.; Vahakangas, K. (2009-03)
      Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a carcinogenic compound present in tobacco smoke and food such as cured meat, smoked fish and beer. The O(6)-methylguanine formed in human cord blood in mothers highly exposed to such products implicates NDMA exposure of the fetus. Dual recirculating human placental perfusion was used to get direct evidence of the transplacental transfer of NDMA and DNA adduct formation in perfused human placenta. Eleven placentas from normal full-term pregnancies were collected immediately after delivery and an isolated lobule was perfused with 1 or 5 microM of (14)C-NDMA with a reference substance, antipyrine (0.1mg/ml) added to the maternal circulation. Perfusate samples were collected from both maternal and fetal circulations every half an hour for the first two hours and once per hour from thereon. NDMA was analyzed by scintillation counting and antipyrine by high performance liquid chromatography. The transfer of NDMA was comparable to that of antipyrine and probably occurred through passive diffusion, with the concentrations in maternal and fetal sides equilibrating in 2-3h. No indication of any effect by efflux transporters on NDMA kinetics was noticed in the experiments utilizing Caco-2 or MDCK- MDCKII-MDR1 cell culture monolayer in a transwell system, either. Furthermore, no NDMA-DNA-adducts were found after the perfusions and no DNA-binding of NDMA was seen in in vitro incubations with human placental microsomes from 8 additional placentas. Thus, our study demonstrates that the human fetus can be exposed to NDMA from the maternal circulation. According to this study and the literature, NDMA is not metabolized in full-term human placenta from healthy non-smoking, non-drinking mothers. It remains to be studied whether NDMA concentrations high enough to evoke fetal toxicity can be obtained from dietary sources.
    • Unsuitability of lymphoblastoid cell lines as surrogate of cryopreserved isolated lymphocytes for the analysis of DNA double-strand break repair activity.

      Zijno, Andrea; Porcedda, Paola; Saini, Francesca; Allione, Alessandra; Garofalo, Bruno; Marcon, Francesca; Guarrera, Simonetta; Turinetto, Valentina; Minieri, Valentina; Funaro, Ada; et al. (2010-02-03)
      As first task of a comprehensive investigation on DNA repair genotype-phenotype correlations, the suitability of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) as surrogate of cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in DNA repair phenotypic assays was evaluated. To this aim the amount of DNA damage induced by gamma-rays and DNA repair capacity were evaluated in unstimulated (G(0)) and mitogen-simulated (G(2)) PBMC from 20 healthy subjects and in EBV-transformed LCL obtained from the same individuals. Phosphorylation of histone H2AX, micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations were the end-points investigated. The results obtained show higher basal frequencies of binucleated cells bearing micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB) in LCL with respect to PBMC, suggesting that EBV transformation may be associated with chromosomal instability. After irradiation, higher levels of micronuclei were induced in G(0)-treated PBMC compared to cycling LCL; conversely, NPB were more frequent in LCL than in PBMC. Moreover, higher levels of chromosomal aberrations were observed in G(2)-treated PBMC compared to LCL. Concerning gamma-H2AX measurements, phosphorylation levels 1h after treatment and dephosphorylation kinetics were basically similar in LCL and in PBMC. However, while Spearman's test showed a strong correlation between the results obtained in replicated experiments with PBMC, high inter-experimental variability and poor reproducibility was observed in the experiments performed with LCL, possibly due to the intrinsic instability of LCL. In summary, both the analysis of gamma-H2AX and the evaluation of chromosome damage highlighted a larger inter-experimental variability in the results obtained with LCL compared to PBMC. Noteworthy, the two set of results proved to lack any significant correlation at the individual level. These results indicate that LCL may be unsuitable for investigating genotype-phenotype correlations with phenotypic DNA repair assays, especially when low impact functional genetic variants are involved.
    • Up-regulation of 8-oxo-dGTPase activity of MTH1 protein in the brain, testes and kidneys of mice exposed to (137)Cs gamma radiation.

      Bialkowski, Karol; Szpila, Anna; Kasprzak, Kazimierz S. (2009-08)
      Abstract Mammalian MTH1 protein is an antimutagenic (2'-deoxy)ribonucleoside 5'-triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase that prevents the incorporation of oxidatively modified nucleotides into nucleic acids. It decomposes most specifically the miscoding products of oxidative damage to purine nucleic acid precursors (e.g. 8-oxo-dGTP, 2-oxo-dATP, 2-oxo-ATP, 8-oxo-GTP) that may cause point mutations or transcription errors when incorporated into DNA and RNA, respectively. The increased expression of MTH1 mRNA and MTH1 protein was previously proposed as a molecular marker of oxidative stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that increased 8-oxo-dGTPase activity of MTH1 protein in mouse organs could serve as a dose-dependent marker of exposure to ionizing radiation, which is known to induce oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis, we measured 8-oxo-dGTPase activity in six organs of male BL6 mice after exposure to 0, 10, 25 and 50 cGy and 1 Gy of (137)Cs gamma radiation given as a single whole-body dose (1 Gy/min). The mice were killed 4, 8 and 24 h after irradiation. A statistically significant induction of 8-oxo-dGTPase was found in brains, testes and kidneys but not in lungs, hearts or livers. Brains, which demonstrated the highest (4.3-fold) increase of 8-oxo-dGTPase activity, were shown to express approximately 50% higher levels of MTH1 protein. However, due to the lack of a simple positive correlation between the dose and the observed 8-oxo-dGTPase activity in brain, testes and kidneys, we conclude that measurements of 8-oxo-dGTPase activity in these organs may serve as a rough indicator rather than a quantifiable marker of radiation-induced oxidative stress.
    • Urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine as biomarker of oxidative damage to DNA.

      Loft, Steffen; Danielsen, Pernille; Løhr, Mille; Jantzen, Kim; Hemmingsen, Jette G.; Roursgaard, Martin; Karotki, Dorina Gabriela; Møller, Peter (2012-02-15)
      Oxidatively damaged DNA may be important in carcinogenesis. 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua) is an abundant and mutagenic lesion excised by oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) and measurable in urine or plasma by chromatographic methods with electrochemical or mass spectrometric detectors, reflecting the rate of damage in steady state. A common genetic OGG1 variant may affect the activity and was associated with increased levels of oxidized purines in leukocytes without apparent effect on 8-oxoGua excretion or major change in cancer risk. 8-OxoGua excretion has been associated with exposure to air pollution, toxic metals, tobacco smoke and low plasma antioxidant levels, whereas fruit and vegetable intake or dietary interventions showed no association. In rodent studies some types of feed may be source of 8-oxoGua in collected urine. Of cancer therapies, cisplatin increased 8-oxoGua excretion, whereas radiotherapy only showed such effects in experimental animals. Case-control studies found high excretion of 8-oxoGua in relation to cancer, dementia and celiac disease but not hemochromatosis, although associations could be a consequence rather than reflecting causality of disease. One prospective study found increased risk of developing lung cancer among non-smokers associated with high excretion of 8-oxoGua. Urinary excretion of 8-oxoGua is a promising biomarker of oxidatively damaged DNA.
    • Urinary excretion rates of 8-oxoGua and 8-oxodG and antioxidant vitamins level as a measure of oxidative status in healthy, full-term newborns.

      Dziaman, Tomasz; Gackowski, Daniel; Rozalski, Rafal; Siomek, Agnieszka; Szulczynski, Jaroslaw; Zabielski, Romuald; Olinski, Ryszard (2007-09)
      The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative status in healthy full-term children and piglets. Urinary excretion of 8-oxoGua (8-oxoguanine) and 8-oxodG (8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine) were determined using HPLC/GS/MS methodology and concentrations of vitamins A, C and E with HPLC technique. The levels of 8-oxoGua in urine samples were about 7-8 times higher in newborn children and piglets when compared with the level of adult subjects, while in the case of 8-oxodG the difference was about 2.5 times. The levels of vitamin C and E in umbilical cord blood of newborn children significantly depend on the concentration of these compounds in their mother's blood. However, the values of vitamin C in human's cord blood were about 2-times higher than in respective mother blood, while the level of vitamin E showed an opposite trend. The results suggest that: (i) healthy, full-term newborns are under potential oxidative stress; (ii) urinary excretion of 8-oxoGua and 8-oxodG may be a good marker of oxidative stress in newborns; and (iii) antioxidant vitamins, especially vitamin C, play an important role in protecting newborns against oxidative stress.
    • Urinary measurement of 8-OxodG, 8-OxoGua, and 5HMUra: a noninvasive assessment of oxidative damage to DNA.

      Olinski, Ryszard; Rozalski, Rafal; Gackowski, Daniel; Foksinski, Marek; Siomek, Agnieszka; Cooke, Marcus S. (2008-05-26)
      Numerous DNA repair pathways exist to prevent the persistence of damage, and are integral to the maintenance of genome stability, and hence prevention of disease. Excised lesions arising from repair may ultimately appear in the urine where their measurement has been acknowledged to be reflective of overall oxidative stress. The development of reliable assays to measure urinary DNA lesions, such as HPLC prepurification followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, offers the potential to assess whole body oxidative DNA damage. However, some studies suggest a possibility that confounding factors may contribute to urinary levels of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2 -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). This article considers several possible sources of urinary lesions: (a) the repair of oxidatively damaged DNA; (b) a possible dietary influence; and (c) cell death. The authors conclude that data from their laboratories, along with a number of literature reports, form an argument against a contribution from cell death and diet. In the absence of these confounding factors, urinary measurements may be attributed entirely to the repair of DNA damage and suggests their possible use in studying associations between DNA repair and disease.
    • Use of DNA adducts to identify human health risk from exposure to hazardous environmental pollutants: the increasing role of mass spectrometry in assessing biologically effective doses of genotoxic carcinogens.

      Farmer, Peter B.; Singh, Rajinder (2009-08-07)
      The carcinogens to which humans are exposed are normally in the form of complex mixtures, and much effort has gone into determining the nature of the most significant carcinogenic components in these mixtures and their mechanisms of action. Essential to achieving this aim in exposed populations is the use of biomarkers, which can characterize the chemical nature of the carcinogens involved and identify key biological effects that result from the exposure. DNA adducts are particularly appropriate as biomarkers in the case of genotoxic carcinogens as they indicate the biologically effective dose of the genotoxin in the target tissue under study. This review considers in particular the use of mass spectrometry (MS), which is having an increasing role in the determination of DNA adducts. Compared to other existing DNA damage detection methods, such as 32P-postlabeling, HPLC-fluorescence or electrochemical detection, immunoassay-based techniques and modified Comet assays, MS provides improved structural characterization of adducts. Greater selectivity in the analyses is achieved by the use of tandem MS with selected reaction monitoring or constant neutral loss of ions. Use of capillary/nano liquid chromatography and micro/nano electrospray ionization improves the analytical sensitivity and higher throughput may be obtained by the use of online-column switching. The application of microfluidics technology offers exciting new possibilities for interfacing sample preparation to the mass spectrometer. Despite these improvements in the use of MS for adduct detection, the main current requirement is to validate these methods both analytically and in molecular epidemiology studies. More knowledge of the stability of stored samples is required. Development of sensitive mass spectrometric DNA adductomic screening systems, and of long-term biomarkers (e.g., phosphotriester adducts that are not repaired efficiently) seems important areas for the future assessment of the effects of human exposure to environmental genotoxins, together with studies of dose-response relationships at low doses.
    • Validation of biomarkers for the study of environmental carcinogens: a review.

      Gallo, Valentina; Khan, Aneire; Gonzales, Carlos; Phillips, David H.; Schoket, Bernadette; Gyorffy, Erika; Anna, Livia; Kovacs, Katalin; Moller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; et al. (2008-08)
      There is a need for validation of biomarkers. Our aim is to review published work on the validation of selected biomarkers: bulky DNA adducts, N-nitroso compounds, 1-hydroxypyrene, and oxidative damage to DNA. A systematic literature search in PubMed was performed. Information on the variability and reliability of the laboratory tests used for biomarkers measurements was collected. For the evaluation of the evidence on validation we referred to the ACCE criteria. Little is known about intraindividual variation of DNA adduct measurements, but measurements have a good repeatability irrespective of the technique used for their identification; reproducibility improved after the correction for a laboratory factor. A high-sensitivity method is available for the measurement of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. There is consensus on validation of biomarkers of oxidative damage DNA based on the comet assay and chromatographic measurement in blood while urinary measurements by chromatographic assays are well validated, and ELISA-based assays appear to lack specificity. Immunoassays for the quantification of adducts of N-nitroso compounds are useful for large epidemiological studies, given their sensitivity, the small amount of DNA required and their potential for rapid and high-throughput analysis.
    • Validation of biomarkers: application to examples.

      Gallo, Valentina; Phillips, David; Rohrman, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Kovacs, Katalin; Gyorffy, Erika; Anna, Livia; Schoket, Bernadette; Loft, Steffen; Moller, Peter; et al. (The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 2007)