• Gastrointestinal conditions influence the solution behaviour of cereal β-glucans in vitro.

      Ulmius, Matilda; Adapa, Srimannarayana; Onning, Gunilla; Nilsson, Lars (2012-02)
      The solution behaviour of β-glucans in a gastrointestinal model was investigated in order to explore the mechanisms explaining the physiological effects of the soluble fibre. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation was used to determine the molar mass distribution, and in-line calcofluor labelling allowed specific detection of β-glucans in complex samples. When dispersed in water, weight-average molar mass (Mw) was determined to 1 × 106 g/mol for pure oat and barley β-glucans, and 200 × 106 g/mol for β-glucans in oat bran, indicating that the β-glucans were aggregating. Samples from the gastric digestion displayed disrupted aggregates, while samples from the small intestinal digestion contained re-formed aggregates. Additionally, the aggregates from pure β-glucans were considerably denser after intestinal digestion. This may be construed as gel-formation in the small intestine, which should be tested for its relevance to health effects. Our results signal the difficulties in predicting β-glucan activity in the gastrointestinal tract purely from analysis of the fibre-rich product.
    • Gastrointestinal release of β-glucan and pectin using an in vitro method.

      Ulmius, Matilda; Johansson-Persson, Anna; Nordén, Tina Immerstrand; Bergenstahl, Bjorn; Onning, Gunilla (2011-07)
      The release of soluble dietary fiber is a prerequisite for viscous effects and hence beneficial health properties. A simple in vitro method was adapted to follow the release during gastrointestinal digestion, and the percentage of solubilized fiber was measured over time. β-Glucan from oat bran was mainly released during gastric digestion while the release of pectin from sugar beet fiber continued in the small intestine. Unmilled fractions of sugar beet fiber released more soluble fiber than oat bran flakes, probably due to the porous structure of sugar beet fiber as a result of manufacturing processes, but also due to differences in source. Milling to smaller fiber particles significantly improved releasability (from 20 to 55% released β-glucan and from 50 to 70% released pectin, respectively, after digestion). When milled fibers were included in individual food matrices, the release was reduced by protein and starch matrices (5% β-glucan and 35% pectin released, respectively) and slowed by fat (45% β-glucan and 60% pectin released). This may result in a too low or too late release in the upper small intestine to be able to interfere with macronutrient uptake. The method may be suitable for predicting the gastrointestinal release of soluble dietary fibers from food matrices in the development of healthy food products.
    • Gender-related differences in response to mutagens and carcinogens.

      Kirsch-Volders, M.; Bonassi, S.; Herceg, Z.; Hirvonen, A.; Moller, L.; Phillips, D. H. (2010-05)
      The incidences of many cancers can be very different in men and women. Besides differences in exposures to putative causative agents, it is plausible that both genetic and epigenetic effects play roles in these differences. In addition, gender-specific lifestyle and behavioural factors may modulate the effects of exposure to genotoxins. This commentary focuses on several aspects of gender-related differences in responses to mutagens and carcinogens, including sensitivity to chromosome damage, the contribution of genotypic variation and the role of DNA methylation. It is concluded that the reasons for gender differences in cancer susceptibility remain largely unknown in many cases, and the subject deserves more attention and study.
    • Gene expression profiling reveals new protective roles for vitamin C in human skin cells.

      Duarte, Tiago L.; Cooke, Marcus S.; Jones, George D. D. (2009-01-01)
      The skin is a protective barrier against external insults and any lesion must be rapidly and efficiently repaired. Dermal fibroblasts are the major source of extracellular connective tissue matrix and play an important role in wound healing. Vitamin C is an important water-soluble free radical scavenger and an essential cofactor for collagen synthesis by dermal fibroblasts and, consequently, may contribute to the maintenance of healthy skin. Using microarray analysis, we investigated the effects of long-term exposure to a stable vitamin C derivative, ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P), in contact-inhibited populations of primary human dermal fibroblasts. Compared with "scorbutic" cells, cells exposed to AA2P increased the expression of genes associated with DNA replication and repair and with the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle. Consistent with the gene expression changes, AA2P increased the mitogenic stimulation of quiescent fibroblasts by serum factors and cell motility in the context of wound healing. Furthermore, AA2P-treated fibroblasts showed faster repair of oxidatively damaged DNA bases. We propose that vitamin C may protect the skin by promoting fibroblast proliferation, migration, and replication-associated base excision repair of potentially mutagenic DNA lesions, and we discuss the putative involvement of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 and collagen receptor-related signaling pathways.
    • Genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes influence the risk of pulmonary emphysema.

      Kukkonen, Mari K.; Hamalainen, Satu; Kaleva, Simo; Vehmas, Tapio; Huuskonen, Matti S.; Oksa, Panu; Vainio, Harri; Piirila, Paivi; Hirvonen, Ari (2011-12)
      Pulmonary emphysema is a smoking-induced condition of the lung. Genetically determined differences in the activities of enzymes that metabolize oxidative agents are suspected to modify individual susceptibility to emphysema, as well as other smoking-related pulmonary disorders.
    • Genetic susceptibility according to three metabolic pathways in cancers of the lung and bladder and in myeloid leukemias in nonsmokers.

      Vineis, P.; Veglia, F.; Garte, S.; Malaveille, C.; Matullo, G.; Dunning, A.; Peluso, M.; Airoldi, L.; Overvad, K.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; et al. (2007-07)
      BACKGROUND: We chose a set of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to investigate gene-environment interactions in three types of cancer that have been related to air pollution (lung, bladder and myeloid leukemia). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study has been conducted as a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (409 cancer cases and 757 matched controls). We included never and ex-smokers. SNPs were in genes involved in oxidative stress, phase I metabolizing genes, phase II metabolizing genes and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). RESULTS: The most notable findings are: GSTM1 deletion and bladder cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) = 1.60; 95% confidence interval 1.00-2.56]; CYP1A1 and leukemia (2.22, 1.33-3.70; heterozygotes); CYP1B1 and leukemia (0.47, 0.27-0.84; homozygotes); MnSOD and leukemia (1.91, 1.08-3.38; homozygotes) and NQO1 and lung cancer (8.03, 1.73-37.3; homozygotes). Other statistically significant associations were found in subgroups defined by smoking habits (never or ex-smokers), environmental tobacco smoke or gender, with no obvious pattern. When gene variants were organized according to the three main pathways, the emerging picture was of a strong involvement of combined phase I enzymes in leukemia, with an OR of 5 (1.63-15.4) for those having three or more variant alleles. The association was considerably stronger for leukemias arising before the age of 55.
    • Genetic susceptibility of newborn daughters to oxidative stress.

      Decordier, Ilse; De Bont, Kelly; De Bock, Kirsten; Mateuca, Raluca; Roelants, Mathieu; Ciardelli, Roberta; Haumont, Dominique; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline (Elsevier, 2007-07-30)
      A central question in risk assessment is whether newborns' susceptibility to mutagens is different from that of adults. Therefore we investigated whether genotype and/or the DNA strand break repair phenotype in combination with the MN assay would allow estimation of the relative sensitivity of a newborn as compared to his mother for oxidative DNA damage. We compared the in vitro genetic susceptibility for H2O2 in PBMC of 17 mother-newborn daughter pairs taking into account genotypes for relevant DNA repair (hOGG1, XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD) and folate metabolism (MTHFR) polymorphisms. After in vitro challenge with H2O2 the repair capacity was assessed by the Comet assay and chromosome/genome mutations by the cytokinesis-block MN assay. No statistically significant differences were found between mothers and their newborn daughters either for initial DNA damage or for residual DNA damage. Mothers showed higher background frequencies of MN as compared to their newborn daughters, due to the age factor. This was confirmed by significantly higher frequencies of MN observed in mothers versus newborn daughters for several genotypes. No genotype with a significant effect on DNA repair capacity in newborns was identified. Concerning MN frequencies, however, newborns carrying the variant XRCC3(241) genotype might be at higher risk for the induction of MN by oxidative stress. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant protective effect of maternal antioxidant supplementation during pregnancy against oxidative DNA damage in newborns in terms of MN frequencies. However, these conclusions might not be extrapolable to other types of DNA damage and need confirmation in a study on a larger population.
    • Genetic susceptibility to benzene toxicity in humans.

      Garte, Seymour; Taioli, Emanuela; Popov, Todor; Bolognesi, Claudia; Farmer, Peter; Merlo, Franco (2008)
      Human metabolism of benzene involves pathways coded for by polymorphic genes. To determine whether the genotype at these loci might influence susceptibility to the adverse effects of benzene exposure, 208 Bulgarian petrochemical workers and controls, whose exposure to benzene was determined by active personal sampling, were studied. The frequency of DNA single-strand breaks (DNA-SSB) was determined by alkaline elution, and genotype analysis was performed for five metabolic loci. Individuals carrying the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) variant had significantly twofold increased DNA-SSB levels compared to wild-type individuals. The same result was observed for subjects with microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX) genotypes that predict the fast catalytic phenotype. Deletion of the glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) gene also showed a consistent quantitative 35-40% rise in DNA-SSB levels. Neither glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) nor myeloperoxidase (MPO) genetic variants exerted any effect on DNA-SSB levels. Combinations of two genetic polymorphisms showed the same effects on DNA-SSB as expected from the data on single genotypes. The three locus genotype predicted to produce the highest level of toxicity, based on metabolic pathways, produced a significant 5.5-fold higher level of DNA-SSB than did the genotype predicted to yield the least genotoxicity.
    • Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma.

      Chambers, John C.; Zhang, Weihua; Sehmi, Joban; Li, Xinzhong; Wass, Mark N.; Van der Harst, Pim; Holm, Hilma; Sanna, Serena; Kavousi, Maryam; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; et al. (2011-11)
      Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P = 10(-190)). We used functional genomic approaches including metabonomic profiling and gene expression analyses to identify probable candidate genes at these regions. We identified 69 candidate genes, including genes involved in biliary transport (ATP8B1 and ABCB11), glucose, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (FADS1, FADS2, GCKR, JMJD1C, HNF1A, MLXIPL, PNPLA3, PPP1R3B, SLC2A2 and TRIB1), glycoprotein biosynthesis and cell surface glycobiology (ABO, ASGR1, FUT2, GPLD1 and ST3GAL4), inflammation and immunity (CD276, CDH6, GCKR, HNF1A, HPR, ITGA1, RORA and STAT4) and glutathione metabolism (GSTT1, GSTT2 and GGT), as well as several genes of uncertain or unknown function (including ABHD12, EFHD1, EFNA1, EPHA2, MICAL3 and ZNF827). Our results provide new insight into genetic mechanisms and pathways influencing markers of liver function.
    • The genotoxic air pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone and its reactive metabolite N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone lack initiating and complete carcinogenic activity in NMRI mouse skin.

      Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Furstenberger, Gerhard; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Phillips, David H.; Arlt, Volker M. (2009-10-18)
      3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), a genotoxic mutagen found in diesel exhaust and ambient air pollution and its active metabolite N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-OH-3-ABA) were tested for initiating and complete carcinogenic activity in the NMRI mouse skin carcinogenesis model. Both compounds were found to be inactive as either tumour initiators or complete carcinogens in mouse skin over a dose range of 25-400nmol. Topical application of 3-NBA and N-OH-3-ABA produced DNA adduct patterns in epidermis, detected by (32)P-postlabelling, similar to those found previously in other organs of rats and mice. 24h after a single treatment of 100nmol DNA adduct levels produced by 3-NBA (18+/-4 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) were 6 times lower than those by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA; 114+/-37 adducts/10(8) nucleotides). In contrast, identical treatment with N-OH-3-ABA resulted in adduct levels in the same range as with DMBA (136+/-25 adducts/10(8) nucleotides), indicating that initial DNA adduct levels do not parallel tumour initiating activity. When compounds were tested for tumour initiating activity by a single treatment followed by twice-weekly applications of TPA, DNA adducts formed by DMBA, but not by 3-NBA or N-OH-3-ABA, were still detectable 40weeks after treatment. When tested for activity as complete carcinogens by twice-weekly topical application, 3-NBA and N-OH-3-ABA produced identical DNA adduct profiles in mouse skin, with adducts still detectable after 40weeks. Only 3-NBA produced detectable adducts in other organs.
    • Genotoxicity investigations on nanomaterials: methods, preparation and characterization of test material, potential artifacts and limitations--many questions, some answers.

      Landsiedel, Robert; Kapp, Maike Diana; Schulz, Markus; Wiench, Karin; Oesch, Franz (2009-08-20)
      Nanomaterials display novel properties to which most toxicologists have not consciously been exposed before the advent of their practical use. The same properties, small size and particular shape, large surface area and surface activity, which make nanomaterials attractive in many applications, may contribute to their toxicological profile. This review describes what is known about genotoxicity investigations on nanomaterials published in the openly available scientific literature to-date. The most frequently used test was the Comet assay: 19 studies, 14 with positive outcome. The second most frequently used test was the micronucleus test: 14 studies, 12 of them with positive outcome. The Ames test, popular with other materials, was less frequently used (6 studies) and was almost always negative, the bacterial cell wall possibly being a barrier for many nanomaterials. Recommendations for improvements emerging from analyzing the reports summarized in this review are: Know what nanomaterial has been tested (and in what form); Consider uptake and distribution of the nanomaterial; Use standardized methods; Recognize that nanomaterials are not all the same; Use in vivo studies to correlate in vitro results; Take nanomaterials specific properties into account; Learn about the mechanism of nanomaterials genotoxic effects. It is concluded that experiences with other, non-nano, substances (molecules and larger particles) taught us that mechanisms of genotoxic effects can be diverse and their elucidation can be demanding, while there often is an immediate need to assess the genotoxic hazard. Thus a practical, pragmatic approach is the use of a battery of standard genotoxicity testing methods covering a wide range of mechanisms. Application of these standard methods to nanomaterials demands adaptations and the interpretation of results from the genotoxicity tests may need additional considerations. This review should help to improve standard genotoxicity testing as well as investigations on the underlying mechanism and the interpretation of genotoxicity data on nanomaterials.
    • Genotoxicity of 3-nitrobenzanthrone and 3-aminobenzanthrone in MutaMouse and lung epithelial cells derived from MutaMouse.

      Arlt, Volker M.; Gingerich, John; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Phillips, David H.; Douglas, George R.; White, Paul A. (2008-11)
      FE1 lung epithelial cells derived from MutaMouse are a new model system to provide in vitro mutagenicity data with the potential to predict the outcome of an in vivo MutaMouse test. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust and urban air pollution. We investigated the mutagenicity and DNA binding of 3-NBA and its main metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA) in vitro and in vivo in the MutaMouse assay. Mice were treated with 3-NBA or 3-ABA (0, 2 or 5 mg/kg body weight/day) by gavage for 28 days and 28 days later lacZ mutant frequency (MF) was determined in liver, lung and bone marrow. For both compounds, dose-related increases in MF were seen in liver and bone marrow, but not in lung; mutagenic activity was approximately 2-fold lower for 3-ABA than for 3-NBA. With 3-NBA, highest DNA adduct levels (measured by (32)P-post-labelling) were found in liver (approximately 230 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides) with levels 20- to 40-fold lower in bone marrow and lung. With 3-ABA, DNA adduct levels were again highest in the liver, but approximately 4-fold lower than for 3-NBA. FE1 cells were exposed to up to 10 microg/ml 3-NBA or 3-ABA for 6 h with or without exogenous activation (S9) and harvested after 3 days. For 3-NBA, there was a dose-related increase in MF both with and without S9 mix, which was >10 times higher than observed in vivo. At the highest concentration of 3-ABA (10 microg/ml), we found only around a 2-fold increase in MF relative to controls. DNA adduct formation in FE1 cells was dose-dependent for both compounds, but 10- to 20-fold higher for 3-NBA compared to 3-ABA. Collectively, our data indicate that MutaMouse FE1 cells are well suited for cost-effective testing of suspected mutagens with different metabolic activation pathways as a guide for subsequent in vivo MutaMouse testing.
    • Genotoxicity surveillance programme in workers dismantling World War I chemical ammunition.

      Mateuca, R. A.; Carton, C.; Roelants, M.; Roesems, S.; Lison, D.; Kirsch-Volders, M. (2010-06)
      PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of personal protective measures in a dismantling plant for chemical weapons from World War I of the Belgian Defence. METHODS: Seventeen NIOSH level B-equipped plant workers exposed to arsenic trichloride (AsCl(3)) in combination with phosgene or hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were compared to 24 NIOSH level C-protected field workers occasionally exposed to genotoxic chemicals (including AsCl(3)-phosgene/HCN) when collecting chemical ammunition, and 19 matched referents. Chromosomal aberrations (CA), micronuclei (MNCB and MNMC), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and high frequency cells (HFC) were analysed in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Urinary arsenic levels and genetic polymorphisms in major DNA repair enzymes (hOGG1(326), XRCC1(399), XRCC3(241)) were also assessed. RESULTS: SCE and HFC levels were significantly higher in plant-exposed versus referent subjects, but MNCB and MNMC were not different. MNCB, SCE and HFC levels were significantly higher and MNMC levels significantly lower in field-exposed workers versus referents. AsCl(3) exposure was not correlated with genotoxicity biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: Protective measures for plant-exposed workers appear adequate, but protection for field-exposed individuals could be improved.
    • A graphical tool to evaluate temporal coverage of occupational history by exposure measurements.

      Vlaanderen, Jelle; Fransman, Wouter; Miller, Brian; Burstyn, Igor; Heederik, Dick; Hurley, Fintan; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans (2010-09)
      In occupational epidemiology, differences in the temporal coverage of the exposure history by available exposure measurement data may affect the uncertainty of exposure estimates. In the reporting of results of studies, greater attention should be paid to the extent to which exposure assessments require extrapolation outside the timeframe for which exposure measurements are available. We propose a simple graphical method that can be used to visualise the temporal coverage of exposure history with exposure measurements and the extent of temporal extrapolation needed.
    • Guidelines to evaluate human observational studies for quantitative risk assessment.

      Vlaanderen, Jelle; Vermeulen, Roel; Heederik, Dick; Kromhout, Hans (2008-12)
      BACKGROUND: Careful evaluation of the quality of human observational studies (HOS) is required to assess the suitability of HOS for quantitative risk assessment (QRA). In particular, the quality of quantitative exposure assessment is a crucial aspect of HOS to be considered for QRA. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop guidelines for the evaluation of HOS for QRA and to apply these guidelines to case-control and cohort studies on the relation between exposure to benzene and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). METHODS: We developed a three-tiered framework specific for the evaluation of HOS for QRA and used it to evaluate HOS on the relation between exposure to benzene and AML. RESULTS: The developed framework consists of 20 evaluation criteria. A specific focus of the framework was on the quality of exposure assessment applied in HOS. Seven HOS on the relation of benzene and AML were eligible for evaluation. Of these studies, five were suitable for QRA and were ranked based on the quality of the study design, conduct, and reporting on the study. CONCLUSION: The developed guidelines facilitate a structured evaluation that is transparent in its application and harmonizes the evaluation of HOS for QRA. With the application of the guidelines, it was possible to identify studies suitable for QRA of benzene and AML and rank these studies based on their quality. Application of the guidelines in QRA will be a valuable addition to the assessment of the weight of evidence of HOS for QRA.
    • Harmonising measurements of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in cellular DNA and urine.

      Moller, Peter; Cooke, Marcus S.; Collins, Andrew; Olinski, Ryszard; Rozalski, Rafal; Loft, Steffen (2012-04)
      Levels of oxidatively damaged cellular DNA and urinary excretion of damaged 2'-deoxyribonuclosides are widely measured in biomonitoring studies examining the role of oxidative stress induced by environmental exposures, lifestyle factors and development of disease. This has promoted efforts to harmonise measurements of oxidised guanine nucleobases by the variety of analytical approaches for DNA and urinary levels of damage, in multi-laboratory trials that are centred in Europe. The large inter-laboratory variation reported of values of oxidatively damaged DNA is reduced by harmonising assay protocols. Recent attention on optimal conditions for the comet assay may lead to better understanding of the most critical steps in procedure, which generate variation in DNA damage levels between laboratories. Measurements of urinary excretion of oxidatively generated 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine also show large differences between different methods, where chromatographic techniques generally show more reliable results than antibody-based methods. In this case, standardising calibrants is aimed at improving within technique agreement.
    • Heterocyclic aromatic amine intake increases colorectal adenoma risk: findings from a prospective European cohort study.

      Rohrmann, Sabine; Hermann, Silke; Linseisen, Jakob (2009-05)
      BACKGROUND: Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs), which arise from cooking meat and fish at high temperatures, may increase the risk of colorectal adenomas. Conversely, flavonoids might counteract the negative effects of HCAs. OBJECTIVE: The association between dietary HCA intake and colorectal adenoma incidence was investigated in a prospective cohort study. DESIGN: At recruitment (1994-1998), detailed information on diet, anthropometric measures, lifestyle, and medication use was assessed in 25,540 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Heidelberg cohort study. Dietary HCA intake was estimated by using information from food-frequency questionnaires on meat consumption, applied cooking methods, and preferred degree of browning. Until June 2007, 516 verified incident colorectal adenomas were identified. Participants with negative colonoscopy (n = 3966) were also included in the analytic cohort. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between colorectal adenoma risk and intake of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-3,4,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx). RESULTS: In multivariate analyses, the intake of PhIP as the most abundant dietary HCA was associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma (relative risk: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.93; quartile 4 compared with quartile 1; P for trend = 0.002), but no statistically significant associations were observed for MeIQx and DiMeIQx intakes. In addition, adenoma risk also increased with the consumption of strongly or extremely browned meat (P for trend = 0.04). The association of PhIP intake with adenoma risk was most pronounced for small adenomas (P for trend = 0.01) and adenomas localized in the distal colon (P for trend = 0.002). CONCLUSION: The results of this first European cohort study support data from case-control studies of a positive association between HCA intake and colorectal adenoma risk.
    • A high intake of dietary fiber influences C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, but not glucose and lipid metabolism, in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

      Johansson-Persson, Anna; Ulmius, Matilda; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Karhu, Toni; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Onning, Gunilla (2013-02-07)
      PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate how a diet high in dietary fiber, with several fiber sources included, modulates glucose and lipid metabolism and the inflammatory response in humans. METHODS: Subjects (n = 25) aged 58.6 (1.1) years (mean and SD) with a BMI of 26.6 (0.5) kg/m(2) and a total cholesterol (TC) of 5.8 (0.1) mmol/L (mean and SEM) were given a high fiber (HF) and low fiber (LF) diet, in a randomized controlled 5-week crossover intervention, separated by a 3-week washout. The HF diet consisted of oat bran, rye bran, and sugar beet fiber incorporated into test food products; one bread roll, one ready meal, and two beverages consumed daily. Equivalent food products, without added fibers, were provided in the LF diet. RESULTS: Total dietary fiber intake was 48.0 g and 30.2 g per day for the HF and LF diet, respectively. Significant reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) was observed between the diets (P = 0.017) and a significant reduction in fibrinogen within the HF diet (P = 0.044). There were no significant effects in other measured circulating cytokines or in glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that a 5-week high dietary fiber intake of oat bran, rye bran, and sugar beet fiber might reduce the low-grade inflammatory response measured as CRP which could, together with reduced fibrinogen, help to prevent the risk of cardiovascular disease.
    • Higher leukocyte 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and lower plasma ascorbate in aging humans?

      Siomek, Agnieszka; Gackowski, Daniel; Rozalski, Rafal; Dziaman, Tomasz; Szpila, Anna; Guz, Jolanta; Olinski, Ryszard (2007-01)
      Is oxidative damage of DNA responsible for physiological changes associated with aging? The authors note a positive correlation between the age of human subjects with the level of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in leukocyte DNA. The levels of urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine and 8-oxodG followed the same pattern of correlation. Age-dependent decline in the concentration of plasma vitamin C was also evident. These interesting observations in humans point towards the need to scrutinize in detail the role of oxidative DNA damage and compromised antioxidant defense systems in age-related physiological disorders.
    • hOGG1(326), XRCC1(399) and XRCC3(241) polymorphisms influence micronucleus frequencies in human lymphocytes in vivo.

      Mateuca, Raluca A.; Roelants, Mathieu; Iarmarcovai, Gwenaelle; Aka, Peter V.; Godderis, Lode; Tremp, Annie; Bonassi, Stefano; Fenech, Michael; Berge-Lefranc, Jean-Louis; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline (2008-01)
      A pooled analysis of five biomonitoring studies was performed to assess the influence of hOGG1(326), XRCC1(399) and XRCC3(241) gene polymorphisms on micronuclei (MN) frequency in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, as measured by the ex vivo/in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Each study addressed a type of occupational exposure potentially able to induce DNA strand breakage (styrene, ionising radiation, cobalt/hard metal, welding fumes and inorganic arsenite compounds), and therefore MN, as a result of base excision repair and double-strand break repair deficiencies. The effect of genotype, age, exposure to genotoxic agents and smoking habit on MN induction was determined using Poisson regression analysis in 171 occupationally exposed male workers and in 132 non-exposed male referents. The analysis of genotype-genotype, genotype-smoking and genotype-exposure interactions by linear combinations of parameters showed significantly higher MN frequencies in the following subsets: (i) occupationally exposed workers carrying either the Thr/Thr or the Thr/Met XRCC3(241) genotypes compared to their referent counterparts (P < 0.001) and (ii) carriers of the Met/Met XRCC3(241) genotype compared to Thr/Thr XRCC3(241) carriers, as far as they are non-exposed and bear the variant (Ser/Cys or Cys/Cys) hOGG1(326) genotype (P < 0.01). Significantly lower MN frequencies were observed in carriers of the variant hOGG1(326) genotype compared to Ser/Ser hOGG1(326) carriers in the subgroup of non-smokers with Thr/Thr XRCC3(241) genotype (P < 0.01). Stratified analysis by occupational exposure showed a significant MN increase with smoking in occupationally exposed carriers of the Arg/Gln XRCC1(399)genotype (P < 0.001). In contrast, a significant MN decrease with smoking was observed in referents carrying the Ser/Ser hOGG1(326) genotype (P < 0.01). These findings provide evidence that the combination of different DNA repair genes and their interaction with environmental genotoxic agents may modulate MN induction. Understanding the complexity of the relationships between exposure, DNA repair and MN frequencies require larger scale studies and complementary biomarkers.