• Identification through microarray gene expression analysis of cellular responses to benzo(a)pyrene and its diol-epoxide that are dependent or independent of p53.

      Hockley, Sarah L.; Arlt, Volker M.; Jahnke, Gunnar; Hartwig, Andrea; Giddings, Ian; Phillips, David H. (2008-01)
      Human colon carcinoma cells (HCT116) differing in p53 status were exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or anti-benzo(a)pyrene-trans-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) and their gene expression responses compared by complementary DNA microarray technology. Exposure of cells to BPDE for up to 24 h resulted in gene expression profiles more distinguishable by duration of exposure than by p53 status, although a subset of genes were identified that had significantly different expression in p53 wild-type (WT) cells relative to p53-null cells. Apoptotic signalling genes were up-regulated in p53-WT cells but not in p53-null cells and, consistent with this, reduced viability and caspase activity were also p53 dependent. BPDE modulated cell cycle and histone genes in both cell lines and, in agreement with this, both cell lines accumulated in S phase. In p53-WT cells, G(2) arrest was also evident, which was associated with accumulation of CDKN1A. Regardless of p53 status, exposure to BaP for up to 48 h had subtle effects on gene transcription and had no influence on cell viability or cell cycle. Interestingly, DNA adduct formation after BaP, but not BPDE, exposure was p53 dependent with 10-fold lower levels detected in p53-null cells. Other cell lines were investigated for BaP-DNA adduct formation and in these the effect of p53 knockdown was also to reduce adduct formation. Taken together, these results give further insight into the role of p53 in the response of human cells to BaP and BPDE and suggest that loss of this tumour suppressor can influence the metabolic activation of BaP.
    • Immunologic profile of excessive body weight.

      Azar Sharabiani, Mansour Taghavi; Vermeulen, Roel; Scoccianti, Chiara; Hosnijeh, Fatemeh Saberi; Minelli, Liliana; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Chiodini, Paolo; et al. (2011-05)
      The purpose of this paper is to identify immunologic hallmarks of excessive bodyweight. The analysis is based on 176 adults (106 women, 70 men) who participated in a nested case-control study in Italy. All participants were healthy at the time of blood collection and aged between 36 and 75 years. We employed multivariate analysis of variance and a nonparametric Bayesian additive regression tree approach along with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to determine the immunologic signature of excessive body weight (i.e., obesity and overweight). Interleukin 8 (IL-8), IL-10, interferon γ, and inducible protein 10 were shown to be predictive of excessive body weight with an area under the ROC curve of 71% (p < 0.0002). We propose that by using this profile-based approach to define immunologic signatures, it might be possible to identify unique immunologic hallmarks of specific types of obesity.
    • The impact of saturable metabolism on exposure-response relations in 2 studies of benzene-induced leukemia.

      Vlaanderen, Jelle; Portengen, Lutzen; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Glass, Deborah C.; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel (2011-09-01)
      Enzymatic saturation of metabolic pathways is one factor that potentially contributes to the nonlinear exposure-response relations that are frequently reported in occupational epidemiologic studies. The authors propose an approach to explore the contribution of saturable metabolism to previously reported exposure-response relations by integrating predictive models of relevant biomarkers of exposure into the epidemiologic analysis. The approach is demonstrated with 2 studies of leukemia in benzene-exposed workers, one conducted in the Australian petroleum industry (1981-1999) and one conducted in a US rubber hydrochloride production factory in Ohio (1940-1996). The studies differed greatly in their magnitudes and durations of exposure. Substitution of biomarker levels for external estimates of benzene exposure reduced the fold difference of the log relative risk of leukemia per unit of cumulative exposure between the 2 studies by 11%-44%. Nevertheless, a considerable difference in the log relative risk per unit of cumulative exposure remained between the 2 studies, suggesting that exposure misclassification, differences in study design, and potential confounding factors also contributed to the heterogeneity in risk estimates.
    • Implications of gene-drug interactions in smoking cessation for improving the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases.

      Quaak, Marieke; van Schayck, Constant P.; Knaapen, Ad M.; van Schooten, Frederik J. (2009-07-10)
      Tobacco smoking continues to be the major preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Recent research strongly suggests that genetic background is associated with several aspects of smoking (e.g. initiation, maintenance, cessation, number of cigarettes smoked, indicators of nicotine dependence (ND) and nicotine withdrawal). Variations in two broad classes of genes have been shown to influence smoking: (1) genes that may influence the response to nicotine (e.g. nicotine metabolism, nicotinic receptors) and (2) genes that may predispose to addictive behaviour via their effects on key neurotransmitter pathways (e.g. dopamine, serotonin and opioid). Since these genetic variants might also influence the response to smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, smoking cessation rates might be increased by determining which treatment would be most effective based on the smoker's genetic background. This is expected to result in a more efficient use of smoking cessation therapies, increased cessation rates and ultimately, in reduced deaths from smoking. Until now, most research on the influence of genetic variation on smoking cessation pharmacotherapy has been directed to the two most widely accepted and licensed forms of smoking cessation therapy: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and the antidepressant bupropion. Overall, genotypes associated with increased dopamine availability seem to predict a better response to bupropion, while smokers with genotypes associated with reduced dopamine levels probably achieve better quit rates with NRT. A decreased metabolism for the drug used (e.g. bupropion or NRT), results in increased cessation rates as well. Furthermore, smokers with reduced dopaminergic and nicotinic receptor activity variants may experience greater benefit from nicotine spray, while smokers with increased activity variants in the opioid receptor may have greater success with transdermal patches. Thus it seems that genetic information may give directions in determining which treatment would be most effective for an individual smoker. However, several challenges will still have to be overcome before genetically tailored smoking cessation therapy can be implemented in standard clinical practice.
    • In vitro mammalian metabolism of the mitosis inhibitor zoxamide and the relationship to its in vitro toxicity.

      Oesch, F.; Metzler, M.; Fabian, E.; Kamp, H.; Bernshausen, T.; Damm, G.; Triebel, S.; Dohmer, J.; Landsiedel, R.; Van Ravenzwaay, B. (2010-01)
      The in vitro mammalian metabolism of the fungicide zoxamide is related to its in vitro mammalian toxicity. After incubation of zoxamide with rat liver microsomes leading to practically 100% metabolism (mostly hydroxylated zoxamide), the cytotoxicity (methyl thiazole tetrazolium (MTT) test) and the mitosis-inhibiting potential (shown by cell count and by cell cycle analysis) for V79 were not distinguishable from those of zoxamide, demonstrating that the hydroxylation of zoxamide did not change the cytotoxicity or mitosis-inhibiting potential as determined by these assays. After incubation of zoxamide with rat liver S9 predominantly leading to conjugation with glutathione, and after incubation of zoxamide with rat liver slices predominantly leading to the glucuronide of the hydroxylated zoxamide, these activities were eliminated demonstrating that the glutathione conjugate and the glucuronide had lost the activities in these assays due either to no intrinsic potential of these conjugates or to their inability to penetrate the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. It is concluded that the metabolic hydroxylation of zoxamide did not change its activity in the assays used for investigating its influence on cell proliferation, cell cycle and cytotoxicity, while the formation of conjugates with glutathione or glucuronic acid led to the apparent loss of these activities. Thus, with zoxamide as a prototype, it was shown that, in principle, mammalian metabolism and its relationship to mammalian detoxication of fungicidal mitosis inhibitors may be reasonably anticipated from in vitro studies. In addition, the results provide a rational for the observed absence of typically mitosis inhibition-associated toxicities of zoxamide in mammals in vivo.
    • Indoor particles affect vascular function in the aged: an air filtration-based intervention study.

      Brauner, Elvira Vaclavik; Forchhammer, Lykke; Moller, Peter; Barregard, Lars; Gunnarsen, Lars; Afshari, Alireza; Wahlin, Peter; Glasius, Marianne; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Basu, Samar; et al. (2008-02-15)
      RATIONALE: Exposure to particulate matter is associated with risk of cardiovascular events, possibly through endothelial dysfunction, and indoor air may be most important. OBJECTIVES: We investigated effects of controlled exposure to indoor air particles on microvascular function (MVF) as the primary endpoint and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress as secondary endpoints in a healthy elderly population. METHODS: A total of 21 nonsmoking couples participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study with two consecutive 48-hour exposures to either particle-filtered or nonfiltered air (2,533-4,058 and 7,718-12,988 particles/cm(3), respectively) in their homes. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: MVF was assessed noninvasively by measuring digital peripheral artery tone after arm ischemia. Secondary endpoints included hemoglobin, red blood cells, platelet count, coagulation factors, P-selectin, plasma amyloid A, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, protein oxidation measured as 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde in plasma, urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha), and blood pressure. Indoor air filtration significantly improved MVF by 8.1% (95% confidence interval, 0.4-16.3%), and the particulate matter (diameter < 2.5 mum) mass of the indoor particles was more important than the total number concentration (10-700 nm) for these effects. MVF was significantly associated with personal exposure to iron, potassium, copper, zinc, arsenic, and lead in the fine fraction. After Bonferroni correction, none of the secondary biomarkers changed significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction of particle exposure by filtration of recirculated indoor air for only 48 hours improved MVF in healthy elderly citizens, suggesting that this may be a feasible way of reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.
    • Influence of aryl hydrocarbon- (Ah) receptor and genotoxins on DNA repair gene expression and cell survival of mouse hepatoma cells.

      Schreck, Ilona; Chudziak, Doreen; Schneider, Sandra; Seidel, Albrecht; Platt, Karl L.; Oesch, Franz; Weiss, Carsten (2009-05-17)
      The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates toxicity of a variety of environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. However, the underlying mechanisms and genetic programmes regulated by AhR to cause adverse effects but also to counteract poisoning are still poorly understood. Here we analysed the effects of two AhR ligands, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a DNA damaging tumour initiator and promotor and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a pure tumour promoter, on cell survival and on nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene expression. NER deals with so called "bulky" DNA adducts including those generated by enzymatically activated B[a]P. Therefore, the hypothesis that AhR may enhance NER gene expression to trigger DNA repair in the presence of genotoxic AhR ligands was tested. Furthermore, we investigated a potential cytoprotective effect of AhR activation by the non-genotoxic ligand TCDD against cell death induced by various genotoxins. Finally, the actions of genotoxins themselves on NER gene expression were studied. As a cell culture model we used mouse hepatoma cells (Hepa-c7) proficient for AhR and its partner protein ARNT as well as subclones deficient in AhR (Hepa-c12) or ARNT (Hepa-c4) to study involvement of AhR and ARNT in response to B[a]P and TCDD. Indeed, the mRNA levels of the two NER genes XP-C and DNA polymerase kappa were increased by B[a]P and TCDD, however, this was not accompanied by an increase in the amount of the respective proteins. Pretreatment of cells with TCDD did not reduce cytotoxicity induced by various genotoxins. Thus, in Hepa-c7 cells AhR has no major effects on the expression of these crucial NER proteins and does not prevent genotoxin-provoked cell death. As expected, the genotoxins B[a]P and cis-platin led to p53 accumulation and induction of its target p21. Interestingly, however, NER gene expression was not enhanced but rather decreased. As two NER genes, XP-C and DNA damage binding protein ddb2, are up-regulated by p53 and ultraviolet radiation in human cells these findings suggest cell type, species or lesion specific actions of p53 on DNA repair gene expression. Importantly, in cells with damaged DNA up-regulation of p53 may not suffice to enhance DNA repair gene expression.
    • The influence of diesel exhaust on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced DNA damage, gene expression, and tumor initiation in Sencar mice in vivo.

      Courter, Lauren A.; Luch, Andreas; Musafia-Jeknic, Tamara; Arlt, Volker M.; Fischer, Kay; Bildfell, Robert; Pereira, Cliff; Phillips, David H.; Poirier, Miriam C.; Baird, William M. (2008-06-28)
      The carcinogenic effects of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are well established. However, their potency within an environmental complex mixture is uncertain. We evaluated the influence of diesel exhaust particulate matter on PAH-induced cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity, PAH-DNA adduct formation, expression of certain candidate genes and the frequency of tumor initiation in the two-stage Sencar mouse model. To this end, we monitored the effects of treatment of mice with diesel exhaust, benzo[a]pyrene (BP), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP), or a combination of diesel exhaust with either carcinogenic PAH. The applied diesel particulate matter (SRM(1975)) altered the tumor initiating potency of DBP: a statistically significant decrease in overall tumor and carcinoma burden was observed following 25 weeks of promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), compared with DBP exposure alone. From those mice that were treated at the beginning of the observation period with 2 nmol DBP all survivors developed tumors (9 out of 9 animals, 100%). Among all tumors counted at the end, nine carcinomas were detected and an overall tumor incidence of 2.6 tumors per tumor-bearing animal (TBA) was determined. By contrast, co-treatment of DBP with 50mg SRM(1975) led to a tumor rate of only 66% (19 out of 29 animals), occurrence of only three carcinomas in 29 animals and an overall rate of 2.1 tumors per TBA (P=0.04). In contrast to the results with DBP, the tumor incidence induced by 200 nmol BP was found slightly increased when co-treatment with SRM(1975) occurred (71% vs. 85% after 25 weeks). Despite this difference in tumor incidence, the numbers of carcinomas and tumors per TBA did not differ statistically significant between both treatment groups possibly due to the small size of the BP treatment group. Since bioactivation of DBP, but not BP, predominantly depends on CYP1B1 enzyme activity, SRM(1975) affected PAH-induced carcinogenesis in an antagonistic manner when CYP1B1-mediated bioactivation was required. The explanation most likely lies in the much stronger inhibitory effects of certain PAHs present in diesel exhaust on CYP1B1 compared to CYP1A1. In the present study we also found molecular markers such as highly elevated AKR1C21 and TNFRSF21 gene expression levels in tumor tissue derived from animals co-treated with SRM(1975) plus DBP. Therefore we validate microarray data as a source to uncover transcriptional signatures that may provide insights into molecular pathways affected following exposure to environmental complex mixtures such as diesel exhaust particulates.
    • Inhibition by vitamin C of apoptosis induced by N-nitrosamines in HepG2 and HL-60 cells.

      Arranz, Nuria; Haza, Ana I.; Garcia, Almudena; Delgado, Ma Eugenia; Rafter, Joseph; Morales, Paloma (2008-08)
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin C towards N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR)- and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma (HepG2) and leukemia (HL-60) cell lines using flow cytometry analysis and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling assay (TUNEL). None of the vitamin C concentrations tested (1-100 microM) caused cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. However, there were significant losses of HL-60 cells viability, measured by MTT assay, 72 h after treatment with 50 and 100 microM vitamin C (29 and 46%, respectively). Moreover, an increase of lactate dehydrogenase release was significant with 50 microM at 72 h (28%) and with 100 microM of vitamin C at 48 and 72 h (27 and 36%, respectively). Also, the percentage of apoptotic HL-60 cells found in TUNEL assay increased to 21% when they were treated with 100 microM vitamin C for 72 h. Thus, in subsequent simultaneous treatments with NPYR (30 and 50 mM) or NDMA (27 and 68 mM) and vitamin C, concentrations of 5-50 microM vitamin C were used. Our results revealed that vitamin C, at all concentrations and times tested, reduced the apoptosis induced by NPYR and NDMA in both cell lines, showing a similar effect in HepG2 and HL-60 cells towards NPYR (50 mM)--65 and 63% of reduction, respectively--whereas towards NDMA (27 mM) the inhibition was higher in HL-60 than in HepG2 cells--75 and 57%, respectively. Therefore, our findings suggest that inhibition of apoptosis may be one of the mechanisms by which vitamin C exerts its protective effect.
    • Intake of fried foods is associated with obesity in the cohort of Spanish adults from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

      Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Fornes, Nelida Schmid; Banegas, Jose R.; Etxezarreta, Pilar Amiano; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Iraeta, Miren Dorronsoro; Larranaga, Nerea Larranaga; et al. (2007-07)
      BACKGROUND: Consumption of fried food has been suggested to promote obesity, but this association has seldom been studied. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the association of energy intake from fried food with general and central obesity in Spain, a Mediterranean country where frying with oil is a traditional cooking procedure. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 33 542 Spanish persons aged 29-69 y who were participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition between 1992 and 1996. Dietary intake was assessed by a diet history questionnaire. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured by trained interviewers. Analyses were performed with logistic regression and were adjusted for total energy intake and other confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of general obesity [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) >or= 30] was 27.6% in men and 27.7% in women. Respective figures for central obesity (waist circumference >or= 102 cm in men and >or= 88 cm in women) were 34.5% and 42.6%. The average proportion of energy intake from fried food was 15.6% in men and 12.6% in women. The adjusted odds ratios for general obesity in the highest versus the lowest quintile of fried food intake were 1.26 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.45; P for trend < 0.001) in men and 1.25 (1.11, 1.41; P for trend < 0.001) in women. The corresponding values for central obesity were 1.17 (1.02, 1.34; P for trend < 0.003) in men and 1.27 (1.13, 1.42; P for trend < 0.001) in women. CONCLUSION: Fried food was positively associated with general and central obesity only among subjects in the highest quintile of energy intake from fried food.
    • Intake of fruits and vegetables and polymorphisms in DNA repair genes in bladder cancer.

      Sacerdote, Carlotta; Matullo, Giuseppe; Polidoro, Silvia; Gamberini, Sara; Piazza, Alberto; Karagas, Margaret R.; Rolle, Luigi; De Stefanis, Paolo; Casetta, Giovanni; Morabito, Francesco; et al. (2007-07)
      The objective is to investigate the relationships between fruit and vegetable intake, DNA repair gene polymorphisms and the risk of bladder cancer. We have analyzed a hospital-based case-control study of 266 individuals with incident, histologically confirmed bladder cancer diagnosed between 1994 and 2003. Controls (n = 193) were patients treated for benign diseases recruited daily in a random fashion from the same hospital as the cases. All cases and controls were interviewed face-to-face for major risk factors, along fruit and vegetable consumption. Odds ratios (ORs) for fruit and vegetable intake and DNA repair gene polymorphisms were adjusted for age and smoking status, using unconditional logistic regression. A statistically significant decreased risk was observed for fruit and vegetable intake above median (versus below the median) [unadjusted OR 0.61, confidence interval (CI) 95% 0.50-0.96 and OR 0.54, CI 95% 0.39-0.80, respectively]; the decreased risk persisted after adjustment for age and cigarette smoking (OR 0.73, CI 95% 0.49-1.01 and OR 0.86, CI 95% 0.56-1.08, respectively). The fruits and vegetables associated with decreased risks included leafy green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, apples and citrus fruits. We did not find any interactions between DNA repair gene polymorphisms and fruit and vegetable intake. This study found a reduced risk associated with fruit and vegetable intake. No interaction was observed between fruit and vegetable consumption and DNA repair gene polymorphisms.
    • Intake of heterocyclic aromatic amines from meat in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort.

      Rohrmann, Sabine; Zoller, Dorothee; Hermann, Silke; Linseisen, Jakob (2007-12)
      It was the aim of the present study to estimate the intake of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA) from meat, which have been associated with cancer risk in several epidemiological studies, of 21 462 subjects who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) in Heidelberg. This was accomplished by using a detailed dietary questionnaire that assessed meat consumption, cooking methods, and degree of browning of the respective food items. Median total HCA intake from meat was 31 ng/d (mean 69 ng/d), which was lower than results observed in previous studies. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine was the most common HCA in this cohort (median 17; mean 48 ng/d). The present study offers the opportunity of a detailed examination of the associations between meat cooking as well as HCA intake from meat and cancer risk in a prospective way.
    • Inter-laboratory variation in DNA damage using a standard comet assay protocol.

      Forchhammer, Lykke; Ersson, Clara; Loft, Steffen; Moller, Lennart; Godschalk, Roger W. L.; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Jones, George D. D.; Higgins, Jennifer A.; Cooke, Marcus; Mistry, Vilas; et al. (2012-07-27)
      There are substantial inter-laboratory variations in the levels of DNA damage measured by the comet assay. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adherence to a standard comet assay protocol would reduce inter-laboratory variation in reported values of DNA damage. Fourteen laboratories determined the baseline level of DNA strand breaks (SBs)/alkaline labile sites and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites in coded samples of mononuclear blood cells (MNBCs) from healthy volunteers. There were technical problems in seven laboratories in adopting the standard protocol, which were not related to the level of experience. Therefore, the inter-laboratory variation in DNA damage was only analysed using the results from laboratories that had obtained complete data with the standard comet assay protocol. This analysis showed that the differences between reported levels of DNA SBs/alkaline labile sites in MNBCs were not reduced by applying the standard assay protocol as compared with the laboratory's own protocol. There was large inter-laboratory variation in FPG-sensitive sites by the laboratory-specific protocol and the variation was reduced when the samples were analysed by the standard protocol. The SBs and FPG-sensitive sites were measured in the same experiment, indicating that the large spread in the latter lesions was the main reason for the reduced inter-laboratory variation. However, it remains worrying that half of the participating laboratories obtained poor results using the standard procedure. This study indicates that future comet assay validation trials should take steps to evaluate the implementation of standard procedures in participating laboratories.
    • Interlaboratory and Interplatform Comparison of Microarray Gene Expression Analysis of HepG2 Cells Exposed to Benzo(a)pyrene.

      Hockley, Sarah L.; Mathijs, Karen; Staal, Yvonne C.M.; Brewer, Daniel; Giddings, Ian; van Delft, Joost H.M.; Phillips, David H. (2009-04)
      Abstract Microarray technology is being used increasingly to study gene expression of biological systems on a large scale. Both interlaboratory and interplatform differences are known to contribute to variability in microarray data. In this study we have investigated data from different platforms and laboratories on the transcriptomic profile of HepG2 cells exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). RNA samples generated in two different laboratories were analyzed using both Agilent oligonucleotide microarrays and Cancer Research UK (CR-UK) cDNA microarrays. Comparability of the expression profiles was assessed at various levels including correlation and overlap between the data, clustering of the data and affected biological processes. Overlap and correlation occurred, but it was not possible to deduce whether choice of platform or interlaboratory differences contributed more to the data variation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering of the expression profiles indicated that the data were most clearly defined by duration of exposure to BaP, suggesting that laboratory and platform variability does not mask the biological effects. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to validate the two array platforms and indicated that false negatives, rather than false positives, are obtained with both systems. All together these results suggest that data from similar biological experiments analyzed on different microarray platforms can be combined to give a more complete transcriptomic profile. Each platform gives a slight variation in the BaP-gene expression response and, although it cannot be stated which is more correct, combining the two data sets is more informative than considering them individually.
    • Interlaboratory comparison of methodologies for the measurement of urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine.

      Cooke, Marcus S.; Barregard, Lars; Mistry, Vilas; Potdar, Neelam; Rozalski, Rafal; Gackowski, Daniel; Siomek, Agnieszka; Foksinski, Marek; Svoboda, Peter; Kasai, Hiroshi; et al. (2009-03)
      Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) is widely used as a marker of oxidative stress. Here we report the comparison of two, distinct chromatographic assays with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The chromatographic assays displayed good agreement (r =:0.89, p < 0.0001), whereas there was markedly worse, albeit still significant, agreement with the ELISA (high-pressure liquid chromatography followed by gas chromatography (HPLC-GC/MS), r = 0.43; HPLC with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC), r = 0.56; p < 0.0001). Mean values differed significantly between the chromatographic assays and the ELISA (HPLC-GC/MS 3.86, HPLC-EC 4.20, ELISA 18.70 ng mg(-1) creatinine; p < 0.0001). While it is reassuring to note good agreement between chromatographic assays, this study reveals significant short-comings in the ELISA, which brings into question its continued use in its present form.
    • International Validation of the Comet Assay and a Human Intervention Study.

      Ersson, Clara (Karolinska Institutet, 2011, 2011)
      The comet assay is an established, sensitive method extensively used in biomonitoring studies. The methods' advantages include; a) only a small cell sample is required, b) possibility to measure damage in practically any cell type, c) ability to measure heterogeneity in response within a cell population, d) relatively fast and economical procedure, and e) various applications of the method, which allow measurement of a range of different DNA lesions as well as DNA repair. Several guidelines for the comet assay have been published, but no standardised protocol exists as yet. There are considerable differences between the protocols used by different research groups, which negatively affect inter-laboratory comparisons of results. Several experts in the field have highlighted the need for multi-laboratory, international validation studies, to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility and to investigate sources of variability in the results. The papers in this thesis can be divided into two parts; one part that deals with international inter-laboratory validation studies and methodological aspects of the comet assay (paper I-III), and the other part covers a human intervention study with antioxidant capsules consisting of many different antioxidants in low doses for which the comet assay has been applied (paper IV-V). The inter-laboratory validation trials in papers I-II indicate that the participants can detect dose-responses of both DNA breaks and oxidatively damaged DNA in coded cells, but that there is a large inter-laboratory variation in the reported values. This variation can in part be explained by differences in comet assay protocols and in image analysis. The inter-laboratory variation was decreased, but not completely removed, by calibration with ionising radiation. In paper III we verified that several protocol steps significantly affected the outcome of the comet assay, including a) density of the agarose gel, b) extent of enzymatic incubation, c) duration of alkaline treatment, and d) time of electrophoresis, as well as the strength of the electric field applied. In a parallel placebo-controlled, double-blind intervention study, overweight middle-aged men were supplemented for six weeks with a multivitamin supplement consisting of a range of antioxidants in doses resembling those achieved by a healthy diet (paper IV-V). In spite of elevated levels of seven out of eight measured antioxidants in the blood, the intervention did not affect the level of oxidation of lipids or DNA. Many intervention studies with good design report similar null findings. It is preferred to consume antioxidants through a healthy diet, and dietary supplements are not recommended for cancer prevention.
    • Introducing a true internal standard for the Comet assay to minimize intra- and inter-experiment variability in measures of DNA damage and repair.

      Zainol, Murizal; Stoute, Julia; Almeida, Gabriela M.; Rapp, Alexander; Bowman, Karen J.; Jones, George D. D. (2009-12)
      The Comet assay (CA) is a sensitive/simple measure of genotoxicity. However, many features of CA contribute variability. To minimize these, we have introduced internal standard materials consisting of 'reference' cells which have their DNA substituted with BrdU. Using a fluorescent anti-BrdU antibody, plus an additional barrier filter, comets derived from these cells could be readily distinguished from the 'test'-cell comets, present in the same gel. In experiments to evaluate the reference cell comets as external and internal standards, the reference and test cells were present in separate gels on the same slide or mixed together in the same gel, respectively, before their co-exposure to X-irradiation. Using the reference cell comets as internal standards led to substantial reductions in the coefficient of variation (CoV) for intra- and inter-experimental measures of comet formation and DNA damage repair; only minor reductions in CoV were noted when the reference and test cell comets were in separate gels. These studies indicate that differences between individual gels appreciably contribute to CA variation. Further studies using the reference cells as internal standards allowed greater significance to be obtained between groups of replicate samples. Ultimately, we anticipate that development will deliver robust quality assurance materials for CA.
    • Introduction.

      Akesson, Bjorn (The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 2007-04)
    • Introduction.

      Kyrtopoulos, Soterios (The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 2007)